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The Psychometric Properties and Factor Structure of the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire in Japanese Mothers  [PDF]
Hitoshi Kaneko, Shuji Honjo
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.59126

The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ) in Japanese mothers. Additionally, we investigated the association between postpartum bonding and postnatal depression. The participants of this study were 1786 Japanese mothers, recruited during their infants’ 3 months check-ups at a public health center. The mothers completed the PBQ and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). We examined the factor structure of the PBQ. However, we were unable to confirm the original 4 factors. A 1-factor solution was extracted by omitting 9 items that did not have significant loadings onto the single factor. According to the cut-off values of the original PBQ, the positive rate was 7.7%. The PBQ score was moderately correlated with the EPDS score. The abridged 16-item Japanese version of the PBQ can be used as a reliable screening tool during check-ups for Japanese mothers. Health practitioners should pay attention to mothers who have bonding disturbances at postpartum.

Postpartum depression in Cypriot New Mothers  [PDF]
Martha Moraitou,Michalis Galanakis,Esmeralda Lamai,Filia J. Garivaldis
International Journal of Caring Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Postpartum depression is a complex phenomenon affecting many women immediately following childbirth.The present study examined the incidence of postpartum depression in a sample of 226 new mothers inCyprus in relevance to specific socio-economic and psychological background variables. Participantscompleted the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) onthe 4th day after delivery. The results showed that 21.3% of the participants experienced depression accordingto the BDI, and 13.7% were at risk of developing postpartum depression as indicated by the EPDS. Theseresults were found to relate to psychopathology existing prior to childbirth, whilst variables such as age,profession and educational level did not relate to postpartum depression.
Depressive mood, bonding failure, and abusive parenting among mothers with three-month-old babies in a Japanese community  [PDF]
Toshinori Kitamura, Yukiko Ohashi, Sachiko Kita, Megumi Haruna, Reiko Kubo
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2013.33A001

Objective: To investigate the relationships between depressive mood, bonding failure, and abusive parenting. Method: We distributed questionnaires to 1198 mothers attending a three-month postnatal health check-up in rural areas in Japan. The questionnaires assessed these three variables along with demographics. We evaluated the causal relationships by comparing different structural equation models to the data. Results: Although all the models fit the data well, the best Akaike Information Criterion was obtained from a model where both depressive mood and bonding failure predict abusive parenting, but depressive mood and bonding failure do not predict each other directly. The determinant coefficient of child abuse in the final model was 0.13. Discussion: We found depressive mood and bonding failure during postpartum period impacted negatively on mother’s parenting behaviour. Because only 13% of the variance of abusive parenting was explainable by this model, further study should be needed to identify other risk factors of child abuse. Similarly, midwives and public health nurse in community should pay attention to not only depression but also bonding failure to prevent child abuse.

The Experience of Happiness among Chinese Postpartum Mothers  [PDF]
Ching-Yu Cheng, Rita H. Pickler, Tsui-Ping Chu, Yu-Hua Chou
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.56058

Postpartum maternal happiness, an indicator of quality of life that may decrease the effects of negative emotions such as postpartum depression, is not well studied. The purpose of this analysis was to explore how postpartum mothers experience happiness. Data were part of two cross-sectional studies with snowball sampling designed to understand health status of Chinese postpartum mothers. Forty-eight and 151 Chinese mothers within 1-year postpartum in the United States and Taiwan, respectively, answered an open-ended question about the happiest events they experienced during the postpartum period. Qualitative data were analyzed by bracketing contexts to meaning units, aggregating meaning units into themes, and deriving a thematic structure that fitted all themes. Interconnectedness and fulfillment were identified as describing postpartum maternal happiness. Existence of the baby, interaction with the baby, connecting everybody in the family, and integration of the baby into the family were the categories of interconnectedness whereas extension of mother’s life, achievement, and being supported were the categories of fulfillment. The center of the postpartum mother’s life was the baby and the baby, as well as activities associated with the baby, was the main source of mothers’ happiness. Family support and achievement of various expectations, including continuation of the family name, also contributed to maternal happiness. Helping new mothers to understand both positive and negative emotions may encourage further discussion about areas in which mothers are feeling particularly challenged. Interventions such as cognitive counseling that stresses positive emotions may be used to assist new mothers find a healthy balance of emotions, especially cope with depression or feelings of sadness.

