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The Effect of the California Tobacco Control Program on Smoking Prevalence, Cigarette Consumption, and Healthcare Costs: 1989–2008  [PDF]
James Lightwood, Stanton A. Glantz
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047145
Abstract: Background Previous research has shown that tobacco control funding in California has reduced per capita cigarette consumption and per capita healthcare expenditures. This paper refines our earlier model by estimating the effect of California tobacco control funding on current smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption per smoker and the effect of prevalence and consumption on per capita healthcare expenditures. The results are used to calculate new estimates of the effect of the California Tobacco Program. Methodology/Principal Findings Using state-specific aggregate data, current smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption per smoker are modeled as functions of cumulative California and control states' per capita tobacco control funding, cigarette price, and per capita income. Per capita healthcare expenditures are modeled as a function of prevalence of current smoking, cigarette consumption per smoker, and per capita income. One additional dollar of cumulative per capita tobacco control funding is associated with reduction in current smoking prevalence of 0.0497 (SE.00347) percentage points and current smoker cigarette consumption of 1.39 (SE.132) packs per smoker per year. Reductions of one percentage point in current smoking prevalence and one pack smoked per smoker are associated with $35.4 (SE $9.85) and $3.14 (SE.786) reductions in per capita healthcare expenditure, respectively (2010 dollars), using the National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) measure of healthcare spending. Conclusions/Significance Between FY 1989 and 2008 the California Tobacco Program cost $2.4 billion and led to cumulative NIPA healthcare expenditure savings of $134 (SE $30.5) billion.
Smoking habits of physicians in Enugu, Nigeria
TA Okeke
Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care , 2004,
Abstract: Background: Physicians are highly respected in their communities. They play a crucial role in issues related to health and people turn to them for advice and consultation. This study was therefore conducted to determine the prevalence of smoking among physicians in Enugu, Nigeria, a group of health professionals who should act as role models. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was carried out between June and July 2004 at a tertiary health facility located in Enugu, the capital of Enugu state in south-east Nigeria. Information was obtained with the aid of a self-administered structured questionnaire. Results: Of the 450 physicians contacted, 377 completed the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 83.8%. The mean age of the respondents was 30.9 years and majority 319(84.6%) were males. The physicians comprised of about 8 % current smokers, 13.3% ex-smokers and 78.8% who had never smoked. Majority (60%) of smokers began smoking before the age of 20 and reasons for starting included curiosity (55%), peer pressure (35%), stress of medical school (22.5%) and having a family member who smoked (10%). All respondents agreed that smoking is hazardous to health and majority recognized the association between smoking and various diseases. Non -smokers were more likely than smokers to counsel their patients on the dangers of smoking and to consider themselves as role models. This difference was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). Majority (60.5%) would recommend a ban on smoking in public places, 50.7% an increase in price of cigarettes and 31.3% prohibition of advertisement of cigarettes. Conclusion: Because of their important role as health educators, physicians should not smoke. It is highly recommended that smoking cessation training be implemented in medical schools and also be made available to practicing Nigerian physicians through continuing medical education. A national policy on tobacco control should also be developed and strictly enforced. KEY WORDS: Tobacco smoking; Physicians; Enugu Journal of Community Medicine & Primary Health Care Vol.16(2) 2004: 34-38
Cigarette Smoking and Dyspnea Perception
Rosi Elisabetta,Scano Giorgio
Tobacco Induced Diseases , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1617-9625-2-3
Abstract: Cigarette smoking has been implicated as an important risk factor for the development of respiratory symptoms in adults. The relationship of dyspnea with cigarette smoking has been examined in smokers and ex-smokers and the beneficial effects of smoking cessation have been demonstrated. Recent studies reported that in subjects who smoke cigarettes the risk of developing respiratory symptoms is higher in a dose-dependent way. Environmental tobacco smoke heavily influences the incidence of respiratory symptoms in both adults and in children. Up to the present time, the mechanisms whereby cigarette smoking causes dyspnea perception remain to be defined. Abnormalities in sensory nerves might diminish the perception of bronchoconstriction in smokers. In this regard, it has been postulated that prolonged exposure to cigarette smoke may lead to chronic depletion of sensory nerve neurotransmitters. Eosinophil airway inflammation has been proposed as a determinant of breathlessness via mechanisms affecting either the mechanical pathways that control breathlessness or the afferent nerves involved in perception of dyspnea. An increased number of eosinophils in some smokers implies the possibility that smoking may trigger immunological or other reactions associated with eosinophilia. In conclusion, cigarette smoking is by far one of the greatest risk factors for most respiratory symptoms, including dyspnea. Smoking is associated with the development of symptoms in a dose-dependent way and eosinophilia and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) increase the risk of developing dyspnea.
