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Prediction of the Favorable Area for the Development of Fracture in Mud-Shale of Wufeng-Longmaxi Formation in Jiaoshiba Area, Sichuan Basin  [PDF]
Qianqian Wang, Lu Wang
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2016.63014
Abstract: The main reservoir stratum of shale gas in the Jiaoshiba area, Sichuan basin is Wufeng-Longmaxi Formations. This paper calculates the tectonic difference stress values of JY1 well in different depths and numerically simulates the shale gas reservoir by elasto-plastic incremental method. The results of tectonic difference stress value suggest that the present tectonic stress values distribute strippedly in plane. The areas in favor of the development of fractures are stripped and mostly distributed in the northeast, middle and southwest of Jiaoshiba area, where the shale gas is concentrated.
Wild Medicinal Plants of Cholistan Area of Pakistan  [PDF]
M. Saleem Shafi,M. Yasin Ashraf,G. Sarwar
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: This communication reports the findings of survey of medicinal plants found in barren Cholistan area of Pakistan. Information is presented about 71 species belonging to 23 families which are common and widespread in the different wild and barren lands together with information on the use by local inhabitants and professional workers.
Assessment of HBsAg and AntiHCV in Some Area of Pakistan  [PDF]
Noor. A,M. Gulfraz,B. Aslam
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: A study was conducted to find out prevalence (level) of HBsAg and AntiHCV in six dense populated areas (Gujrat, Mirpur, Peshawar, Rawalpindi, Sialkot and Swat) of Pakistan. A total of 647 male individuals were tested for HBsAg and AntiHCV using macroparticle Enzyme Immuno Assay (MEIA). It was observed that out of 647 individuals about 21 (3.2%) were reactive for HBsAg while 38 (5.8%) were reactive for AntiHCV. Furthermore it was observed that hepatits C was found maximum in Rawalpindi district (7.1%) and HBsAg was lower than AntiHCV. Higher percentage of hepatitis in general population of Pakistan require strict measures to minimize further spread of this disease in human population. Therefore it was observed that rapid increase in the rate of this infection in population may cause high rate of movability, mortality and will become a challenge for all mankind throughout the world.
Shale Stone and Fly Ash Landfill Use in Landslide Hazardous Area in Sirnak City with Foam Concrete  [PDF]
Y?ld?r?m ?. Tosun
Geomaterials (GM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/gm.2014.44014
Abstract: Sirnak City and the surrounding areas are on steeper slopes. There are sliding large land masses or rocks. Underground water and harsh climatic conditions contain high risk hazard areas in urban living site with higher population density. In order to eliminate landslides and related events, significant precautions should be taken. The mapping of landslide risk may ease to take precautions. Even the application of landfill rock may reduce water content of soil. In this research, fly ash and Mine Waste shale stone were used with low density foam concrete. Waste mixture at certain proportions decreased cement use. Shale stone as fine aggregate instead of fly ash in specific proportions improved mechanical strength and porosity. Hence landslide hazardous area could be safer for urban living.
Indigenous Medicinal Knowledge of Medicinal Plants of Barnala area, District Bhimber, Pakistan  [PDF]
Aqeel MAHMOOD,Adeel MAHMOOD,Iradat HUSSAIN,Waqas Khan KIYANI
International Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants , 2011,
Abstract: This survey was aimed to collect the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used by the local community of Barnal area, district Bhimber, Pakistan. A total 32 plant species belonging to 17 families were reported, as medicinally valuable among all the survived plant species and data is presented here. It is concluded that local authorities and other funding agencies should promote the conservation of this natural resource of indigenous plants with the help of local people; otherwise this treasure is in danger to lose.
Taxonomic Studies of Tetriginae (Tetrigidae:Orthoptera) of Thal Area (Punjab) Pakistan  [PDF]
Abdul Majeed,Anjum Suhail,Arshed Makhdoom Sabir,Muhammad Yousuf
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: Six species and five genera, viz., Ergatettix, Euparatettix, Formosatettix, Hedotettix and Paratettix, of the tetrigids (pygmy grasshoppers) under the subfamily Tetriginae have been collected from various localities of Thal Area of the Punjab. Out of these, genus Formosatettix with the species F. larvatus is a new record from Pakistan, while the species, Hedotettix attenuatus, is a new record from the Punjab.