Evaluation Of Anxiety And Depression Levels Of Mothers During Prepartum And Postpartum Periods  [PDF]
?zgür ERDEM, P. Gamze Erten BUCAKTEPE, ?akir ?ZEN, ?smail Hamdi KARA
Duzce Universitesi Tip Fakültesi Dergisi , 2010,
Abstract: Purpose: In this study, we aimed to determine the change in depression and anxiety levels ofmothers during prepartum and postpartum periods.Methods: Among the mothers who admitted Dicle University Hospital in their third trimesterbetween June 2008 and January 2009 and did not have any physical disorder were enrolled inthe study. After their initial evaluation during the third trimester the mothers were re-evaluatedin their second and third month after birth.Results: Mean age of the mothers was 28.2±4.2 years. Prepartum and postpartum evaluationsof the mothers with BDI revealed 31% and 29% depression ratios, respectively. According tothe STAI-I when evaluated at prepartum and postpartum periods, 47% and 49% of the motherwere significantly anxious. It was 71% and 63% for prepartum and postpartum evaluations withSTAI-II, respectively. There were statistically significant difference between prepartum andpostpartum periods in terms of upper threshold of the BDI and STAI-II scores (p=0.002 andp=0.014).Conclusion: Mothers seem to be under as high risk for depression and anxiety at prepartumperiod as they are at postpartum period. In general, the mothers who had higher levels ofdepression and anxiety before delivery tend to have also higher levels at postpartum period.
Comparison Of Prevalence Of Postpartum Depression Symptoms Between Breastfeeding Mothers And Non-breastfeeding Mothers  [cached]
Ashraf Tashakori,Azadeh Zamani Behbahani,Reza Davasaz Irani
Iranian Journal of Psychiatry , 2012,
Abstract: Objectives: There is a relationship between infant feeding method and maternal postpartum depression (PPD). This study was carried out in an Iranian population to compare the prevalence of PPD symptoms between breast feeding and non-breast feeding mothers for first time.Methods: Four health centers in Ahvas were selected by random sampling in 2009. At first 78 non-breast feeding mothers at two months postpartum were recruited in the study and then 78 breast feeding mothers were recruited through random sampling. They were re-assessed in six months postpartum period. Demographic and obstetric data questionnaire and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) were used.Results: There was a significant difference in prevalence of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale positive between breast feeding (2.5%) and non- breast feeding mothers (19.4%) (p=0.004).Conclusion: Infant feeding method may be related to maternal mood disorder and breast feeding mothers are less depressed. Breastfeeding may decrease PPD.
Early resumption of sexual intercourse and its determinants among postpartum Iban mothers  [cached]
M Radziah,K Shamsuddin,Jamsiah M,M Normi
International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology , 2013, DOI: 10.5455/2320-1770.ijrcog20130603
Abstract: Introduction: Recurrent pregnancy with close child spacing can result from early resumption of sexual intercourse during the postpartum period. This would expose mothers to complications such as unsafe abortion, postpartum depression and premature birth. The aim of this study is to identify the factors associated with early resumption of sexual intercourse among postpartum Iban mothers. Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted in Sri Aman Division, Sarawak between 1st July and 31st August 2006. A total of 265 Iban mothers agreed to participate in this study. They were interviewed face-to-face using structured questionnaire. Any postpartum sexual intercourse at 6 weeks or less is considered an early resumption of sexual intercourse. Results: Univariable analyses showed significant association between early sexual intercourse and use of contraceptive; mothers’ and husbands’ income; mothers who believed their husbands were sexually abstinent during their confinement period; mothers who stayed with their spouse after delivery; and those with high libido. Multivariable analysis showed only mothers’ and husbands’ income, use of contraceptive and those who believed their husbands practiced sexual abstinence during their confinement period were significantly associated with early resumption of sexual intercourse. Conclusions: Counselling on postpartum resumption of sexual intercourse among Iban mothers should focus on these determinants to ensure a more effective counselling outcome among Iban mothers. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000): 124-129]
Postpartum Blues and Postpartum Depression
Erdem ? et al.
Konuralp Tip Dergisi , 2009,
