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Wind Energy Assessment of the Zawiya Region, in Northwest Libya  [PDF]
Sarhan H. Alwan Hasan, Abdulmunim Guwaeder, Wenzhong Gao
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2017.96022
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to evaluate the annual, monthly and the seasonal performance of the wind resource at the Zawiya region in northwest of Libya. In this study, the wind data are obtained from the coastal site located in the northwest of Libya at height of 50 meters above the ground level. The results show that the annual average speed is 6.14 m/s, and the annual Weibull parameters are shape factor K = 3.2, scale factor C = 6.9 m/s, and the annual energy production of 750 kw wind turbine is 2.70 Gwh/year.
Three-Year Performance Evaluation of Single Junction Amorphous Solar Cells Grid-Connected Power Station in Libya  [PDF]
Ibrahim M. Saleh,Hamed M. Abufares,Haitham M. Snousi
Conference Papers in Science , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/950195
Abstract: Photovoltaic (PV) conservation of solar energy is one of the most promising sources of future energy. Grid-connected PV systems are widely used in many countries, but in Libya it is just started. A PV grid-connected of 24?KWP PV system has been installed as a pilot project to deliver AC energy to the Tripoli University electric grid; the system is of single junction amorphous solar cells which were erected in Sep. 2009; it consists of 240 Mitsubishi thin film amorphous PV Modules of MA100T2 type capable of supplying 100 Watts of DC power each, five inverters of type SMA Sunny Mini Central, and the system is equipped with a data logger to record all important parameters. In this paper the evaluation of the PV system performance was carried out according to the European guidelines of the PV system operation. The results of the measured parameters, namely, the performance ratio, AC energy yearly yield, the temperature dependent, and the system efficiency, showed that the system is performing better than the deigned parameters. 1. Introduction Early applications of PV systems were made as standalone PV systems, while at the end of the last century the era of grid-connected PV systems became a reality as a result of high fuel prices [1]. Research and development were focused on utilizing different technologies and PV systems for better performance toward a reliable and stable power sources for a sustainable future energy [2, 3]. In Libya standalone PV systems were put into work since 1976, in communication as a power supply for isolated repeater stations. Later applications came as rural electrification, water pumping, and cathodic protection; many studies have been conducted to evaluate the performance of utilizing standalone systems in Libya [4–6]; the evaluations of some of these systems showed that the systems were performing with very high performance ratio, and high global system efficiencies; in 2009 few grid-connected PV systems were installed to evaluate these kinds of applications with Libyan electric grid. One of the grid-connected systems which was installed in Tripoli University in 2009 is a 24?KWp single junction amorphous Solar Cells grid-connected power station. The construction of a 24?KWp grid-connected solar station came as a result of signing of a Memorandum of Understanding between Tripoli University and Mitsubishi Corporation. The system was constructed from 240 Mitsubishi thin film PV Modules of MA100T2 type capable of supplying 100 Watts of DC power each with a total area of 382.77?m2 [7]. The tilt angle of modules is equal to 25°.
Grid Code Requirements for Wind Power Integration in Europe  [PDF]
Constantinos Sourkounis,Pavlos Tourou
Conference Papers in Science , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/437674
Abstract: As the capacity of wind power continues to increase globally, stricter requirements regarding grid connection of wind generators are introduced by system operators. The development of wind turbine technology is inevitably affected by the new grid codes, and wind power plants are expected to support the grid and provide ancillary services much like conventional power plants. The most demanding regulations are found in Europe where wind penetration levels are higher. This paper presents the main aspects of current grid code requirements for the integration of wind power in European countries and suggests performance characteristics in order to satisfy the most demanding requirements. The dynamic behavior of wind turbines with doubly fed induction generators is investigated and a solution for low voltage ride through compliance is presented. 1. Introduction WIND power installations continue to increase worldwide, with a total installed capacity of 238?GW by the end of 2011, which meets about 3% of the global electricity demand, and an expected capacity of 500?GW by 2015 [1, 2]. In Europe, wind power generation is expected to contribute to EU’s 2020 targets for reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by more than 30% and to supply at least 14%–16% of Europe’s electricity [3]. The penetration of wind power in the electrical grids increases steadily in many European countries, with the highest percentage found in Denmark (28%), a country that has recently set the ambitious target to produce 50% of its electricity from wind turbines by the end of 2020. In order to maintain reliable grid performance with increasing wind penetration, transmission system operators (TSOs) update their grid connection codes with specific requirements regarding the operation of wind generators and wind farms. In general, wind farms are expected to support the grid and to provide ancillary services much like conventional power plants (e.g., active power control, frequency regulation and dynamic voltage control, and low voltage ride through (LVRT)). The requirements vary between countries and their severity usually depends on the wind power penetration level as well as on the robustness of the national or regional power network. Grid code requirements have been a drive for the development of wind turbine technology. Manufacturers in the wind energy sector are constantly trying to improve wind turbines, mainly in the area of wind turbine control and electrical system design, in order to meet the new grid code requirements. This can often imply higher costs, as more advanced power
Simulation the Wind Grid Code Requirements for Wind Farms Connection in Kosovo Transmission Grid  [PDF]
Ali Gashi, Gazmend Kabashi, Skender Kabashi, Skender Ahmetaj, Valon Veliu
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2012.46062
Abstract: This paper presents aspects of study and simulation approach for planned wind power projects in Kosovo Power System in relation with Grid Code requirements. All generators, connected to the Kosovo Transmission System are required to comply with the Grid Code. The Grid Code was originally developed with conventional synchronous generators. Since Wind Turbine Generators don’t have the same characteristics as synchronous generators, it was considered appropriate to develop a new set of Grid Code provisions specifically for Wind Farm Power Stations in relation with specific characteristic of Kosovo Power System. With high excepted penetration of wind power, a simultaneous loss of Wind Farms generation will put in the risk the security and reliability of Power System. Therefore, the main requirements for Wind farm power stations concern the fault ride through capability, frequency operation range, and reactive power capability of wind turbines. In the case of grid faults wind turbines have to supply a definite reactive power depending on the instantaneous voltage level of connection point and they must return quickly to normal operation.