Cigarette Smoking and Fertility
S. Soares
Reproductive Biology Insights , 2012,
Abstract: A strong body of evidence indicates that the negative effect of cigarette smoking on fertility comprises fairly every system involved in the reproductive process. The impact of cigarette smoking on ovarian reserve is clearly evidenced by younger age at menopause of smokers. Tobacco compounds’ impairment of the process of ovarian follicle maturation is expressed by worse in-vitro fertilization parameters in cycles performed on women with smoking habits. Also, uterine receptiveness and tubal function are significantly altered by the smoking habit. In men, cigarette smoking reduces sperm production, increases oxidative stress, and DNA damage. Spermatozoa from smokers have reduced fertilizing capacity, and embryos display lower implantation rates. Couples at reproductive age should be strongly discouraged to smoke.
Cigarette smoking and DNA methylation  [PDF]
Ken W. K. Lee,Zdenka Pausova
Frontiers in Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2013.00132
Abstract: DNA methylation is the most studied epigenetic modification, capable of controlling gene expression in the contexts of normal traits or diseases. It is highly dynamic during early embryogenesis and remains relatively stable throughout life, and such patterns are intricately related to human development. DNA methylation is a quantitative trait determined by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genetic variants at a specific locus can influence both regional and distant DNA methylation. The environment can have varying effects on DNA methylation depending on when the exposure occurs, such as during prenatal life or during adulthood. In particular, cigarette smoking in the context of both current smoking and prenatal exposure is a strong modifier of DNA methylation. Epigenome-wide association studies have uncovered candidate genes associated with cigarette smoking that have biologically relevant functions in the etiology of smoking-related diseases. As such, DNA methylation is a potential mechanistic link between current smoking and cancer, as well as prenatal cigarette-smoke exposure and the development of adult chronic diseases.
Menthol and initiation of cigarette smoking
Rising Joshua,Wasson-Blader Kristina
Tobacco Induced Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1617-9625-9-s1-s4
Abstract: The use of tobacco products would not continue without the initiation of their use by youth and adults. Since the vast majority of cigarette smokers begin smoking by age 25, understanding the role of menthol cigarettes in the initiation of smoking in youth (under the age of 18) and young adults (aged 18–25) is especially relevant. Data demonstrate that menthol cigarettes are disproportionately used by youth and young adults. This review seeks to examine what role, if any, menthol plays in the initiation of cigarette smoking. Overall, there is a paucity of data on this topic. The data that do exist suggests that youth who have smoked for less than 1 year are more likely to smoke menthol cigarettes than youth who have smoked for more than 1 year. A lack of data prevents further conclusions on the role of menthol cigarettes in the initiation of smoking.
Cigarette Smoking in Iran
A Meysamie,R Ghaletaki,N Zhand,M Abbasi
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Cigarette smoking is the largest preventable cause of death worldwide. No systematic review is available on the situation of the smoking in Iran, so we decided to provide an overview of the studies in the field of smoking in Iranian populations.Methods: Published Persian-language papers of all types until 2009 indexed in the IranMedex (http://www.iranmedex.com) and Magiran (http://www.magiran.com). Reports of World Health Organization were also searched and optionally employed. The studies concerning passive smoking or presenting the statistically insignificant side effects were excluded. Databases were searched using various combinations of the following terms: cigarette, smoking, smoking cessation, prevalence, history, side effects, and lung cancer by independent reviewers. All the 83 articles concerning the prevalence or side effects of the smoking habit in any Iranian population were selected. The prevalence rate of daily cigarette smoking and the 95% confidence interval as well as smoking health risk associated odds ratio (OR) were retrieved from the articles or calculated.Results: The reported prevalence rates of the included studies, the summary of smoking-related side effects and the ORs (95%CI) of smoking associated risks and the available data on smoking cessation in Iran have been shown in the article.Conclusion: Because of lack of certain data, special studies on local pattern of tobacco use in different districts, about the relationship between tobacco use and other diseases, especially non communicable diseases, and besides extension of smoking cessation strategies, studies on efficacy of these methods seems to be essential in this field.
