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Climatic regions as an indicator of forest coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks in the United States
Christopher W Woodall, Greg C Liknes
Carbon Balance and Management , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1750-0680-3-5
Abstract: Mean coarse and fine woody debris forest carbon stocks vary by K?ppen's climatic regions across the United States. The highest carbon stocks were found in regions with cool summers while the lowest carbon stocks were found in arid desert/steppes or temperate humid regions. Coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks were found to be positively correlated with available moisture and negatively correlated with maximum temperature.It was concluded with only medium confidence that coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks may be at risk of becoming net emitter of carbon under a global climate warming scenario as increases in coarse or fine woody debris production (sinks) may be more than offset by increases in forest woody detritus decay rates (emission). Given the preliminary results of this study and the rather tenuous status of coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks as either a source or sink of CO2, further research is suggested in the areas of forest detritus decay and production.Estimation of carbon sequestration using large-scale forest inventory data has become important due to the link between possible climate change and the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere [1,2]. In 1992, 150 countries including the U.S. signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change that resulted in the development of annual reports of greenhouse gas inventories including carbon in forests. Forest carbon pools are often delineated as standing live trees, standing dead trees, down and dead woody materials, forest floor, understory, and soils. The down and dead woody materials pool (detritus) essentially consists of coarse woody debris, fine woody debris, and stumps. Coarse woody debris is defined by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service as down and dead woody material at least 7.62 cm in diameter [3]. Fine woody debris is defined by FIA as dead and down woody material with a diameter between 0.01 and 7.61 cm [3]. In t
Carbon Stocks in Aboveground and Belowground Biomass of Sub-Humid Tropical Forest in Southwestern Nigeria
Habeeb Ajibola Yusuf, Jesumbo Joseph Oludipe, Oluwatoyin Olajumoke Adeoye, Idowu Ezekiel Olorunfemi
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105588
This study aimed at estimation of carbon stocks in aboveground and below-ground biomass of sub-humid young forest land in south-western Nigeria. Different species of trees were analysed. Results gathered indicated that the forest studied had an average aboveground carbon stock of live trees as 0.00407 t. Terminalia superba (0.00698 t C) has the highest carbon stocks and diameter at breast height (Dbh) of 5.80 cm while Triplochiton scleroxy-lon contained the least stock of carbon (0.00212 t C) and Dbh of 3.55 cm. From the analysis, it was observed that total belowground biomass (BGB) was 32% of AGB. Positive linear relationship was observed between Dbh and the amount of carbon in the study area. It was also observed that a negative linear relationship exists between the aboveground biomass carbon (AGBC) and wood densities. This study indicates that the species of trees in the forest studied are effective carbon sink and can inhibit the effect of CO2 in the atmosphere. Three new models were developed using different input parameters and they all showed proximity to the 2005 allometric equation by Chave and his team.
The effects of post-pasture woody plant colonization on soil and aboveground litter carbon and nitrogen along a bioclimatic transect  [cached]
La Mantia T,Gristina L,Rivaldo E,Pasta S
iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry , 2013, DOI: 10.3832/ifor0811-006
Abstract: We investigated the effects of woody plant colonization of abandoned pastures on soil and litter organic carbon (C) stocks and nitrogen (N) content along a bioclimatic transect in a semi-arid environment (Sicily, Italy). Soil samples were taken in three successional stages (grazed pasture, shrubland, forest) within each of three bioclimates (supramediterranean - “supra”, mesomediterranean - “meso”, thermomediterranean - “thermo”). Organic C and N in litter and soil (0-10 cm and 10-30 cm depth) were determined, as well as soil bulk density. Especially at 0-10 cm depth, changes in C and N contents along successional stages differed among bioclimates. Soil organic carbon (SOC) stock decreased from pasture to shrubland and increased from shrubland to forest in “supra”, increased from pasture to shrubland and then remained stable in “thermo”, and was stable in “meso”. Soil C/N ratio decreased with succession in “supra”, showed no significant trend in “meso”, and increased with succession in “thermo”. Litter C stock increased with succession in “meso”, increased from pasture to shrubland and decreased from shrubland to forest in “thermo”, and increased from pasture to shrubland and then remained stable in “supra”. Litter C/N ratio increased in “thermo” and “supra” from pasture to shrubland and from shrubland to forest, but did not change significantly with succession in “meso”. The different trends in SOC among bioclimates may be caused by changes in the importance of litter input, litter decay rate and mineralization. Successional changes in “meso” and “supra” appeared to be most affected by litter quality, while those in “thermo” appeared to be strongly influenced by limited litter decay due to low soil moisture and high temperature.
