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Effects of Yanghe Decoction on vascular endothelial growth factor in cartilage cells of osteoarthritis rabbits  [cached]
Zhao-wei CHEN,Yong-qiang CHEN
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao , 2008,
Abstract: Objective: To observe the effects of Yanghe Decoction on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cartilage cells of osteoarthritis rabbits.Methods: Fifteen New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into normal group, untreated group and Yanghe Decoction-treated group. The rabbit model of osteoarthritis was established according to Hulth's method. The rabbits were sacrificed at the 8th week after administration of Yanghe Decoction for 14 days, and then rabbit tibia articular cartilage was removed. Sections of the cartilage were stained with Safranin O for histological examination. The cartilage histological characteristics were observed according to the method of Mankin. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to investigate the expression of VEGF. Articular cartilages were observed with microscopy and image analysis method was used to measure the expression intensity of VEGF.Results: There were significant differences in Mankin score between normal group and untreated group (P<0.01), and between untreated group and Yanghe Decoction-treated group (P<0.01). Immunohistochemical staining indicated that the expression intensity of VEGF in untreated group was significantly increased as compared with that in normal group (P<0.01), and also obviously higher than Yanghe Decotion-treated group.Conclusion: VEGF plays an important role during early stage of OA. Yanghe Decoction can protect the articular cartilage through suppressing the VEGF expression in chondrocytes and then suppress angiogenesis.
Prefabrication of 3D Cartilage Contructs: Towards a Tissue Engineered Auricle – A Model Tested in Rabbits  [PDF]
Achim von Bomhard, Johannes Veit, Christian Bermueller, Nicole Rotter, Rainer Staudenmaier, Katharina Storck, Hoang Nguyen The
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071667
Abstract: The reconstruction of an auricle for congenital deformity or following trauma remains one of the greatest challenges in reconstructive surgery. Tissue-engineered (TE) three-dimensional (3D) cartilage constructs have proven to be a promising option, but problems remain with regard to cell vitality in large cell constructs. The supply of nutrients and oxygen is limited because cultured cartilage is not vascular integrated due to missing perichondrium. The consequence is necrosis and thus a loss of form stability. The micro-surgical implantation of an arteriovenous loop represents a reliable technology for neovascularization, and thus vascular integration, of three-dimensional (3D) cultivated cell constructs. Auricular cartilage biopsies were obtained from 15 rabbits and seeded in 3D scaffolds made from polycaprolactone-based polyurethane in the shape and size of a human auricle. These cartilage cell constructs were implanted subcutaneously into a skin flap (15×8 cm) and neovascularized by means of vascular loops implanted micro-surgically. They were then totally enhanced as 3D tissue and freely re-implanted in-situ through microsurgery. Neovascularization in the prefabricated flap and cultured cartilage construct was analyzed by microangiography. After explantation, the specimens were examined by histological and immunohistochemical methods. Cultivated 3D cartilage cell constructs with implanted vascular pedicle promoted the formation of engineered cartilaginous tissue within the scaffold in vivo. The auricles contained cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) components, such as GAGs and collagen even in the center oft the constructs. In contrast, in cultivated 3D cartilage cell constructs without vascular pedicle, ECM distribution was only detectable on the surface compared to constructs with vascular pedicle. We demonstrated, that the 3D flaps could be freely transplanted. On a microangiographic level it was evident that all the skin flaps and the implanted cultivated constructs were well neovascularized. The presented method is suggested as a promising alternative towards clinical application of engineered cartilaginous tissue for plastic and reconstructive surgery.
Is the repair of articular cartilage lesion by costal chondrocyte transplantation donor age-dependent? An experimental study in rabbits.  [cached]
Pawe? Szeparowicz,Janusz Popko,Bogus?aw Sawicki,S?awomir Wo?czyński
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica , 2006, DOI: 10.5603/4568
Abstract: The repair of chondral injuries is a very important problem and a subject of many experimental and clinical studies. Different techniques to induce articular cartilage repair are under investigation. In the present study, we have investigated whether the repair of articular cartilage folowing costal chondrocyte transplantation is donor age-dependent. Transplantation of costal chondrocytes from 4- and 24-week old donors, with artificially induced femoral cartilage lesion, was performed on fourteen 20-week-old New Zealand White male rabbits. In the control group, the lesion was left without chondrocyte transplantation. The evaluation of the cartilage repair was performed after 12 weeks of transplantation. We analyzed the macroscopic and histological appearance of the newly formed tissue. Immunohistochemistry was also performed using monoclonal antibodies against rabbit collagen type II. The newly formed tissue had a hyaline-like appearance in most of the lesions after chondrocyte transplantation. Positive immunohistochemical reaction for collagen II was also observed in both groups with transplanted chondrocytes. Cartilage from adult donors required longer isolation time and induced slightly poorer repair. However, hyaline-like cartilage was observed in most specimens from this group, in contrast to the control group, where fibrous connective tissue filled the lesions. Rabbit costal chondrocytes seem to be a potentially useful material for inducing articular cartilage repair and, even more important, they can also be derived from adult, sexually mature animals.
