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Two Dimensional Evolution Modeling of Source Rocks in the Chaluhe Basin, Yitong Graben  [PDF]
Obed Kweku Agbadze, Jiaren Ye, Qiang Cao
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2017.86045
Abstract: Yitong Graben in Jilin Province of China, hosts three basins, namely: Chaluhe, Luxiang and Moliqing basins. The Chaluhe basin, as the focal point of this study has five subdivisions, thus, Bo-Tai sag, Wanchang Structural high, Liangjia Structure high Xinanpu sag, and the Gudian slope, with a cumulative sedimentary rock thickness of about 6000 metres. The basin is supposed to be a potential hydrocarbon-producing basin with its better source rock distribution and more favorable maturation indicators than the adjacent Luxiang and Moliqing Basin. Determining whether the mudstone beds present in the Eocene Formations are matured enough to generate hydrocarbons, three (3) wells with Seismic Lines (clh02, clh05 and clh07) were used for the study. It is observed that the entire region from NW to SE in the source rocks is mature to produce oil and gas. At depths of about 2400 m and below show good maturity with vitrinite reflectance values averaging 1.02% Ro. The Eocene Shuangyang mudstone is the main petroleum source rock.
Modeling of Source Rocks in Moliqing Basin of Yitong Graben, Northeast China  [PDF]
Obed Kweku Agbadze, Jiaren Ye, Qiang Cao, Gerardo Emilio Di Trolio Bravo
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2019.104025
Abstract: Moliqing basin is a continental sedimentary basin in the northeast of China, between Changchun and Jilin. The source rocks characterization was done using the data of three wells to define the generative potential, kerogen type and thermal maturity. Basin Mod software was used for the models. The three Eocene source rock formations in the basin are Shuangyang, Sheling and Yongji. Shuangyang is the most important due to its quantity and maturity levels of kerogen with very good generative potential (TOC between 2% - 4%) towards the southern region of the basin. According to the Tmax values, all three source rocks reached the mature stage, and the levels increased from early mature for the Yongji formation, to late mature for some locations of the Shuangyang formation. The 1D and 2D modeling reconstructed shows that the heat flow developed in the basin laid between 64 and 78.1 mW/m2 and had maximum heat flow location towards the center of the basin.
Thermal History and Potential of Hydrocarbon Generated from Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Source Rocks in the Malita Graben, Northern Bonaparte Basin, Australia  [PDF]
Rakotondravoavy Jules, Ye Jia Ren, Cao Qiang
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2015.68073
Abstract: The Malita Graben is located in the northern Bonaparte Basin, between the Sahul Platform to the northwest and the Petrel Sub-basin and Darwin Shelf to the south. The wells Beluga 1, Heron 1, Evans Shoal 1, Evans Shoal 2 and Seismic Line N11805 are selected to determine the thermal history and potential of hydrocarbon generated from the Plover, Elang, Frigate Shale (Cleia and Flamingo), and Echuca Shoals formations source rocks. The modeling was performed by using Basin Mod 1-D and 2-D techniques. The model results show that the geothermal gradients range from 3.05 to 4.05°C/100 m with an average of 3.75°C/100 m and present day heat flow values from 46.23 to 61.99 mW/m2 with an average of 56.29 mW/m2. The highest geothermal gradient and present-day heat flow values occurred on a terrace north of the Malita Graben. These most likely indicate that hot fluids are currently variably migrating into this structure. The lower geothermal gradient and heat flow values have been modeled in the southeast sites in the well Beluga 1. The northern Bonaparte Basin experienced several deformation phases including lithospheric thinning; hence, heat flow is expected to vary over the geological history of the basin. The higher paleo-heat flow values changing from 83.54
Structural and Sedimentary Characteristics of Hydrocarbon-Rich Sags in Lacustrine Sub-Basin of Half Graben Type, Pearl River Mouth Basin, South China Sea  [PDF]
Lei He, Xiaolong Wang, Ningbo Cai, Jie Qu, Xiong Zhu, Daomao Lin
Open Journal of Yangtze Oil and Gas (OJOGas) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojogas.2019.43015
Abstract: Pearl River Mouth Basin undergoes complex tectonic evolution processes and forms lacustrine, transitional and marine sediments. Drilling shows that there exist large petroleum reserves in the hydrocarbon-rich sags of Pearl River Mouth Basin, South China Sea. To reduce the risk, the exploration, structural and sedimentary characteristics of the hydrocarbon-rich sags should be identified and described. Drilling, seismic, and microfossil data are integrated to interpret the structural and sedimentary evolution of the hydrocarbon-rich sags in Pearl River Mouth Basin. By analyzing the tectonic and sedimentary evolutionary characteristics, three conclusions may be drawn: 1) The present regional tectonic characteristics of the PRMB are formed by mutual interactions of the Eurasian Plate, Pacific Plate, Philippine Plate and Indian Plate. During the Paleocene to early Eocene and late Eocene and early Oligocene, the PRMB is at the rifting stage. During the late Oligocene, the PRMB was at the rifting-depression transitional stage. After the Oligocene, the PRMB is at the depression stage. 2) Tectonic conditions control the sedimentation process in the hydrocarbon-rich sags. During the lacustrine sedimentation stage, synsedimentary faults and intense faulting control the sedimentation. During the transitional sedimentation stage, weak fault activity influences the deposition process in the hydrocarbon-rich sags. During the marine sedimentation stage, weak fault activity and depression activity control the deposition process in the hydrocarbon-rich sags. 3) Tectonic evolution affects the deposition process. The lacustrine, transitional and marine sedimentation corresponds to different tectonic conditions. The lacustrine sedimentation is formed under fault activity during the rifting stage. The transitional sedimentation is formed under weak fault activity during the late rifting stage. The marine sedimentation is formed under weak fault activity and depression activity during the rifting-depression and depression stages. 4) The half graben is beneficial for the formation of lacustrine source rocks, which is responsible for the hydrocarbon-rich sag. Therefore the half graben mode contributes to the hydrocarbon-rich sags.
