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山西乡宁赤霞珠葡萄最佳采收期研究
Optimal harvest time of Cabernet Sauvignon grape in Xiangning,Shanxi
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屠婷瑶,孟江飞,魏晓峰,
- , 2017,
Abstract: 【目的】研究不同葡萄采收时间对山西乡宁地区赤霞珠葡萄以及葡萄酒品质的影响,为当地酿酒葡萄赤霞珠最佳采收时间的确定提供依据。【方法】以2010年6次不同时间(09-16,09-21,09-26,09-30,10-06,10-15)采收的赤霞珠葡萄果实及其酿造的葡萄酒为研究对象,测定并比较其基本理化指标(含糖量、含酸量等)、酚类物质(总花色苷、总类黄酮等)含量以及抗氧化能力(DPPH、羟自由基清除力等),最后利用主成分分析法对所测定的指标进行综合评价。【结果】不同采收期对山西乡宁赤霞珠葡萄及葡萄酒各项品质指标有较显著的影响。赤霞珠葡萄及葡萄酒中的总酚、总类黄酮和总黄烷-3-醇均以09 16采收果实最高,随后均呈现先降低后增高的趋势;而葡萄中的总花色苷虽然也以09-16采收果实最高,但在酒样中却以10-15采收时最高,这说明葡萄酒中花色苷的离子化程度随着采样日期的推移逐渐增强。不同采收期葡萄与葡萄酒抗氧化能力的变化趋势相对比较复杂,09-16采收果实酿制葡萄酒中的DPPH清除力(TEAC)、铜离子还原力(CUPRAC)和铁氰化钾还原力(PFRP)均呈现出最高水平,同时葡萄中的PFRP和羟自由基清除力(SCHR)也达到最强;葡萄的TEAC和金属螯合力(MCC)以09-26采收果实最强,CUPRAC则以10-15采收果实最强,酒样的SCHR则以09-21采收时最强。将所测得的各项指标利用SPSS软件进行综合评价,其中09-16采收葡萄及其酿造葡萄酒中的酚类物质和抗氧化能力的综合得分均达到最高。【结论】山西乡宁地区赤霞珠葡萄的最佳采收期在09 16前后。
【Objective】The effects of different harvest dates on quality of Cabernet Sauvignon grape and wine in Xiangning,Shanxi were investigated to obtain the optimal harvest time of local Cabernet Sauvignon grapes.【Method】Grape berries harvested on six different dates (09-16,09-21,09-26,09-30,10-06,and 10-15) in 2010 and the corresponding wines were obtained and their physical and chemical quality (sugar content,acid content,etc.),phenolic contents (total contents of anthocyanin and flavonoids,etc.) and anti oxidant capacity (scavenging capacities of DPPH and ·OH,etc.) were determined and compared.At last,the obtained indexes were comprehensively assessed by principal component analysis.【Result】Harvest time had great effects on quality indicators of grapes and corresponding wines.The Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries and wines obtained on 09-16 had the highest total polyphenols,flavonoids and flavan-3-ols.They had the trend of increasing firstly before decreasing for other dates.The total anthocyanin in grape berries got the highest on 09-16,while that in wines got the highest on 10-15,indicating that the ionization degree of anthocyanin gradually increased as the delay of harvest time.The anti-oxidant capacities in grape berries and wines were relatively complex.In the wines obtained on 09-16,the scavenging capacities of DPPH (TEAC),cupric reducing ant oxidant power (CUPRAC) and potassium ferricyanide reducing power (PFRP) reached the highest level,while the grape berries had the highest PFRP and scavenging capacity of hydroxyl radicals (SCHR).The grape berries harvested on 09-26 had the strongest TEAC and metal chelating capacity (MCC),while grape berries on 10-15 had the largest CUPRAC.The SCHR of wines made from 09-21 grapes was the highest.Based on comprehensive evaluation results,phenolic content and anti oxidant capacity of grapes harvested on 09-16 and the corresponding wines
山西乡宁地区2个红色酿酒葡萄果实生长发育过程中几类多酚物质变化分析
Dynamics of Phenolic Compounds in Skin and Seed of Two Red Vitis vinifera Varieties’ Fruit in Xiangning Shanxi
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李小龙,刘美迎,张会宁,张振文
- , 2016, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1004-1389.2016.04.014
Abstract: 果实酚类物质质量分数及其组分是酿造优质葡萄酒的重要基础。以山西乡宁地区的‘赤霞珠’(Cabernet Sauvignon)、‘梅鹿辄’(Merlot)为供试品种,从盛花后到果实成熟连续采样分析果皮和种子内酚类物质的变化规律,为实施优质酿酒葡萄栽培技术奠定基础。结果表明:葡萄果实在发育过程中呈现单“S”曲线;种子与果皮内总酚、单宁及总类黄酮质量分数均逐渐下降,但在采收前略有升高,种子内质量分数明显高于果皮内;在果实成熟过程中,果皮内花色苷总量呈现先上升后下降的趋势;不同品种之间,酚类物质变化趋势有较大差异。