Age-related and stand-wise estimates of carbon stocks and sequestration in the aboveground coarse wood biomass of wetland forests in the northern Pantanal, Brazil
J. Sch ngart, J. Arieira, C. Felfili Fortes, E. Cezarine de Arruda,C. Nunes da Cunha
Biogeosciences (BG) & Discussions (BGD) , 2011,
Abstract: In this study we use allometric models combined with tree ring analysis to estimate carbon stocks and sequestration in the aboveground coarse wood biomass (AGWB) of wetland forests in the Pantanal, located in central South America. In four 1-ha plots in stands characterized by the pioneer tree species Vochysia divergens Pohl (Vochysiaceae) forest inventories (trees ≥10 cm diameter at breast height, D) have been performed and converted to estimates of AGWB by two allometric models using three independent parameters (D, tree height H and wood density ρ). We perform a propagation of measurement errors to estimate uncertainties in the estimates of AGWB. Carbon stocks of AGWB vary from 7.8 ± 1.5 to 97.2 ± 14.4 Mg C ha 1 between the four stands. From models relating tree ages determined by dendrochronological techniques to C-stocks in AGWB we derived estimates for C-sequestration which differs from 0.50 ± 0.03 to 3.34 ± 0.31 Mg C ha 1 yr 1. Maps based on geostatistic techniques indicate the heterogeneous spatial distribution of tree ages and C-stocks of the four studied stands. This distribution is the result of forest dynamics due to the colonizing and retreating of V. divergens and other species associated with pluriannual wet and dry episodes in the Pantanal, respectively. Such information is essential for the management of the cultural landscape of the Pantanal wetlands.
Carbon stock in Kolli forests, Eastern Ghats (India) with emphasis on aboveground biomass, litter, woody debris and soils
Mohanraj R,Saravanan J,Dhanakumar S
iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry , 2011, DOI: 10.3832/ifor0568-004
Abstract: The efficacy of tropical forest sinks in India continues to diminish in spite of several conservation efforts carried out at both governmental and non-governmental level. Lack of proper periodical and complete spatial inventory of carbon stock in India is a disturbing aspect at this aim. Carbon stock assessments are available only for few patches of Western Ghats of India, while assessment is almost negligible for Eastern Ghats. This paper focuses on estimation of existing carbon stock in the above ground biomass, litter, debris and soils (up to 30 cm) of different forest types of Kolli forest, located in Eastern Ghats of Tamilnadu, India (78°20’ to 78°30’E Long and 11°10’ to 11°30’ N Lat), within an area of 503 km2. Floristic diversity of Kolli hills is rich of endemisms and includes about 150 tree species. To estimate the carbon stock, about 26 quadrates of 25 X 25 m size were established. The organic carbon content of forest soil varied from 1.71 to 12.59%. The total carbon stock of soil, surface litter, coarse wood debris and total above ground biomass were estimated as 5.54, 0.034, 0.001 and 4.49 Tg C, respectively.
Potential stocks and increments of woody biomassin the European Union under differentmanagement and climate scenarios
Georg E Kindermann, Stefan Sch?rghuber, Tapio Linkosalo, Anabel Sanchez, Werner Rammer, Rupert Seidl, Manfred J Lexer
Carbon Balance and Management , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1750-0680-8-2
Abstract: A management which is maximising standing biomass will raise the stem wood carbon stocks from 30 tC/ha to 50 tC/ha until 2100. A management which is maximising increments will lower the stock to 20 tC/ha until 2100. The estimates for the climate scenarios A1b, B1 and E1 are different but there is much more effect by the management target than by the climate scenario. By maximising increments the harvests are 0.4 tC/ha/year higher than in the management which maximises the standing biomass. The increments until 2040 are close together but around 2100 the increments when maximising standing biomass are approximately 50% lower than those when maximising increments. Cold regions will benefit from the climate changes in the climate scenarios by showing higher increments.The results of this study suggest that forest management should maximise increments, not stocks to be more efficient in sense of climate change mitigation. This is true especially for regions which have already high carbon stocks in forests, what is the case in many regions in Europe. During the time span 2010-2100 the forests of EU27 will absorb additional 1750 million tC if they are managed to maximise increments compared if they are managed to maximise standing biomass. Incentives which will increase the standing biomass beyond the increment optimal biomass should therefore be avoided. Mechanisms which will maximise increments and sustainable harvests need to be developed to have substantial amounts of wood which can be used as substitution of non sustainable materials.