Cigarette Smoking and Dyspnea Perception
Elisabetta Rosi, Giorgio Scano
Tobacco Induced Diseases , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1617-9625-2-1-35
Abstract: The mechanisms responsible for inter-individual differences in dyspnea perception are difficult to clarify due to the wide variation in the perception of breathlessness present in normal subjects [1] in whom the experience of breathlessness may modify subsequent estimates of the symptom [2]. In a disease state, it may not be possible to identify these inherent inter-individual differences and this may confound attempts to identify the effects due to disease. Mechanical factors including respiratory muscle activity [3] associated with pulmonary hyperinflation [4-6], temporal adaptation [7-9] and bronchial hyperresponsiveness [7], psychological factors [10] or emotional and cognitive factors [11] have been proposed to influence the perception of dyspnea. Moreover, some recent reports [12-16] make a strong case for airway inflammation contributing to cover a part of the unexplained variability of the symptom.Cigarette smoking has been implicated as an important risk factor for the development of respiratory symptoms in adults [17]. On this topic significant results have been obtained from the group of Tucson. Krzyzanowski and Lebowitz [17] showed that subjects who continued to smoke during the 11 to 13 years of follow-up ran a two or three times higher risk of developing respiratory symptoms such as dyspnea and attacks of breathlessness compared with lifetime non-smokers. Krzyzanowski and Lebowitz [17] examined data from two longitudinal studies conducted in Cra-cow, Poland, and Tucson, Arizona, to assess the similarities in the relationship of symptoms to age and smoking habit in the two cities. The relationship of symptoms to smoking was similar in both cities, after adjustment for age and gender, with at least doubled incidence rates of most symptoms in continuous smokers compared to lifetime non-smokers. Furthermore, the same authors [18] investigated the relationship between persistence and incidence rates of respiratory symptoms and smoking cessation. Among 1,722
The effect of cigarette smoking on flexibility in Japanese  [PDF]
Kanae Oda, Nobuyuki Miyatake, Noriko Sakano, Takeshi Saito, Akihiko Katayama, Kenji Nishii, Takeyuki Numata
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.49089
Abstract: To investigate the link between cigarette smoking and flexibility in the Japanese population, we used data of 4234 men and 9169 women, aged 20-79 years, in this cross-sectional investigation study. Flexibility such as sit and reach were measured. In addition, habits of cigarette smoking and exercise were obtained by well-trained medical staff. The effect of cigarette smoking on flexibility was evaluated. A total of 1613 men (38.1%) and 995 women (10.9%) were having habits of cigarette smoking. Flexibility in men was decreased with aging and that in women increased with aging under 60’s. Flexibility in subjects with cigarette smoking was significantly lower than that in subjects without cigarette smoking even after adjusting for age and exercise habits in both sexes. Cigarette smoking might be modifiable factor of flexibility in the Japanese.
Cigarette Smoking and the Risk of Male Infertility  [PDF]
A. Hosseinzadeh Colagar,G.A. Jorsaraee,E. Tahmasbpour Marzony
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: In this research we investigated the effect of cigarette smoking on sperm parameters both before and after swim-up. Semen sample provided from fertile smoker (n = 25), fertile nonsmoker (n = 21), infertile smoker (n = 23) and infertile nonsmoker men (n = 32). Semen analysis was performed manually according to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards guidelines. Present research showed that sperm parameters quality in smoker men was approximately lower than nonsmoker men. As well as present research showed that cigarette smoking has dose dependent effect on sperm parameters, but this effect was not significant. Therefore, it appears that cigarette smoking is associated with reduced sperm quality and the risk of idiopathic male infertility in smoker men.
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