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Governing climate change: urbanization, vulnerability and challenges for the northern coast of the state of S o Paulo, Brazil  [cached]
Rafael D’Almeida Martins,Leila da Costa Ferreira
Sustentabilidade em Debate , 2011,
Abstract: Este artigo discute a vulnerabilidade do Litoral Norte do Estado de S o Paulo, Brasil, em rela o às mudan as climáticas. Baseando-se em uma revis o da literatura específica e num estudo de caso que englobou a análise de documentos oficiais, dados secundários e entrevistas semi-estruturadas com gestores e representantes da sociedade civil, o artigo busca contribuir com o debate das mudan as climáticas nos municípios costeiros brasileiros por meio de uma proposta conceitual e analítica para investigar e discutir os múltiplos processos e as intera es entre mudan a ambiental, socioecon mica e climática nesses espa os. Os resultados da pesquisa mostram que a vulnerabilidade dos municípios do Litoral Norte Paulista é amplamente dependente de seus fatores históricos e contextos socioecon micos. Nesse sentido, as transforma es trazidas para a regi o nas últimas quatro décadas por meio de um intenso processo de urbaniza o turística e crescentes atividades industriais aprofundaram problemas sociais e ambientais, aumentando a vulnerabilidade n o só da regi o como um todo, como também de grupos específicos, em rela o à variabilidade e mudan as do clima. A sobreposi o de processos socioambientais e os diferentes níveis da problemática da mudan a do clima colocam grandes desafios para a governan a e as institui es presentes nesses municípios que têm falhado em responder às causas dessa situa o de vulnerabilidade, deixando claro que s o pouco capazes de responderem, sozinhos, ao crescente risco de impactos das mudan as climáticas.This paper examines the climate change vulnerability of the Northern Coast of the State of S o Paulo (Litoral Norte Paulista), Brazil. Based on a literature review and a case-study encompassing the analysis of policy documents, secondary data and semi-structured interviews with policymakers and civil society representatives, it aims to provide a useful way to examine the multiple and overlapping processes of environmental, social-economic and climatic change in this region. By analyzing its vulnerability, the paper argues that the degree to which these cities are vulnerable to climate change is largely determined by the broader historic and socio-economic contextual factors. The finding indicates that the social, economic and cultural changes brought by the last four decades of intense process of urbanization, tourism exploitation and increasingly economic activities have deepened social and environmental problems, increasing the vulnerability of particular groups and the region as a whole to climate variability and change. The cross-
Climate Change Adaptation and Vulnerability Assessment of Water Resources Systems in Developing Countries: A Generalized Framework and a Feasibility Study in Bangladesh  [PDF]
Animesh K. Gain,Carlo Giupponi,Fabrice G. Renaud
Water , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/w4020345
Abstract: Water is the primary medium through which climate change influences the Earth’s ecosystems and therefore people’s livelihoods and wellbeing. Besides climatic change, current demographic trends, economic development and related land use changes have direct impact on increasing demand for freshwater resources. Taken together, the net effect of these supply and demand changes is affecting the vulnerability of water resources. The concept of ‘vulnerability’ is not straightforward as there is no universally accepted approach for assessing vulnerability. In this study, we review the evolution of approaches to vulnerability assessment related to water resources. From the current practices, we identify research gaps, and approaches to overcome these gaps a generalized assessment framework is developed. A feasibility study is then presented in the context of the Lower Brahmaputra River Basin (LBRB). The results of the feasibility study identify the current main constraints (e.g., lack of institutional coordination) and opportunities (e.g., adaptation) of LBRB. The results of this study can be helpful for innovative research and management initiatives and the described framework can be widely used as a guideline for the vulnerability assessment of water resources systems, particularly in developing countries.
