Learning problems in the light of PASS
assessment and intervention were studied. Data for 248 subjects with specific
learning impairment (SLI), dyslexia, dyscalculia, and non-defined learning
difficulty were studied. Hierarchical
cluster analysis of PASS scores at baseline was performed. PASS re-assessment
was carried out at 6 and 12 months after 6-month period of intervention. Four
statistically different cluster groups were identified. All groups, except one,
showed cognitive weakness. Planning weakness, associated with other weakness,
appears involved in all groups except two where isolated planning and successive
weaknesses were identified, respectively. SLI, dyslexia, and dyscalculia are
not homogenous entities. A kind of dyslexia is clearly linked to isolated
successive weakness. SLI-expressive (SLIe) and a minority of both dyslexia and
dyscalculia appear linked to successive weakness although associated with
planning and additionally with attention in the case of SLIe.
SLI-expressive-receptive (SLIe-r) and Dyscalculia appear linked to simultaneous
weakness, although associated with planning weakness. Other kind of SLIe-r
appears linked to isolated planning weakness. Other types of SLIe-r and
Dyscalculia appear liked to combined planning + successive + attention
weakness. Isolated dysfunctional attention does not appear in any case. After 6 months of intervention, planning
improves statistically in all cases. Attention improves in few cases.
Successive and simultaneous do not improve. The best result is in dyslexia,
SLIe and a minority of Dyscalculia. The worst result is in those without
cognitive deficiency. The effect of intervention at 6 months remains with minor
changes at 12 months after 6 months without intervention.