Phenolic compounds play a critical role in determining the high quality of wine. The changes of phenolic content in skin and seeds of Vitis vinifera varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot) grapes in Xiangning, Shanxi province during the whole growth period were evaluated by spectrophotometric analysis, which will provide the theoretical foundation for reasonable cultivation technology. The results were shown as follows, the development of grape fruit was a single “S”-type curve. Overall, the mass fraction of total phenolics, tannin and total flavonoid in skins and seeds gradually decreased with the development of grape berry, with the exception increase slightly before harvesting, and their mass fraction in seeds were significantly higher than in skins. The accumulation of total anthocyanins in skins presented an up-and-down trend during fruit ripening. There was various trends for phenolics mass fraction among different grape varieties.
PEASANT ECONOMIC CALCULATION AND THE HOUSEHOLD ECONOMY IN IMPERIAL GERMANY  [cached]
John Abbot
Essays in Economic & Business History , 1999,
Abstract: Revisionist accounts of Imperial Germany, in stressing the progressive, rational, side to German agricultural development, have underestimated the degree to which older habits of peasant calculation continued to inform small and medium-scale enterprise. This paper surveys the lingering impact of household economic logics and imperatives—particularly those pertainingto inheritance and labor—upon peasant economic behavior and performance in rural Bavaria.
Training Requirement and Training Model Institution for Peasant Worker  [cached]
Ping-qing LIU,Fang LIU
Cross-Cultural Communication , 2005, DOI: 10.3968/520
Abstract: Training for Peasant worker is other foreland task besides Peasant worker ‘s “grant issue in Downtown “ and “proper right issue”. Currently , It is major way that peasant worker ‘s employment base on their relationship network instead of getting relative Job information from government or social organization, besides that It is insufficient that enterprise provide training for peasant worker , that cannot fit into peasant worker ‘s needs under current status that Social Training Organization providing’s training are far behind peasant worker’s requirement. Peasant worker desire training subjectively ,but they are confused in the training content, In fact they are lack motivation to participant training , special on some Skill field of lower return and higher intensity. Based on the fact it is very difficult to set up training institution. It is key that setting up innovative training institution that converting peasant worker’s potential training desirability to reality. The key points of institution innovation should solve the following issues : Peasant worker should have rights working in downtown; Peasant worker can survive in downtown; Peasant worker can stay in downtown longer time. Converting from potential training desirability to reality will become true if we can help peasant worker eliminating visitor concept in their mind. Key Words: peasant worker, training requirement, institution innovation Résumé La formation de la main-d’oeuvre rurale constitue un nouveau problème après le problème de ‘‘accès en ville’’ et le problème de ‘‘sauvegarde des droits et intérêts’’ de la main-d’oeuvre rurale. A l’heure actuelle, ils choisissent le métier à l’aide d’un ‘‘réseau de relation’’ et ils obtiennent peu d’informations du gouvernement et des institutions sociales. En outre, dans le contexte de l’insuffisance de la formation de la main-oeuvre rurale offerte par les entreprises et le développement retardé des