Climate Change Vulnerability and Impacts Analysis in Kenya  [PDF]
Samwel N. Marigi
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2017.61004
Abstract: In this paper, observed climate change impacts in the country were collated and tabulated to provide the baseline information on the prevalent climate hazards associated with the impacts. Available climate and socio-economic datasets for the country were then subjected to the GeoClim software analyses in order to generate the spatial patterns of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity parameters. Composite layers of these parameters were overlayed to generate the vulnerability map. Finally, effectiveness of the country’s existing policies and capacities in addressing the vulnerabilities has been evaluated. Results have revealed that the entire country is vulnerable. However, the Northern parts as well as the Southern tip of the coastal strip are the most vulnerable. Flood and drought hazards result in the greatest impacts to the Kenyan society. Significant gaps and weaknesses have been observed in the existing policies and capacities which render them inadequate to effectively address the vulnerability. It is concluded that the country urgently requires a raft of measures to address the current and future vulnerabilities presented by climate change.
Impact of Floods on Livelihoods and Vulnerability of Natural Resource Dependent Communities in Northern Ghana  [PDF]
Frederick A. Armah,David O. Yawson,Genesis T. Yengoh,Justice O. Odoi,Ernest K. A. Afrifa
Water , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/w2020120
Abstract: Sub-Sahara Africa is considered to be most vulnerable to climate variability including flooding. The frequency and severity of floods in Northern Ghana over the last decade has increased considerably. Through qualitative modelling the paper explores the impact of floods on natural resource dependent communities in Northern Ghana. Simplified causal loop diagrams are used to conceptualise flood-induced coping strategies in the study area. The results indicate that some characteristics of the socio-cultural environment appear to mitigate risk and reduce vulnerability. In this context, the role of social networks in enhancing livelihood security is essential. The paper concludes that both in case of seasonal variations in agricultural output and floods, individuals that have effectively diversified their livelihoods, both occupationally and geographically, are less sensitive than individuals who mainly achieve entitlement to food via crop cultivation. However, diversification in this case, is effective only in the short term.
Health Impact of Climate Change in Bangladesh: A Summary  [PDF]
Enamul Hasib, Prita Chathoth
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2016.41001
Abstract: Bangladesh, one of the South Asian countries, has started experiencing major public health impacts of climate change due to its vulnerable geographical location. The objective of this paper is to look at the extent of climate change in Bangladesh and its impact on human health. This paper is based on the review of relevant literature and journal articles on climate change and health from varied recourses. Major health impacts of climate change in Bangladesh observed are temperature related illness, food, water and vector borne diseases. About 20 million people in more than 27 districts are at risk of having Leishmaniasis. Human health is at serious risk due to climate change in Bangladesh though the country’s contribution to Greenhouse Gas emissions is very small compared to many developed nations. Unless steps are taken and put in place immediately to mitigate and adapt to climate change, Bangladesh will have to pay a heavy toll in terms of productivity and human lives.
Climate Governance Initiatives: Snapshots from Bangladesh  [PDF]
Md. Mafizur Rahman, Dong Huang
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2019.79010
Abstract: Bangladesh is often cited as one of the most vulnerable countries to the effects of climate change. The impacts of climate change are exacerbating the existing poverty and inequality challenges in Bangladesh. Adaption and mitigation to climate change are now unavoidable demands and considered as realistic actions to help the survival of humans. The objective of this paper is to explore the role of “governance” to promote mitigation of, and adaptation to human induced climate change. The study considers “governance” as a mechanism of the effective policy measures and implementation, responsible state and non-state institutions and the active civic participation in this process.
Assessment of Groundwater Vulnerability in Northern Babylon Governorate, Iraq  [PDF]
Qais Al-Madhlom, Nadhir Al-Ansari, Hussain M. Hussain
Engineering (ENG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2016.812080
Abstract: Groundwater is one of the main resources from the earth, especially for arid or semiarid countries. For this reason, it is very important to keep it unpolluted. Drastic Model is one of the widely used models to detect groundwater vulnerability to the contaminants that are found on ground surface. In this model, it is assumed that the vulnerability of the groundwater is affected by seven hydrological parameters. They are: depth from the surface ground to groundwater, net recharge into the aquifer from the surface, aquifer media, soil media, area topography, impact of vadose zone and aquifer hydraulic conductivity. In this study, the DRASTIC model was applied on the northern part of Babylon governorate in Iraq, to predict the vulnerability of Groundwater in that area. The results indicate that the vulnerability is very low to low grade.