Taxonomic studies of grasses and their indigenous uses in the salt range area of Pakistan
F Ahmad, MA Khan, M Ahmad, M Zafar, A Nazir, SK Marwat
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: The present investigations were carried out in Salt Range area of Pakistan, regarding the morphology of grasses as an aid to their correct identification, their distribution and indigenous uses in the area. The study area is globally known by its large salt reserves and it has rich floral diversity. From the study area 62 species of grasses belonging to 11 tribes were collected. The largest tribe was Paniceae followed by Andropogoneae having 18 and 12 species, respectively. The grasses play an important role in economy of the people of the area. Mainly, grasses are used as fodder in the area; some grasses are used for thatching and for medicinal purpose. There is deterioration of the habitat of grasses due to overgrazing. In situ conservation is recommended for future research
Mapping the productive sands of Lower Goru Formation by using seismic stratigraphy and rock physical studies in Sawan area, southern Pakistan: a case study
Khyzer Munir,M. Asim Iqbal,Asam Farid,Syed Mohammad Shabih
Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technologies , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s13202-011-0003-9
Abstract: This study has been conducted in the Sawan gas field located in southern Pakistan. The aim of the study is to map the productive sands of the Lower Goru Formation of the study area. Rock physics parameters (bulk modulus, Poisson’s ratio) are analysed after a detailed sequence stratigraphic study. Sequence stratigraphy helps to comprehend the depositional model of sand and shale. Conformity has been established between seismic stratigraphy and the pattern achieved from rock physics investigations, which further helped in the identification of gas saturation zones for the reservoir. Rheological studies have been done to map the shear strain occurring in the area. This involves the contouring of shear strain values throughout the area under consideration. Contour maps give a picture of shear strain over the Lower Goru Formation. The identified and the productive zones are described by sands, high reflection strengths, rock physical anomalous areas and low shear strain.
The phytosociological analysis of saline area of Tehsil Ferozewala, District Sheikhupura (Punjab), Pakistan
MAR Syed, H Shahida, RA Shamsi, J Farkhanda
African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: This study is a broad ecological survey, and classification of the vegetation of Agro Farm plantations of a Tehsil Ferozewala (District Sheikhupura) Punjab, Pakistan. The vegetation survey description and classification was according to Zurich-Montpellier School of thought is based on over 300 Relevé Method. In all twelve associations i.e. Suaedetum fruticosae, Kochietum indicum Diplachnetum fuscae, Desmostochyetum bipinnatae, maurorae, Polypogaetum monspeliensae, Erythraeo-Polypogaetum monspeliensae, Veteviarietum cylindrieae, Scirpetum maritimae and Typhetum angustitae are recognized and each association is further sub-divided into sub-associations and classified into its respective class, order and alliances according to central European Phyto-sociological methods. Several relationships of the plant community types have been worked out during this study. The soil characteristics of each vegetation type are discussed in relation to soil texture; pH, Conductivity, Carbonates, Bicarbonates, Chlorides and Sulphate as well as ecological affinities of each association are also described. By reintegrating these trees and shrubs back into agriculture landscape to reverse salinity such as Atriplex amnicla, Tamarix aphylla, Phoenix dactilifera, Prosopis spp. Susbenia bispinasa, Sesbenia sesbena, Casorina, Grewia asiatie, Psidium guava etc. The incorporation of these plants (grasses, shrubs and trees) into agriculture land system of the Punjab has potential to increase crop, fiber, wood and animal production and degradation of land will also be halted.
Environmental Assessment of Ground Water Quality of Lahore Area, Punjab, Pakistan  [PDF]
Muhammad Naeem,Khalida Khan,Salma Rehman,Javad Iqbal
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The ground water quality of Lahore (Pakistan) has been assessed to see the suitability of ground water for domestic applications. Sixty ground water samples form shallow and deep wells were collected each during pre and post-monsoon seasons in the month of May and November 2004, respectively. Various water quality constituents pH, conductance, total dissolved solids, alkalinity, hardness, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, phosphate and fluoride have been determined. The data was analyzed with reference to NEQS and WHO standards, ionic relationships were studied and hydro chemical facies were determined. Distribution of various constituents indicates that about 10-20% samples of the study area crosses the maximum permissible limit for TDS, hardness, calcium, magnesium, sulphate and fluoride while 20-30% samples crosses the limit for nitrate. The ground water of the study area has also been classified to study various hydro chemical processes.
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