of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Postpartum
Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ) in Japanese mothers. Additionally, we investigated
the association between postpartum bonding and postnatal depression. The participants
of this study were 1786 Japanese mothers, recruited during their infants’ 3
months check-ups at a public health center. The mothers completed the PBQ and
the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). We examined the factor
structure of the PBQ. However, we were unable to confirm the original 4
factors. A 1-factor solution was extracted by omitting 9 items that did not
have significant loadings onto the single factor. According to the cut-off
values of the original PBQ, the positive rate was 7.7%. The PBQ score was
moderately correlated with the EPDS score. The abridged 16-item Japanese
version of the PBQ can be used as a reliable screening tool during check-ups
for Japanese mothers. Health practitioners should pay attention to mothers who
have bonding disturbances at postpartum.
Objective: To investigate the relationships between depressive mood, bonding failure, and abusive parenting. Method: We distributed questionnaires to 1198 mothers attending a three-month postnatal health check-up in rural areas in Japan. The questionnaires assessed these three variables along with demographics. We evaluated the causal relationships by comparing different structural equation models to the data. Results: Although all the models fit the data well, the best Akaike Information Criterion was obtained from a model where both depressive mood and bonding failure predict abusive parenting, but depressive mood and bonding failure do not predict each other directly. The determinant coefficient of child abuse in the final model was 0.13. Discussion: We found depressive mood and bonding failure during postpartum period impacted negatively on mother’s parenting behaviour. Because only 13% of the variance of abusive parenting was explainable by this model, further study should be needed to identify other risk factors of child abuse. Similarly, midwives and public health nurse in community should pay attention to not only depression but also bonding failure to prevent child abuse.
maternal happiness, an indicator of quality of life that may decrease the
effects of negative emotions such as postpartum depression, is not well
studied. The purpose of this analysis was to explore how postpartum mothers
experience happiness. Data were part of two cross-sectional studies with
snowball sampling designed to understand health status of Chinese postpartum
mothers. Forty-eight and 151 Chinese mothers within 1-year postpartum in the
United States and Taiwan, respectively, answered an open-ended question about
the happiest events they experienced during the postpartum period. Qualitative
data were analyzed by bracketing contexts to meaning units, aggregating meaning
units into themes, and deriving a thematic structure that fitted all themes.
Interconnectedness and fulfillment were identified as describing postpartum
maternal happiness. Existence of the baby, interaction with the baby,
connecting everybody in the family, and integration of the baby into the family
were the categories of interconnectedness whereas extension of mother’s life,
achievement, and being supported were the categories of fulfillment. The center
of the postpartum mother’s life was the baby and the baby, as well as
activities associated with the baby, was the main source of mothers’ happiness.
Family support and achievement of various expectations, including continuation
of the family name, also contributed to maternal happiness. Helping new mothers
to understand both positive and negative emotions may encourage further
discussion about areas in which mothers are feeling particularly challenged. Interventions
such as cognitive counseling that stresses positive emotions may be used to
assist new mothers find a healthy balance of emotions, especially cope with
depression or feelings of sadness.