Tectonic setting of the Oh e/Eger Graben between the central part of the eské st edoho í Mts. and the Most Basin, a regional study
Cajz V,Vale?ka J
Journal of Geosciences , 2010, DOI: 10.3190/jgeosci.075
Abstract: The paper presents the results of a new detailed survey in the SW part of the eské st edoho í Mts. (a section of the Oh e/Eger Graben/Rift), focused on its tectonic setting. Courses of the SE marginal graben faults are traced in detail. This limiting fault zone is described as a horst, with the graben fill being structured into rhomboidal blocks; older known faults are specified, and new faults are depicted. Respecting the age ranges of the preserved stratigraphic units, fault movements are classified into those older than 36 Ma, younger than 24 Ma and younger than 16 Ma (with a possible age younger than 9 Ma), based on different lithologies and abrupt lithological changes (i.e., the rock boundaries). The faults are compared with the earlier-defined paleostress fields. Fault reversals were detected on several faults. An important role of crystalline basement ridges during the graben formation was identified: three complex tectonic structures are spatially associated with these ridges. Two areas with distinct tectonic and geological development were defined within the Oh e/Eger Graben. The Saxothuringian - Teplá-Barrandian terrane boundary was found to be less important for graben formation during the Cenozoic. This disagrees with simplified riftogenic model of the Oh e/Eger Graben. The supposed "Litomě ice Deep-seated Fault", possibly representing a first-order terrane boundary, cold not be confirmed in the post-Paleozoic rocks - this structure did not function as a fault during Cenozoic times.
Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Generated and Expelled from the Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Source Rocks in the Lynedoch Field, Northern Bonaparte Basin, Australia  [PDF]
Rakotondravoavy Jules, Jiaren Ye, Qiang Cao
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2016.74045
Abstract: The Lynedoch field is located on the west flank of the Calder Graben in the north-eastern Bonaparte Basin, Australia. The data from the wells Lynedoch 1 and Lynedoch 2 and Seismic Line N11809 were used to reconstruct the burial and thermal histories and evaluate the hydrocarbon generated and expelled from the Jurassic to Early Cretaceous source rocks of the study area. Basin Mod 1-D and 2-D softwares were used for modeling. The Upper Jurassic Cleia (Lower Frigate) and Lower Cretaceous Echuca Shoals formations source rocks in the well Lynedoch 1 were a fair-to-good source richness with poor hydrocarbon generating potential, showing kerogen type III and gas prone. The Middle Jurassic Plover Formation source rock in the well Lynedoch 2 was a good organic matter richness with poor hydrocarbon generative potential, the late Middle Jurassic (Callovian) Elang Formation source rock in the same well was a fair source rock with poor hydrocarbon generation potential, and the Lower Cretaceous Echuca Shoals Formation source rock in the same well was a fair-to-very good organic richness with poor-to-fair hydrocarbon generating potential, gas prone with kerogen type III, and reaching wet gas window at present day. These previous formations of the both wells generated oil at the Late Cretaceous and gas at the Early Neogene. But, only Echuca Shoals Formation source rock in the well Lynedoch 2 was able to expelled hydrocarbon at the Middle Paleogene and continued up to present day. This Formation represents fair to slightly good potential source rock in the Lynedoch field.
Hydrofracturing and episodic compaction of muddy rocks in sedimentary basin
Xinong Xie,Chiyun Wang,Sitian Li
Chinese Science Bulletin , 1998, DOI: 10.1007/BF02883572
Abstract: Hydrofracturing has been found in a numbr of sedimentary bahs throughout the world, which pay an important role in the migration of hydrocarbon and compaction of deposits in overpressured impermeable muddy rock. The forming proceses of hydmfracture in the basin evolution has been simulated and the associated episodic compaction of deposits has been evaluated. The modelling results indicate that episodic compacting process in impermeable rocks induced by hydrofracturing is an important way of sediment compaction.