Impact of the Fermeuse Wind Farm on Newfoundland Grid  [PDF]
Seyedali Meghdadi, Tariq Iqbal
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2015.76025
Abstract: This paper aims to study the impact of the Fermeuse wind farm (46°58'42\"N 52°57'18\"W) through simulation of wind turbines driven by doubly fed induction generator which feed AC power to the isolated utility grid of Newfoundland. The focus is on the determination of both voltage and system stability constraints. The complete system is modeled and simulated in Matlab Simulink environment.
Modelling and Simulation of Grid Connected Wind Energy System  [PDF]
Dr. D Mary,Shinosh Mathew,Sreejith K
International Journal of Soft Computing & Engineering , 2013,
Abstract: Modeling and simulation of a grid connected wind-driven electricity generation system has been done. The power conversion unit features a wind-turbine-driven PMSG, a diode rectifier, and a dc/ac inverter. The Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) offers better performance than other generators because of its higher efficiency and of less maintenance since they don’t have rotor current and can be used without a gearbox, which also implies a reduction of the weight of the nacelle and a reduction of costs. Therefore, in this paper the modeling and control of a PMSG is presented. All the components of the wind turbine and the grid-side converter are developed and implemented in MATLAB/Simulink.
Simulation of wind power with front-end converter into interconnected grid system  [cached]
Sharad W. Mohod,Mohan V. Aware
Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management , 2009, DOI: 10.3926/jiem..v2n2.p407-417
Abstract: In the growing electricity supply industry and open access market for electricity worldwide, renewable sources are getting added into the grid system. This affects the grid power quality. To assess the impact on grid due to wind energy integration, the knowledge of electrical characteristic of wind turbine and associated control equipments are required. The paper presents a simulation set-up for wind turbine in MATLAB / SIMULINK, with front end converter and interconnected system. The presented control scheme provides the wind power flow to the grid through a converter. The injected power in the system at the point of common coupling is ensured within the power quality norms.
AN OFF-GRID WIND ENERGY SYSTEM POWERING A RESIDENCE IN GAZA
ASSAD ABU-JASSER
Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation , 2010,
Abstract: Coastal and mountain areas enjoy high wind speeds in comparison to other areas and this makes them adequate for exploiting wind energy in various applications efficiently. Harnessing wind energy to power electric appliances starts by converting the energy coming from the wind to electricity. Wind turbine systems change the kinetic energy of the wind into electricity. Where the wind energy turns blades coupled mechanically to an electric generator which, in turn, produces electric energy. Building wind turbine systems for domestic applications is one avenue of the various applications. The process of structuring a wind-energy system begins with the design and selection of the equipment ratings. This process depends on a number of factors such as site location, wind speed, and load requirements. The equipment ratings must be carefully selected to ensure a proper and economical operation of the system. In this paper, this paper demonstrates the procedures employed in building and selecting the equipment of an off-grid wind-energy system based on the Watt-Hours demand as a basic design factor. As a case-study, an off-grid wind-energy system for a medium-energy-consumption residence in Gaza city will be presented.
Improving Electrical Power Grid of Jordan and Control the Voltage of Wind Turbines Using Smart Grid Techniques  [cached]
Nadeem Tareq Ahmad
International Journal of Applied Power Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.11591/ijape.v2i1.1789
Abstract: In this paper, we improved the national grid of Jordan country by adding a renewable resources specifically a wind turbines generation unites distributed on different places in Jordan to compensate the losses of the power in Jordan and to dispense with using the generation of fuel and gas by representing the national grid of Jordan in ETAB simulator and we solved the voltage problems of wind turbines using a new mythology using smart grid techniques
Analysis on the Characteristics of Wind Power Output in Hainan Power Grid  [PDF]
Jianfeng Wang, Dongmei Zhao
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2013.54B076
Abstract: It is of great importance to study the characteristics of wind power output for the healthy and secure & stable of power grid. Based on the actual operating data, the probability distribution of the power fluctuations of the wind farm in Hainanand the variation of wind power annual, seasonal, daily active output is analyzed. The study showed thatHainanProvincehas obvious seasonal variation of wind power output characteristics, higher levels of output of the year generally in winter or summer, spring and autumn to contribute small. The average wind power output will contribute to “low day and high night”, with certain peaking capacity. Shorter time scales, changes in the wind power to smaller amount, not to bring too much impact on system operation, while a long time fluctuations affect the scheduling and running on the grid.
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