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Cybersecurity Dynamics  [PDF]
Shouhuai Xu
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: We explore the emerging field of {\em Cybersecurity Dynamics}, a candidate foundation for the Science of Cybersecurity.
Statistical Microeconomics  [PDF]
Belal E. Baaquie
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: A statistical generalization is made of microeconomics in the spirit of going from classical to statistical mechanics. The price and quantity of every commodity1 traded in the market, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable: all prices and quantities are considered to be stochastic processes, with the observed market prices being a random sample of the stochastic prices. The dynamics of market prices is determined by an action functional and, for concreteness, a specific model is proposed. The model can be calibrated from the unequal time correlation of the market commodity prices. A perturbation expansion for the correlation functions is defined in powers of the inverse of the total budget of the aggregate consumer and the propagator for the market prices is evaluated.
Emergent Behavior in Cybersecurity  [PDF]
Shouhuai Xu
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: We argue that emergent behavior is inherent to cybersecurity.
Firm competition in a probabilistic framework of consumer choice  [PDF]
Hao Liao,Rui Xiao,Duanbing Chen,Matus Medo,Yi-Cheng Zhang
Quantitative Finance , 2013, DOI: 10.1016/j.physa.2013.12.026
Abstract: We develop a probabilistic consumer choice framework based on information asymmetry between consumers and firms. This framework makes it possible to study market competition of several firms by both quality and price of their products. We find Nash market equilibria and other optimal strategies in various situations ranging from competition of two identical firms to firms of different sizes and firms which improve their efficiency.
Empirical Evidence on the Determinants of Cybersecurity Investments in Private Sector Firms  [PDF]
Lawrence A. Gordon, Martin P. Loeb, William Lucyshyn, Lei Zhou
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2018.92010
Investments in cybersecurity are critical to the national and economic security of a nation. There is, however, a strong tendency for firms in the private sector to underinvest in cybersecurity activities. This paper reports the results of a survey designed to empirically assess whether treating cybersecurity as an important component of a firm’s internal control system for financial reporting purposes serves as a driver for private sector firms to invest in cybersecurity activities. The findings, in this regard, are significantly positive. The study also shows that a firm’s concern over the risk of incurring a large loss due to a cybersecurity breach and the degree the firm treats cybersecurity investments as generating a competitive advantage are drivers of the level of private sector investment in cybersecurity activities. The implications of the empirical results for designing public policies to mitigate the tendency of private sector firms to underinvest in cybersecurity are also explored.
Quantity Competition and Price Competition with a Duopoly in a Consumer-Friendly Firm: A Welfare Analysis  [PDF]
Yasuhiko Nakamura
Modern Economy (ME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/me.2013.411082

This paper conducts a welfare analysis in a duopoly with differentiated and substitutable goods composed of one consumer-friendly firm and one absolute profit maximizing firm. We suppose that the consumer-friendly firm maximizes the weighted sum of its absolute profit and consumer surplus. In such a duopoly, when the degree of product differentiation is sufficiently high and the weight that the consumer-friendly firm puts on consumer surplus in its objective function is sufficiently high, the equilibrium social welfare is larger in the quantity competition than in the price competition, which implies that the result is reverse of that obtained in the standard duopoly with substitutable goods composed of absolute profit maximizing firms.

Mathematical models and equilibrium in irreversible microeconomics
Anatoly M. Tsirlin,Sergey A. Amelkin
Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems , 2010,
Abstract: A set of equilibrium states in a system consisting of economic agents, economic reservoirs, and firms is considered. Methods of irreversible microeconomics are used. We show that direct sale/purchase leads to an equilibrium state which depends upon the coefficients of supply/demand functions. To reach the unique equilibrium state it is necessary to add either monetary exchange or an intermediate firm.
Quality Microeconomics
Jiancheng Liu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102566
Abstract: In traditional microeconomics, only the relationships between quantities and prices of products are taken into account, while the effects of products qualities on the prices, sales, production costs, utilization costs and environmental costs are scarcely or not considered. This paper discusses the differences and relations between the three parties of quality economics, quality economy analysis and quality economy, and sorts out the relevant research results in China and abroad. The paper analyzes the relationship among quality, price, demand and supply, introduces the value parameter, reconstructs the traditional formula for maximization of producer profit, and puts forward relevant policy suggestions: the government can supervise quality and environment by means of standards and taxation. With the stepwise perfection and increased strictness of standards, the quality level of a product will be higher and higher, and the environmental condition of a country or a region will be better and better. The quality level of a product is the most crucial factor affecting the producer profit and the social benefit.
Inda Sukati,Abu Bakar Abdul Hamid,Fazila Said
Business and Management Review , 2011,
Abstract: Supply chain management has become an important issue in any business organization. Organizations are facing increasing competitive pressure with respect to prices, delivery, quality, variety and innovation of products and services. In order to respond to these challenges, organizations require an integrated supply chain. The purpose of this research is to present the relationship between firm integration and supply chain orientation and supporting technology as moderating that relationship. The data collection instrument used was a questionnaire which was administrated to a total sample of 400 executive officers, directors, presidents, vice presidents, managers, and senior staff in fourteen South Sumatra areas. The response rate was 71% while 62% was usable questionnaires. Sample selection was based on convenience sampling. The data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and correlation between independent and dependent variables. The analyses involved statistical methods such as reliability and validity tests and multiple regressions. The results indicated that internal firm integration is related to customer orientation, competitor orientation, supplier orientation and logistic orientation. Firm-supplier integration is related to logistic orientation, operation orientation and value chain coordination. Firm-customer integration is also found to be related to all supply chain orientation components. The moderating influence of supporting technology on the internal firm integration and firm-supplier integration and supply chain orientation was not demonstrated. However, the moderating influence of supporting technology on the firm-customer integration and supply chain orientation did exist.
Consumer Choice, Firm Performance and Channel Coordination in a Dual-Channel Distribution System  [PDF]
Wei Song, Renwen Wang, Yelin Fu, Xiaobao Peng
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2014.44021
Abstract: The expanding role of the Internet in consumer purchasing activities has created substantial new opportunities accessing to end-consumers. More and more manufacturers are beginning to sell products to potential consumers directly online while continuing to sell through the traditional brick-and-mortar retailers, a phenomenon leading to intense channel competition and conflicts. Using game theory, this research examines the effect of market segments, consumer choice and the acceptance of direct online channels on firm performance and the whole system’s profit. The analysis indicates that the addition of direct online channel does not necessarily harm the incumbent retailers. A win-win zone is proposed, in which both the manufacturer and the retailer benefit from the encroachment.
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