Woody Vegetation and Soil Characteristics of Residential Forest Patches and Open Spaces along an Urban-to-Rural Gradient  [PDF]
Benjamin L. Reichert, Sharon R. Jean-Philippe, Christopher Oswalt, Jennifer Franklin, Mark Radosevich
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2015.51010
Abstract: As the process of urbanization advances across the country, so does the importance of urban forests, which include both trees and the soils in which they grow. Soil microbial biomass, which plays a critical role in nutrient transformation in urban ecosystems, is affected by factors such as soil type and the availability of water, carbon, and nitrogen. The aim of this study was to characterize residual forest patches and open fields in residential areas in the City of Knoxville. A field study was conducted to investigate tree species diversity and determine spatial and temporal soil characteristics along an urban-to-rural gradient. Tree diversity did not differ significantly for residential urban and rural plots in Knoxville, Tennessee. Biologically, there was no indication that soils were affected by tree diversity, in terms of soil microbial biomass C/N along an urban-to-rural gradient in Knoxville residential plots. Rural soils did differ physically from urban soils, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and soil moisture content (GSM). Similarly, physical soil properties such as bulk density, both urban and rural sites were negatively correlated with tree diversity. Results indicate that although the urban-rural gradient is subject to urban environmental stressors, the urban ecosystem is resilient in maintaining the ecosystem functions of more natural systems.
Assessment of carbon in woody plants and soil across a vineyard-woodland landscape
John N Williams, Allan D Hollander, A O'Geen, L Thrupp, Robert Hanifin, Kerri Steenwerth, Glenn McGourty, Louise E Jackson
Carbon Balance and Management , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1750-0680-6-11
Abstract: Field data showed wildlands to be heterogeneous in both C stocks and woody tree diversity, reflecting the mosaic of several different vegetation types, and storing on average 36.8 Mg C/ha in aboveground woody biomass and 89.3 Mg C/ha in soil. Not surprisingly, vineyard blocks showed less variation in above- and belowground C, with an average of 3.0 and 84.1 Mg C/ha, respectively.This research demonstrates that vineyards managed with practices that conserve some fraction of adjoining wildlands yield benefits for increasing overall C stocks and species and habitat diversity in integrated agricultural landscapes. For such complex landscapes, high resolution spatial modeling is challenging and requires accurate characterization of the landscape by vegetation type, physical structure, sufficient sampling, and allometric equations that relate tree species to each landscape. Geographic information systems and remote sensing techniques are useful for integrating the above variables into an analysis platform to estimate C stocks in these working landscapes, thereby helping land managers qualify for greenhouse gas mitigation credits. Carbon policy in California, however, shows a lack of focus on C stocks compared to emissions, and on agriculture compared to other sectors. Correcting these policy shortcomings could create incentives for ecosystem service provision, including C storage, as well as encourage better farm stewardship and habitat conservation.Worldwide, landscape mosaics that include forests and perennial agricultural production systems have benefits in terms of stored C and biodiversity protection [1-3]. Integration of forest and agricultural ecosystems into complex landscapes also increases the provision of other ecosystem services, including pest management, nutrient retention, erosion control, and water quality [4-7]. In regions where intensive agriculture becomes economically successful, loss of natural ecosystems is often rapid, and people forego the ecosyste
Aboveground Biomass and Carbon Stocks of an Undisturbed Regenerating Sal (Shorea Robusta Gaertn. F.) Forest Of Goalpara District, Assam, Northeast India  [PDF]
Debajit Rabha
International Journal of Environment , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/ije.v3i4.11743
Abstract: The present paper deals with the above ground biomass and carbon stocks of an undisturbed Sal forest of Goalpara district, Assam, Northeast India. The average AGB and C were recorded 239.45 ± 12.8 Mg ha-1 and 119.73 ± 6.4 Mg ha-1. Density distribution curve indicates the high carbon sequestration potential of the stand in near future which further helps in climate change mitigation. Currently, conservation measures are well imposed in combine effort of local community and government. Legal involvement of local community in conservation exercises along with the forest department might be very effective in management of Sal forests.
Indian Streams Research Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Tripura is a small state of India union situated in the North-Eastern part of the Indian sub-continent. The state lies within the latitudes 22o56'N -24o32'N and between the longitudes 90o10' E-92o21' E. The area of Tripura, in ancient time, was said to be very extensive. Assam and Mizoram bound it on the north and the east respectively; while Bangladesh lies on the west; the northwest; the South and the South-east.Tripura did not have a distinct political status or demarcated boundary as it has today. One of the earlier kings of Tripura brought a number of Muslim families along with other Bengali castes of Hindu communities from the Muslim Sultan of Bengal and he arranged their permanent settlement in all over Tripura. Since then from time to time, the Muslim Bengalis like the major Hindu Bengali inhabitants migrated from the plain lands adjacent to the present Tripura which was regarded as District of Tipperah or State of Hill Tipperah. Only in 1920, the British government agreed to regard the territory as 'Tripura' instead of Hill Tripura. Muslims are the old dweller of this state and their history shows ups and down of their position in Tripura. The state has undergone significant socio-cultural change in the last four decades. Besides located adjacent to the densely populated plains of Bangladesh, Tripura has attracted a continuous flow of immigrants. This process reduced the original inhabitants to a status of linguistic minority. The decline of population in 1961 -1971 was the result of 'push -back' operation policy of the government. Muslims became backward in different fields of the society. Their socioeconomic condition became pathetic and their position is below than the lower caste.
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