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CFD Application on Food Industry; Energy Saving on the Bread Oven  [PDF]
Ali Motamedzadegan,Shahla Khoddam
Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment (IJEE) , 2012,
Abstract: In this paper, application of computational fluid dynamics simulation of the cooking process of bread and energy saving inside an oven is presented. A two dimensional CFD model is applied to investigate the hot air distribution and bread cooking conditions inside the stove. Results are shown as velocity contours, turbulence intensity, static temperature and pressure distribution. It was found that the turbulence intensity was the highest at part of the stove, which means which part of bread would cook the fastest as it receives larger quantity of energy compared to other parts. The arrangement of the stove is discussed and some improvement offered to find a desire temperature distribution that leads to a suitable cooking process. In addition, the current results can be useful for next improvements on the existing stove for energy saving.
Energy Saving Evaluation of the Ventilated BIPV Walls  [PDF]
Chi-Ming Lai,Yi-Pin Lin
Energies , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/en4060948
Abstract: This study integrates photovoltaic (PV) system, building structure, and heat flow mechanism to propose the notion of ventilated Building-Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) walls. The energy-saving potential of the ventilated BIPV walls was investigated via engineering considerations and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The results show that the heat removal rate and indoor heat gain of the proposed ventilated BIPV walls were dominantly affected by outdoor wind velocity and airflow channel width. Correlations for predicting the heat removal rate and indoor heat gain, the reduction ratio of the indoor heat gain, CO 2 reduction, and induced indoor air exchange are introduced.
High Energy Gain in Three-Dimensional Simulations of Light Sail Acceleration  [PDF]
Andrea Sgattoni,Stefano Sinigardi,Andrea Macchi
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1063/1.4894092
Abstract: The dynamics of radiation pressure acceleration in the relativistic light sail regime are analysed by means of large scale, three-dimensional (3D) particle-in-cell simulations. Differently to other mechanisms, the 3D dynamics leads to faster and higher energy gain than in 1D or 2D geometry. This effect is caused by the local decrease of the target density due to transverse expansion leading to a "lighter sail". However, the rarefaction of the target leads to an earlier transition to transparency limiting the energy gain. A transverse instability leads to a structured and inhomogeneous ion distribution.
Energy saving in milk processing  [PDF]
M. Janzekovic,B. Mursec,P. Vindis,F. Cus
Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering , 2009,
Abstract: Purpose: of this paper is to present the justification of replacement of the obsolete system for milk pasteurization and washing of the production line by the newer CIP system (cleaning in place) in the dairy. The latter ensures reliable washing and sterilization of lines and machines, which is one of the principal prerequisites for the product quality.Design/methodology/approach: The measurements were performed with the installed equipment CIP Module 5111 - 5116. The cleaning equipment is an 8 line satellite system. The SPS control and the visualization take place through the RAS (Remote - Access) network. The visualization data are archived and the visualization is connected to the PC network. The worn Alfa Laval pasteur has been replaced by the new Fischer equipment.Findings: The new CIP system assured 43% water saving, if compared with the old equipment. Saving of washing agents (caustic solution, acid) amounted to 11.5%. Due to smaller need for energy (gas, electricity) the energy costs were reduced by 19%.Research limitations/implications: The modern system for pasteurization and washing is closely connected with energy saving measures. It allows the production of safe milk products in accordance with HACCP (hazard analyses of critical control points) and reduces the hazard of injuries with chemicals.Practical implications: For any company the investments are a decisive factor for its growth and development. Modernization of systems for washing of production lines in dairies assures the cost reduction at all levels and the milk processing into high-quality milk products.Originality/value: The new CIP energy saving system has an influence on the costs of the dairy business activities and the reduction of environment burdening. Owing to the use of new equipment allowing 20 second maintaining time of pasteurization the pasteurization temperature has been reduced from 78°C to 76°C and, thus, the profitability of the pasteurization process has been improved.
The Role and Importance of the Energy Saving in Georgia  [PDF]
Demuri Chomakhidze, Omari Zivzivadze, Petre Kachkachishvili, Akaki Kiladze
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.810113
Abstract: The role and importance of the energy saving in the conditions of Georgia are analyzed in this article. Based on the specific materials, the impact of the public labor fruitfulness and energy saving is compared to the volume of the whole inside product (WIP). It is said, that the reduction of the energy volume of WIP on 1% is giving approximately the same and in separate years even more effect in the augment of the volume of the WIP, compared to the rising the public labor productivity in the same way. In reference to this, the level of the main macroeconomic indicators of the development of the Georgian economy and the dynamics for 2013-2016 is studied in this article.