Evaluation of Autogenous Engineered Septal Cartilage Grafts in Rabbits: A Minimally Invasive Preclinical Model  [PDF]
Anton Kushnaryov,Tomonoro Yamaguchi,Kristen K. Briggs,Van W. Wong,Marsha Reuther,Monica Neuman,Victor Lin,Robert L. Sah,Koichi Masuda,Deborah Watson
Advances in Otolaryngology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/415821
Abstract: Objectives. (1) Evaluate safety of autogenous engineered septal neocartilage grafts and (2) compare properties of implanted grafts versus controls. Study Design. Prospective, basic science. Setting. Research laboratory. Methods. Constructs were fabricated from septal cartilage and then cultured in vitro or implanted on the nasal dorsum as autogenous grafts for 30 or 60 days. Rabbits were monitored for local and systemic complications. Histological, biochemical, and biomechanical properties of constructs were evaluated. Results. No serious complications were observed. Implanted constructs contained more DNA ( ) and less sGAG perDNA ( ) when compared with in vitro controls. Confined compressive aggregate moduli were also higher in implanted constructs ( ) and increased with longer in vivo incubation time ( ). Implanted constructs displayed resorption rates of 20–45 percent. Calcium deposition in implanted constructs was observe. Conclusion. Autogenous engineered septal cartilage grafts were well tolerated. As seen in experiments with athymic mice, implanted constructs accumulated more DNA and less sGAG when compared with in vitro controls. Confined compressive aggregate moduli were higher in implanted constructs. Implanted constructs displayed resorption rates similar to previously published studies using autogenous implants of native cartilage. 1. Introduction Craniofacial defects created from tumor resection, traumatic loss, or congenital deformities frequently require complex surgical reconstruction to rebuild missing cartilage and bony support. A variety of autologous, allogeneic, and synthetic grafts have traditionally been used to provide structural support in these procedures [1–4]. While certainly useful in specific situations, each grafting material has drawbacks. Allogeneic grafts carry the risks of immune rejection and the potential for disease transmission. The use of synthetic materials can be complicated by infection and extrusion. Anecdotally, autologous grafts are favored by many reconstructive surgeons. Cartilaginous autografts are a commonly used structural support medium; various donor sites including rib, auricle, and nasal septum are all currently in use [5–7]. Nasal septal cartilage offers important advantages over other cartilage types due to its favorable mechanical properties, ease of harvest, and minimal donor site morbidity. However, its use remains limited by several factors. These include the limited amount of tissue available and a predetermined, potentially suboptimal, semirigid geometric structure. Tissue engineering of
Selection of Suitable Reference Genes for Normalization of Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Cartilage Tissue Injury and Repair in Rabbits  [PDF]
Xiao-Xiang Peng,Rong-Lan Zhao,Wei Song,Hai-Rong Chu,Meng Li,Shu-Ya Song,Guang-Zhou Li,Dong-Chun Liang
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijms131114344
Abstract: When studying the altered expression of genes associated with cartilage regeneration by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR), reference genes with highly stable expression during different stages of chondrocyte developmental are necessary to normalize gene expression accurately. Until now, no reports evaluating expression changes of commonly used reference genes in rabbit articular cartilage have been published. In this study, defects were made in rabbit articular cartilage, with or without insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) treatment, to create different chondrocyte living environments. The stability and intensity of the expressions of the candidate reference genes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase ( GAPDH), 18S Ribosomal RNA ( 18S rRNA), cyclophilin ( CYP), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase ( HPRT1), and β-2-microglobulin ( B2M) were evaluated. The data were analyzed by geNorm and NormFinder. B2M and 18S rRNA were identified to be suitable reference genes for rabbit cartilage tissues.