institutions de formation sociales convenant à la main-d’oeuvre rurale, ils aspirent subjectivement à la formation, mais ils apparaissent plut t perplexes en ce qui concerne le contenu de la formation et manque de force motrice pour participer à la formation, ils se désintéressent surtour de la formation de technique à forte intensité de travail mais mal payée. Vu le manque de force motrice pour la formation, il est bien difficile d’établir le système de formation dans ce domaine. Il s’agit de l’innovation institutionnelle pour que la demande potentielle de la formation de la main-d’oeuvre rurale se transforme en demande réelle. La clé de l’innovation
“农业龙头企业+农户”模式中治理机制与农户续约意愿
Study on Governance Mechanisms and Farmers’ Renewal Intentions in the Mode of Leading Agricultural Enterprise Plus Peasant Households
 [PDF]

黄梦思,孙剑,陈新宇
- , 2018,
Abstract: 提高农户续约意愿是“农业龙头企业+农户”模式长期稳定发展的基础。基于海南、湖北、江西、安徽、河南和陕西6省共552份农户调查数据,运用多元回归模型考察治理机制(正式契约治理和关系治理)与续约意愿的关系机理,并深入探讨市场不确定性对两种治理机制与农户续约意愿间关系的调节作用。结果表明:契约约束力和关系治理均正向影响农户续约意愿,契约包容性负向影响农户续约意愿;关系治理强化了契约约束力对农户续约意愿的正向影响,但对契约包容性和农户续约意愿间关系没有调节作用;市场不确定性负向调节契约包容性和农户续约意愿的关系,正向调节契约约束力和农户续约意愿的关系,但对关系治理和农户续约意愿间关系不存在调节作用。
Improving farmers’ renewal intention is the foundation for long term and stable development of the mode of a leading agricultural enterprise plus peasant households.Based on the survey of 552 farmer households in Hainan,Hubei,Jiangxi,Anhui,Henan and Shanxi provinces,this paper uses multiple regression model to study the relation mechanism of contracts and relational governance on renewal intention,and further explores the moderating role of market uncertainty in the relationship between governance mechanisms and renewal intention.The result shows that contractual obligatoriness and relational governance both have a positive effect on farmers’ renewal intentions,while contractual inclusiveness has a negative effect on farmers’ renewal intentions; meanwhile relational governance strengthens the positive influence of contractual obligatoriness on farmers’ renewal intentions,but has no moderating effect on the relationship between contract inclusiveness and farmers’ renewal intentions; market uncertainty shows a negative moderating effect on relationship between contractual inclusiveness and farmers’ renewal intention,but it has a positive moderating effect on the relationship between contractual obligatoriness and farmers’ renewal intention.However,it plays no moderating role in the relationship between relational governance and farmers’ renewal intention.
PEASANT SOCIETIES, AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT  [cached]
Jairo Mora Delgado
Luna Azul , 2007,
Abstract: This article constitutes a reflexive frame used as a theoretical reference in order to approach a peasant community of Costa Rica (Central America). A critical overview of different studies that document different approaches to peasant communities, as well as establishing the main conceptual elements used to guide the present study. The social category of “peasant” and his or her production systems constitute an important social group in a future globalized world, due to their food production role; the social and cultural richness they represent; as to the interactions with natural resources, justifying their analysis. The peasant communities establish different livelihood strategies to face the globalized society, for example, their local knowledge and perceptions on the environment and on social institutions. These are the main reflection themes found in the present article.