Sucesión de eventos y geometría de la parte central del acuífero del graben de Villa de Reyes (San Luis Potosí, México) inferida a partir de datos geoeléctricos
Ramos-Leal, José Alfredo;López-Loera, Héctor;Martínez Ruiz, Víctor Julián;Aranda-Gómez, José Jorge;
Revista mexicana de ciencias geológicas , 2007,
Abstract: the geometry of the aquifer of the villa de reyes graben (san luis potosí, méxico) was inferred from the study of the underground electric properties in the la pila - jesús maría region. the results of 104 vertical electrical soundings (ves) were used to establish two georesistivity trends with n-s and ne-sw directions. the n-s trend is related to the san luis potosí graben and the ne-sw trend to the villa de reyes graben. the basement of the continental basins in these tectonic depressions is formed by volcanic rocks with resistivities (ρ) between 67 and >500 ωm. the lower values are interpreted as fractured rocks containing water, and the higher values as dry, unfractured basement. the san luis potosí and villa de reyes grabens are partially filled by upper cenozoic continental sediments. coarse-grained sediments, such as gravel and sand deposits, predominate in the southern portion of the studied area. these sediments have p values in the order of 21 to 35 ωm. in the northern part of the area, the coarsest deposits are restricted to the borders of the basin and the fine-grained sediments such as silt and clay, with p values of 10 to21 ωm- predominate toward the central part. three geoelectric pseudosections were prepared using apparent resistivity (ρa) values derived from the ves. on the basis of these pseudosections, a buried horst, probably related to the villa de reyes fault system, is inferred near the western border of the valley. the data derived from the pseudosections are also used to speculate about the tectonic events that led to the formation of the valley. it is proposed that the n-s trending san luis potosí graben is older and was partially overprinted in the area by the ne-sw trending faults of the villa de reyes graben.
Geological Conditions and Hydrocarbon Accumulation Processes in the Sahul Platform, Northern Bonaparte Basin, Australia  [PDF]
Rakotondravoavy Jules, Jiaren Ye, Qiang Cao
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2016.76061
Abstract: The Sahul Platform where the Sunset-Loxton Shoals and Chuditch gas fields were discovered is located between the Timor Trough to the north and the Malita Graben to the south. These areas are located respectively 440 km and 380 km northwest of Darwin in the northern Bonaparte Basin, Australia. Based on the structural evolution of the northern Bonaparte Basin, data from the wells Loxton Shoals 1, Sunset 1 and Chuditch 1 in the Sahul Platform and Heron 1 in the Malita Graben depocentre, and the Seismic Line N11606 were used to clarify the geological conditions and reconstruct the hydrocarbon accumulation processes in the study area. BasinMod 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D software was used for modeling. The Plover Formation source rock was a poor-to-good hydrocarbon generative potential and reached the middle to late mature oil window in the Sunset-Loxton Shoals field whereas in the Chuditch field, it was an overall fair-to-good hydrocarbon generative potential, and attained the Late mature oil window. The Flamingo, and the Echuca Shoals formations source rocks in the same field were a fair and good hydrocarbon generation potential respectively, and both reached mid-mature oil window. In the Malita Graben depocentre, the Petrel (Frigate) and the Echuca Shoals formations source rocks were a poor-to-very good hydrocarbon generating potential, and had attained wet gas window at the present day. The analyses of organic matter showed that the source rocks in the study area and Malita Graben were gas prone with kerogen types II2 & III and III predominantly. The Middle Jurassic Plover Formation sandstone reservoir in the Sunset-Loxton field was a poor-to-very good quality and potential for gas beds, and it was a very poor-to-very good quality and potential for gas beds in the Chuditch field. The intensities of gas generation and expulsion were more than of oil ones either in the Sahul Platform or in the Malita Graben. The Plover, Petrel (Frigate) and Echuca Shoals formations source rocks in the wells Chuditch 1 and Heron 1, except for the Flamingo Formation in the well Chuditch 1, had higher gas and oil expelling efficiencies than the Plover Formation source rock of the wells in the Sunset-Loxton Shoals field. The hydrocarbon migrated mainly from the Upper Jurassic Frigate Shale source rock in the Malita Graben depocentre (structurally lower) to the Plover Formation sandstone reservoir in the Sunset-Loxton Shoals field during the Late Cretaceous at 66 Ma. In the Chuditch field, the hydrocarbon migration to the Plover Formation sandstone reservoir was initiated during the
Hydrofracturing and episodic compaction of muddy rocks in sedimentary basin

Xinong Xie,Chiyun Wang,Sitian Li,

科学通报(英文版) , 1998,
Abstract: Hydrofracturing has been found in a numbr of sedimentary bahs throughout the world, which pay an important role in the migration of hydrocarbon and compaction of deposits in overpressured impermeable muddy rock. The forming proceses of hydmfracture in the basin evolution has been simulated and the associated episodic compaction of deposits has been evaluated. The modelling results indicate that episodic compacting process in impermeable rocks induced by hydrofracturing is an important way of sediment compaction.
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