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The Simulation and Animation of Virtual Humans to Better Understand Ergonomic Conditions at Manual Workplaces
Jürgen Rossmann,Christian Schlette
Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics , 2010,
Abstract: This article extends an approach to simulate and control anthro- pomorphic kinematics as multiagent-systems. These "anthro- pomorphic multiagent-systems" have originally been developed to control coordinated multirobot systems in industrial applica- tions, as well as to simulate humanoid robots. Here, we apply the approach of the anthropomorphic multiagent-systems to propose a "Virtual Human" - a model of human kinematics - to analyze ergonomic conditions at manual workplaces. Ergonom- ics provide a wide range of methods to evaluate human postures and movements. By the simulation and animation of the Virtual Human we develop examples of how results from the field of ergonomics can help to consider the human factor during the design and optimization phases of production lines.
Does Dexmedetomidine as a Neuraxial Adjuvant Facilitate Better Anesthesia and Analgesia? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  [PDF]
Huang-Hui Wu, Hong-Tao Wang, Jun-Jie Jin, Guang-Bin Cui, Ke-Cheng Zhou, Yu Chen, Guo-Zhong Chen, Yu-Lin Dong, Wen Wang
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093114
Abstract: Background Neuraxial application of dexmedetomidine (DEX) as adjuvant analgesic has been invetigated in some randomized controlled trials (RCTs) but not been approved because of the inconsistency of efficacy and safety in these RCTs. We performed this meta-analysis to access the efficacy and safety of neuraxial DEX as local anaesthetic (LA) adjuvant. Methods We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases from inception to June 2013 for RCTs that investigated the analgesia efficacy and safety for neuraxial application DEX as LA adjuvant. Effects were summarized using standardized mean differences (SMDs), weighed mean differences (WMDs) or odds ratio (OR) with suitable effect model. The primary outcomes were postoperative pain intensity and analgesic duration, bradycardia and hypotension. Results Sixteen RCTs involving 1092 participants were included. Neuraxial DEX significantly decreased postoperative pain intensity (SMD, ?1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI), ?1.70 to ?0.89; P<0.00001), prolonged analgesic duration (WMD, 6.93 hours; 95% CI, 5.23 to 8.62; P<0.00001) and increased the risk of bradycardia (OR, 2.68; 95% CI, 1.18 to 6.10; P = 0.02). No evidence showed that neuraxial DEX increased the risk of other adverse events, such as hypotension (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 0.83 to 2.85; P = 0.17). Additionally, neuraxial DEX was associated with beneficial alterations in postoperative sedation scores and number of analgesic requirements, sensory and motor block characteristics, and intro-operative hemodynamics. Conclusion Neuraxial DEX is a favorable LA adjuvant with better and longer analgesia. The greatest concern is bradycardia. Further large sample trials with strict design and focusing on long-term outcomes are needed.
Riaza Mohd Rias,Halimah Badioze Zaman
International Journal of Digital Information and Wireless Communications , 2011,
Abstract: Animation in multimedia is said to be beneficial to learning especially when the learning material demands visual movements. The emergence of 3- Dimensional animated visuals has extended the presentation mode in multimedia learning. It is said that animated visuals in a 3-D representation not only possess motivational value that promotes positive attitudes toward instruction but also facilitate learning when the subject matter requires dynamic motion and 3-D visual cue. The field of computer science, especially in operating systems concepts uses an array of abstract concepts such as virtual memory, paging, fragmentations etc to describe and explain the underlying processes. Various studies together with our own observations strongly indicate that students often find these concepts difficult to learn, as they cannot easily be demonstrated. This study investigates the effects of animation on student understanding when studying a complex domain in computer science, that is, the subject of memory management concepts in operating systems. A multimedia learning system was developed in two different versions: 2-D animation and 3- D animation. A hundred and one students took part in this study and they were assigned into one of these groups. All the students who took part in this experiment had low prior knowledge in this subject and after viewing the treatment, they were asked to take a test which tested them for recall and transfer knowledge. This test was used to determine if, in fact, improved learning actually occurred and which version of the animation produced the better outcome. Initial analysis of results indicates no statistical difference between the scores for the two versions and suggests that animations, by themselves, do not necessarily improve student understanding.