About energy saving and increase of energy efficiency in buildings  [PDF]
L.L. Goshka
Magazine of Civil Engineering , 2010,
Abstract: In the article the analysis of National law №261 "Energy saving and increase of energy efficiency..." from the point of view of building systems is given. The recommendations for modernization of heat, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems taking into account energy efficiency requirements are given.
Energy saving market for mobile operators  [PDF]
M. M. Aftab Hossain,Riku J?ntti,Cicek Cavdar
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Ensuring seamless coverage accounts for the lion's share of the energy consumed in a mobile network. Overlapping coverage of three to five mobile network operators (MNOs) results in enormous amount of energy waste which is avoidable. The traffic demands of the mobile networks vary significantly throughout the day. As the offered load for all networks are not same at a given time and the differences in energy consumption at different loads are significant, multi-MNO capacity/coverage sharing can dramatically reduce energy consumption of mobile networks and provide the MNOs a cost effective means to cope with the exponential growth of traffic. In this paper, we propose an energy saving market for a multi-MNO network scenario. As the competing MNOs are not comfortable with information sharing, we propose a double auction clearinghouse market mechanism where MNOs sell and buy capacity in order to minimize energy consumption. In our setting, each MNO proposes its bids and asks simultaneously for buying and selling multi-unit capacities respectively to an independent auctioneer, i.e., clearinghouse and ends up either as a buyer or as a seller in each round. We show that the mechanism allows the MNOs to save significant percentage of energy cost throughout a wide range of network load. Different than other energy saving features such as cell sleep or antenna muting which can not be enabled at heavy traffic load, dynamic capacity sharing allows MNOs to handle traffic bursts with energy saving opportunity.
Superconductivity by Kinetic Energy Saving?  [PDF]
D. van der Marel,H. J. A. Molegraaf,C. Presura,I. Santoso
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: A brief introduction is given in the generic microscopic framework of superconductivity. The consequences for the temperature dependence of the kinetic energy, and the correlation energy are discussed for two cases: The BCS scenario and the non-Fermi liquid scenario. A quantitative comparison is made between the BCS-prediction for d-wave pairing in a band with nearest neighbor and next-nearest neighbor hoppping and the experimental specific heat and the optical intraband spectral weight along the plane. We show that the BCS-prediction produces the wrong sign for the kink at Tc of the intraband spectral weight, even though the model calculation agrees well with the specific heat.
Energy Saving in Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Zahra Rezaei,Shima Mobininejad
International Journal of Computer Science and Engineering Survey , 2012,
Abstract: A wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of a large number of sensor nodes which are deployed over an area to perform local computations based on information gathered from the surroundings. Each node in the network is equipped with a battery, but it is almost very difficult to change or recharge batteries; therefore, the crucial question is: “how to prolong the network lifetime to such a long time?” Hence, maximizing the lifetime of the network through minimizing the energy is an important challenge in WSN; sensors cannot be easily replaced or recharged due to their ad-hoc deployment in hazardous environment. Considering that energy saving acts as one of the hottest topics in wireless sensor networks, we will survey the main techniques used for energy conservation in sensor networks. The main focus of this article is primarily on duty cycling schemes which represent the most compatible technique for energy saving and we also focus on the data-driven approaches that can be used to improve the energy efficiency. Finally, we will make a review on some communication protocols proposed for sensor networks.
Economic Benefit Analysis of 220 kV Energy-saving Power Transformer  [PDF]
Weili Chen, Xian Ma, Jingtian Bi, Zhisen Li, Tong Jiang
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2013.54B247
Abstract:

Power transformer serves as one of the most widely used electrical equipments in power grid. During the operation, terrible losses are produced. With the development of loss reduction technology of power transformers, in order to save energy saving and reduce emissions, the old power transformer should be replaced. The paper summarizes the main method to reduce the losses of power transformers and brings up the improved Total Owning Cost (TOC) algorithm, which applies to 220 kV power transformers’ comprehensive benefit analysis. Using the improved Total Owning Cost (TOC) algorithm, based on today 220 kV energy-saving power transformer manufacturing level, the economic benefits of new energy-saving power transformer and the return period of investment are analyzed. Finally, combined with energy-saving effect, the appropriate replacement proposal of 220 kV power transformers has been given.

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