Climate Change Concern to Cattle Feed in Bangladesh
Ferdous Ahmed,Abul Quasem Al-Amin,Gazi Mahabubul Alam,Che Hashim Hassan
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2012.1946.1953
Abstract: This research focuses the climate change concerns for livestock feeding management in Bangladesh as it causes strange behavior and variation of cattle diets and feed shortages in the last two decades. It is obvious from the recent literature that Bangladesh is one of the most climate change vulnerable country of the world to climate change. It causes cattle feed shortages, modification in major production of yields, alteration in a variety composition of rangeland and edifying variety of cattle feed setback. The climate change concern to cattle feed in Bangladesh are now real and need to overcome the problems by the subject to current research effort and value. Therefore, in this study specific justification is used to figure out the factors that are responsible and discussed the national lacking, required action, limitation and possible alternative options. Moreover, following on the national lacking, required action and limitations, this study incorporated a framework of approach and strategies for the policy makers of Bangladesh.
Households' perception of climate change and human health risks: A community perspective
Md Aminul Haque, Shelby Yamamoto, Ahmad Malik, Rainer Sauerborn
Environmental Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-11-1
Abstract: The study was a cross-sectional survey of respondents from two villages--one from the northern part and the other from the southern part of Bangladesh. A total of 450 households were selected randomly through multistage sampling completed a semi-structure questionnaire. This was supplemented with 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) and 15 key informant interviews (KIIs).Over 95 percent of the respondents reported that the heat during the summers had increased and 80.2 percent reported that rainfall had decreased, compared to their previous experiences. Approximately 65 percent reported that winters were warmer than in previous years but they still experienced very erratic and severe cold during the winter for about 5-7 days, which restricted their activities with very destructive effect on agricultural production, everyday life and the health of people. FGDs and KIIs also reported that overall winters were warmer. Eighty point two percent, 72.5 percent and 54.7 percent survey respondents perceived that the frequency of water, heat and cold related diseases/health problems, respectively, had increased compared to five to ten years ago. FGDs and KIIs respondents were also reported the same.Respondents had clear perceptions about changes in heat, cold and rainfall that had occurred over the last five to ten years. Local perceptions of climate variability (CV) included increased heat, overall warmer winters, reduced rainfall and fewer floods. The effects of CV were mostly negative in terms of means of living, human health, agriculture and overall livelihoods. Most local perceptions on CV are consistent with the evidence regarding the vulnerability of Bangladesh to CC. Such findings can be used to formulate appropriate sector programs and interventions. The systematic collection of such information will allow scientists, researchers and policy makers to design and implement appropriate adaptation strategies for CC in countries that are especially vulnerable.Weather and cli
Community vulnerability to climate change in the context of other exposure-sensitivities in Kugluktuk, Nunavut
Jason Prno,Ben Bradshaw,Johanna Wandel,Tristan Pearce
Polar Research , 2011, DOI: 10.3402/polar.v30i0.7363
Abstract: Climate change in the Canadian north is, and will be, managed by communities that are already experiencing social, political, economic and other environmental changes. Hence, there is a need to understand vulnerability to climate change in the context of multiple exposure-sensitivities at the community level. This article responds to this perceived knowledge need based on a case study of the community of Kugluktuk in Nunavut, Canada. An established approach for vulnerability assessment is used to identify current climatic and non-climatic exposure-sensitivities along with their associated contemporary adaptation strategies. This assessment of current vulnerability is used as a basis to consider Kugluktuk's possible vulnerability to climatic change in the future. Current climate-related exposure-sensitivities in Kugluktuk relate primarily to subsistence harvesting and community infrastructure. Thinner and less stable ice conditions and unpredictable weather patterns are making travel and harvesting more dangerous and some community infrastructure is sensitive to permafrost melt and extreme weather events (e.g., flash floods). The ability of individuals and households to adapt to these and other climatic exposure-sensitivities is influenced by non-climatic factors that condition adaptive capacity including substance abuse, the erosion of traditional knowledge and youth suicide. These and other non-climatic factors often underpin adaptive capacity to deal with and adapt to changing conditions and must be considered in an assessment of vulnerability. This research argues that Northern communities are challenged by multiple exposure-sensitivities—beyond just those posed by climate—and effective adaptation to climate change requires consideration if not resolution of socio-economic and other issues in communities.
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