Abstract: Postpartum blues which is seen during the postpartum period is a transient psychological state. Most of the mothers experience maternity blues in postpartum period. It remains usually unrecognized by the others. Some sensitive families can misattribute these feelings as depression. In this article, we tried to review the characteristics of maternity blues and its differences from depression. We defined depression and presented the incidence and diagnostic criteria, of major depression as well as the risk factors and clinic findings of postpartum depression. Thus, especially at primary care we aimed to prevent misdiagnosis of both maternity blues and depression
Postpartum Depression in Mothers of Infants with Very Low Birth Weight  [cached]
Sabri HERGüNER,Ali ANNAGüR,Erdin? ???EK,Hüseyin ALTUNHAN
N?ropsikiyatri Ar?ivi , 2013,
Abstract: Background: Giving birth to an infant with very low birth weight (VLBW) is a major life event for a mother. Several studies have shown that mothers of these infants are at greater risk of psychological distress. The aim of this study was to investigate the level of depressive symptoms and to determine the associated factors among mothers who have infants with VLBW.Methods: The sample consisted of 105 subjects: 35 mothers of VLBW infants (<1500 g), 35 mothers of low birth weight (LBW) infants (1500-2500 g), and 35 mothers of healthy term infants (>2500 g). The Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to detect maternal depressive symptoms. Maternal social support was assessed by the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Results: The mean EPDS score and the number of mothers with high depressive scores (EPDS>12) were significantly higher in mothers of infants with VLBW than in mothers of LBW and term infants. EPDS score was negatively correlated with birth weight, gestational age, and perceived social support and positively correlated with duration of hospital stay in mothers of infants with VLBW. Low birth weight and long hospital stay were found as predictors of postpartum depression in mothers of infants with VLBW. Conclusion: The birth and subsequent hospitalization of an infant with very low birth weight evoke psychological distress in mothers. Pediatricians should be more careful about depressive symptoms of mothers of infants with VLBW and should refer for counseling when it is necessary. (Arc-hi-ves of Neu-ropsy-chi-atry 2012; 50: 30-33)
Validation of the Arabic version of the Cohen perceived stress scale (PSS-10) among pregnant and postpartum women
Monique Chaaya, Hibah Osman, Georges Naassan, Ziyad Mahfoud
BMC Psychiatry , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-10-111
Abstract: A sample of 268 women participated. These included 113 women in their third trimester of pregnancy, 97 in the postpartum period and 58 healthy female university students. GHQ-12 and EPDS were also administered to the participants. Internal consistency reliability, assessed using Cronbach's α, was 0.74.PSS-10 significantly correlated with both EPDS and GHQ12 (ρ = 0.58 and ρ = 0.48 respectively), and significantly increased with higher scores on stressful life events. PSS-10 scores were higher among university students who also recorded higher stressful life events scores.The Arabic translated version of the PSS-10 showed reasonably adequate psychometric properties.Addressing stress during pregnancy and the postpartum period is important as these periods are physically, psychologically and socially distinct periods in a women's lifetime during which mothers experience concerns about the health of their child, their own health, changes in their bodies and the subsequent effect on changes in their marital relationship. Additionally, worries regarding economic insecurity, breastfeeding, and bonding with the infant can exacerbate the stress often experienced in this period [1,2]. First-time mothers have the added stressors of adapting to their new role as mothers and the insecurities associated with their ability to nurture an infant for the first time [3-5]. These stressors have a significant impact on the mother's psychological well being such as prenatal and postpartum depression, especially when stressors are perceived as stressful [6]. Perceived stress is a person's appraisal of certain life events as potentially threatening. This perception is reached in light of the person's ability to cope with such events [7,8]. Therefore people evaluate potentially stressful life events differently. The ability to accurately measure perceived stress is essential in order to treat and evaluate the effectiveness of interventions and treatments.There are few validated tools for the
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