On the Objective System of Modern Peasant Household Cultivation Strategy  [cached]
Zhucun Zhao
Asian Social Science , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v4n1p23
Abstract: This article analyses briefly the policy objective system of modern peasant household cultivation strategy in China, which the main objectives of the strategy are: adjusting the structure of peasant households, improving the peasant household ability, developing the rural human resource, etc. The capabilities of peasant household are as follow: the grain productivity, the market competition ability, the income-increasing ability, the investment ability, and the civilization construction ability. This article puts forward the objective system of modern peasant household cultivation strategy including 3 level-1 indexes, 8 level-2 indexes and 15 level-3 indexes.
Peasant and Donkey Returning Home at Dusk  [cached]
David Middleton
Revue LISA / LISA e-journal , 2005, DOI: 10.4000/lisa.602
Abstract: Between raised ochre plains and low slate skies Pressing against stray clustered tufts of trees A tapered wedge is driven blue through light Flaring from clouds that tatter in the air. And on a scarred black path that blindly winds Unoutlined at the utmost edge of dusk A peasant, brown and dark on dark brown earth Draws his tired donkey, burdened in the murk. Cross-hatched, then rubbed and blended, well-stumped lines Show sun-flecks streaming home from cloud and plain, Escaping wraiths both r...
The peasant communities in the castre a culture
Fernández-Posse, M. Dolores,Sánchez-Palencia, F. Javier
Trabajos de Prehistoria , 1998,
Abstract: The possibility that the social and economic structure of pre-roman castre as (hillfort) communities corresponds to the concept of a peasant society is analysed. For this we make use of the archaeological record of the castros (hillforts) at the Archaeological Zone of Las Medulas, in the SW of the province of Leon, at three levels of analysis: the units of occupation of the villages as basic cells of agricultural production and consumption; the suitability of the castros to be viewed as self-sufficient peasant communities; the specificity of their forms of life, rationality and economy as builders of a peasant landscape. In this way issues such as ownership and the degree and type of hierarchization of these communities are discussed. The Roman presence in this area lead to a rapid process of dissolution of this native social structure. The mining interests promote a big change, both economic and social; which is visible in the population patterns arid exploitation of the territory, in short, in the construction of a new mining landscape, besides the previous peasant one. Se analiza la posibilidad de que la estructura social y económica de las comunidades castre as prerromanas corresponda al concepto de una sociedad campesina. Para ello se utiliza el registro arqueológico de los castros de la Zona Arqueológica de Las Médulas, en el suroeste de la provincia de León, examinado en tres niveles de análisis: las unidades de ocupación de esos poblados como núcleos básicos de producción y consumo agrícolas, la aptitud de los castros para ser considerados comunidades aldeanas autosuficientes y la especificidad de sus formas de vida, racionalidad y economía como constructoras de un paisaje campesino. Asimismo se discuten cuestiones como la propiedad de la tierra y el grado y tipo de jerarquización de tales comunidades. El necesario contrapunto lo pone la presencia romana en la zona, que genera un proceso rápido de disolución de esa estructura social indígena. Los intereses mineros provocan un fuerte cambio económico y social, visible en particular en las estrategias de poblamiento y explotación del territorio, en definitiva en la construcción de un nuevo paisaje que puede considerarse minero frente al precedente campesino.
Social Mobility of Migrant Peasant Workers in China  [PDF]
Ke-Qing Han, Chien-Chung Huang, Wen-Jui Han
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2011.14026
Abstract: Using data from four cities in China (Shenzhen, Suzhou, Beijing, and Chengdu), this article examines the occupational and social mobility among migrant peasant workers in urban areas. Through qualitative interviews with 109 peasant workers in 2005, we found that institutionalized social structures, such as the household-registration system, constrain the occupational and social mobility of rural peasant workers who migrate to and reside in urban areas. Obtaining more education and skills appear to be viable mechanisms for at least some migrant peasant workers to achieve higher occupational or social status in the city. Nonetheless, after several years of working in the urban areas, many rural workers plan to return to their rural hometowns, largely due to the social exclusion they experienced in the cities.
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