Effect of Animation Pedagogical Agent in Multimedia Learning: The Role of Learner's Experience and Agent Preference

- , 2016, DOI: 10.16187/j.cnki.issn1001-4918.2016.04.09
Abstract: 以往研究发现,动画教学代理对多媒体学习效果的影响不一致,可能受到学习者特征和偏好的调节。本研究以“空调的组成部分及工作原理”为实验材料,采用两个实验控制教学代理有无、经验高低和代理偏好,探讨动画教学代理对多媒体学习的影响。实验1发现与无代理组相比,代理组对教学视频的注视点个数更多,平均眼跳潜伏期更短,学习兴趣也更高;低经验者在代理条件下的迁移成绩更好。实验2发现学习者在偏好代理和非偏好代理条件下的迁移成绩好于无代理组;偏好代理组感知到更低的认知负荷,对总体视频的注视点个数和注视频率更多,平均眼跳潜伏期更短,对学习内容的注视点个数更多。结论认为:在多媒体中加入教学代理不会减少学习者对学习内容的注意,能提高多媒体学习效果,支持社会代理理论假设;教学代理能提高低经验者的学习效果,但对高知识经验者无明显作用;加入学习者偏好的代理形象会促进学习,但加入学习者非偏好的代理形象并没有阻碍学习。
Previous studies showed that the effect of Animated Pedagogical Agent (APA) in multimedia learning was debatable. In this study, animations related to the components and working principle of air conditioning were used as multimedia learning materials, and SMI RED 250 Eye tracker was used to record eye movement data. In experiment 1, A 2(Agent: APA vs. non- APA) × 2(Prior knowledge: high vs. low) between-subjects design was employed to investigate whether APA can improve learning and the effect of prior knowledge. In experiment 2, a single factor (preference APA, non-preference APA,non-APA) design was employed to investigate the influence of learners' preference for agent. Results of experiment 1 found that compared with no APA, learners in the APA condition had much more fixation count, shorter saccade latency average for animation, and also had higher learning interest. Learners with low prior knowledge in the APA condition outperformed non-APA on transfer tests, but not for learners with high prior knowledge. Results of experiment 2 found that learners in the preference group and non- preference group performed better on transfer tests than non-APA group. Learners in the preference group perceived lower cognitive load, and had more fixation count for air-condition. In conclusion, APA can promote multimedia learning performance for learners with low prior knowledge, but not for high prior knowledge. APA can facilitate learning when learners preferred the APA image, and can improve the learning performance without reducing the attention to the core learning material. So it supported the Social Agency Theory.
Does dalteparin PROTECT better than heparin?
Thomas Przybysz, David Huang
Critical Care , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/cc10581
Abstract: It is unclear whether there is a clinically significant advantage to prophylactic low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) versus unfractionated heparin (UFH) in mixed medical/surgical critically ill adult patients.Objective: To compare once daily dalteparin with twice daily unfractionated heparin for primary prophylaxis of proximal deep venous thrombosis in critically ill adults.Design: A superiority randomized double-blinded controlled trial from 2006 to 2010 in both medical and surgical ICUs. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT00182143)Setting: Multi-center, international medical and surgical intensive care units (ICUs)Subjects: Critically ill adults expected to remain in the ICU for at least 3 days.Intervention: Patients were randomized to either twice daily UFH or daily dalteparin for the duration of ICU admission.Outcomes: The primary endpoint was proximal leg deep venous thrombosis (DVT), at least three days after randomization, detected on twice weekly screening ultrasound. Secondary endpoints were: any DVT, pulmonary embolism (PE), venous thromboembolism (VTE), death, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), major bleeding, and composite death/VTE.Three thousand seven hundred and forty-six subjects were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Proximal leg DVT occurred in 96 of 1873 (5.1%) patients randomized to dalteparin versus 109 of 1873 (5.8%) patients randomized to UFH (hazard ratio in the dalteparin group, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68 to 1.23; P = 0.57). The incidence of PE was 1.3% in the dalteparin group compared to 2.3% in the UFH group (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.88; P = 0.01). There was no mortality difference and no difference in major bleeding between the two study arms. There was a statistically significant decrease in incidence of HIT in the dalteparin group in the per-protocol analysis, but not in the intention-to-treat analysis.Comparing the incidence of PE was a secondary endpoint and the study was not approp
A Better Look at Learning: How Does the Brain Express the Mind?  [PDF]
Frederic Perez-Alvarez, Alexandra Perez-Serra, Carme Timoneda-Gallart
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.410108

Learning problems in the light of PASS assessment and intervention were studied. Data for 248 subjects with specific learning impairment (SLI), dyslexia, dyscalculia, and non-defined learning difficulty were studied. Hierarchical cluster analysis of PASS scores at baseline was performed. PASS re-assessment was carried out at 6 and 12 months after 6-month period of intervention. Four statistically different cluster groups were identified. All groups, except one, showed cognitive weakness. Planning weakness, associated with other weakness, appears involved in all groups except two where isolated planning and successive weaknesses were identified, respectively. SLI, dyslexia, and dyscalculia are not homogenous entities. A kind of dyslexia is clearly linked to isolated successive weakness. SLI-expressive (SLIe) and a minority of both dyslexia and dyscalculia appear linked to successive weakness although associated with planning and additionally with attention in the case of SLIe. SLI-expressive-receptive (SLIe-r) and Dyscalculia appear linked to simultaneous weakness, although associated with planning weakness. Other kind of SLIe-r appears linked to isolated planning weakness. Other types of SLIe-r and Dyscalculia appear liked to combined planning + successive + attention weakness. Isolated dysfunctional attention does not appear in any case. After 6 months of intervention, planning improves statistically in all cases. Attention improves in few cases. Successive and simultaneous do not improve. The best result is in dyslexia, SLIe and a minority of Dyscalculia. The worst result is in those without cognitive deficiency. The effect of intervention at 6 months remains with minor changes at 12 months after 6 months without intervention.

Animation by Deformation
Rajan Periyanayagam,A. Arokiasamy
Asian Journal of Information Technology , 2012,
Abstract: This paper reviews the literature in the field of animation using deformation to illustrate the numerous approaches to simulate, control and display the realistic animation. It gives an introduction to the area and then proceeds to detail the various approaches used. Different types of deformation techniques are discussed briefly and techniques adopted by various authors are compared.
Does the mind map learning strategy facilitate information retrieval and critical thinking in medical students?
Anthony V D'Antoni, Genevieve Zipp, Valerie G Olson, Terrence F Cahill
BMC Medical Education , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6920-10-61
Abstract: In this quasi-experimental study, 131 first-year medical students were randomly assigned to a standard note-taking (SNT) group or mind map (MM) group during orientation. Subjects were given a demographic survey and pre-HSRT. They were then given an unfamiliar text passage, a pre-quiz based upon the passage, and a 30-minute break, during which time subjects in the MM group were given a presentation on mind mapping. After the break, subjects were given the same passage and wrote notes based on their group (SNT or MM) assignment. A post-quiz based upon the passage was administered, followed by a post-HSRT. Differences in mean pre- and post-quiz scores between groups were analyzed using independent samples t-tests, whereas differences in mean pre- and post-HSRT total scores and subscores between groups were analyzed using ANOVA. Mind map depth was assessed using the Mind Map Assessment Rubric (MMAR).There were no significant differences in mean scores on both the pre- and post-quizzes between note-taking groups. And, no significant differences were found between pre- and post-HSRT mean total scores and subscores.Although mind mapping was not found to increase short-term recall of domain-based information or critical thinking compared to SNT, a brief introduction to mind mapping allowed novice MM subjects to perform similarly to SNT subjects. This demonstrates that medical students using mind maps can successfully retrieve information in the short term, and does not put them at a disadvantage compared to SNT students. Future studies should explore longitudinal effects of mind-map proficiency training on both short- and long-term information retrieval and critical thinking.The amount of information that medical students are expected to master is voluminous[1]. Yet, there are limited learning strategies available to these students to master the volume of information required to succeed in medical school[2]. In recent years, the number of publications on learning strategies
An Analysis on the Diversified Extension Strategy for China’s Animation Industry  [cached]
Wenjie Li
Asian Social Science , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v5n3p178
Abstract: Based on the current development of China’s animation industry, this article explores the prospect of the diversified extension strategy for it and its industry chain. In addition, some successful cases in the relevant fields home or abroad are taken into consideration to analyze how to facilitate the further development of China’s animation industry in conformity with the reality.
Real-time animation of human characters with fuzzy controllers  [PDF]
Koen Samyn,Sofie Van Hoecke,Bart Pieters,Charles Hollemeersch,Aljosha Demeulemeester,Rik van de Walle
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: The production of animation is a resource intensive process in game companies. Therefore, techniques to synthesize animations have been developed. However, these procedural techniques offer limited adaptability by animation artists. In order to solve this, a fuzzy neural network model of the animation is proposed, where the parameters can be tuned either by machine learning techniques that use motion capture data as training data or by the animation artist himself. This paper illustrates how this real time procedural animation system can be developed, taking the human gait on flat terrain and inclined surfaces as example. Currently, the parametric model is capable of synthesizing animations for various limb sizes and step sizes.
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