Efficacy and Safety of Percutaneous Epiphysiodesis Operation around the Knee to Reduce Adult Height in Extremely Tall Adolescent Girls and Boys  [cached]
Benyi Emelie,Berner Maria,Bjernekull Inger,Boman Anders
International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1687-9856-2010-740629
Abstract: Objective. The aim was to determine efficacy and safety of a surgical method to reduce adult height in extremely tall adolescents. Methods. Data for all girls () and boys () in our center subjected to bilateral percutaneous epiphysiodesis around the knee who had reached final height were included. Final height predictions were based on hand and wrist X-rays before surgery. Results. When compared to prediction, adult height was reduced by cm in treated girls () and cm in treated boys () corresponding to a % and % reduction of remaining growth, respectively. Besides mild to moderate postoperative pain reported in 9 operated individuals, no other side effects were reported. Postoperative X-rays confirmed growth plate closure and absence of leg angulations. Conclusions. Bilateral epiphysiodesis is an effective and safe method to reduce adult height in extremely tall girls and boys.
Acute osteomyelitis of the acetabulum induced by Staphylococcus capitis in a young athlete  [cached]
Seiji Fukuda,Keisuke Wada,Kenji Yasuda,Junji Iwasa
Pediatric Reports , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/pr.2010.e2
Abstract: Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHOM) of the acetabulum is a rare condition in children and usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus. We present an 11-year-old soccer athlete who suffered from acute osteomyelitis involving the acetabulum caused by S. capitis, a normal flora of the human skin but never reported in this condition. The disease was associated with repetitive skin injuries of the knee and potential osseous microtrauma of the hip joint by frequent rigorous exercise. This unusual case suggests that osseous microtrauma of the acetabulum, in addition to repetitive skin injuries, allowed normal skin flora to colonize to the ipsilateral acetabulum, which served as a favorable niche and subsequently led to AHOM.
Assessment of acetabulum anteversion aligned with the transverse acetabulum ligament: cadaveric study using image-free navigation system  [cached]
Tomokazu Fukui,Shigeo Fukunishi,Shoji Nishio,Yuki Fujihara
Orthopedic Reviews , 2013, DOI: 10.4081/or.2013.e5
Abstract: The transverse acetabulum ligament (TAL) has been used as an intraoperative anatomical landmark to position the acetabulum cup in total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, the validity of the use of TAL has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to examine the orientation of the cup component aligned with the TAL in cadaveric study. The 31 hips in 25 whole-body embalmed cadavers were examined. The donors were 12 men and 13 women. Simulated THA procedure using image-free navigation system was performed and a trial cup with a diameter of approximately 2 mm less than the size of the acetabulum were inserted and snugly fitted on the TAL through the posterior wall of acetabulum. The orientation of the cup component was measured using an image-free THA navigation system. The measured radiographic anteversion and inclination angles averaged 18.2±7.2° (range: 2.0-33.2°) and 43.5±4.2° (range: 33.1-51.0°) respectively. Based on the Lewinnek’s safe zone criteria, 26 hips (80.6%) were judged to be within the. Moreover, in the analysis of the gender difference of TAL angles, the average anteversion angle was shown to be significant larger in female than male population. The TAL can be effectively used an intraoperative landmark to align the acetabulum component helping reduce the risk of dislocation after surgery. In the intraoperative judgment, a gender difference in the alignment of the TAL should be taken into consideration.
Expressions of interleukin-1 beta and matrix metalloproteinase-13 in articular cartilage and synovial fluid of osteoarthritis model in rabbits

- , 2017, DOI: 10.7652/jdyxb201704008
Abstract: 摘要:目的 评价兔膝关节内侧半月板损伤制作骨关节炎(OA)模型的方法的可行性,探讨白细胞介素-1β(IL-1β)和金属蛋白酶-13(MMP-13)在兔骨关节炎模型软骨和滑液病变中的作用机制。方法 新西兰大白兔40只,随机分为实验组(n=30)和对照组(n=10),于术后2、6、12周观察股骨髁关节软骨的病理变化并进行评分;用免疫组化方法检测关节软骨中IL-1β和MMP-13的表达情况;用酶联免疫吸附法测定关节液中IL-1和MMP-13的含量。结果 实验组和对照组在大体和病理观察不同时间点关节软骨评分及HE染色差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。免疫组织化学检测结果显示IL-1β在两组中均有表达,实验组和对照组2周时细胞分数差异无统计学意义,6、12周差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。MMP-13在对照组关节软骨细胞中未见表达,实验组的关节软骨细胞中可见MMP-13蛋白的表达,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。关节滑液中IL-1β表达和在软骨中表达一致。结论 采用损伤兔膝关节半月板的方法可建立合理的动物OA模型;IL-1β和MMP-13在OA发病过程中表达水平有明显变化,需要进一步的临床研究来探讨其是否可以作为早期诊断OA的指标之一。
ABSTRACT: Objective To investigate the feasibility of osteoarthritis (OA) model in rabbits by injuring medial meniscus so as to understand the role of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) in pathological mechanism of articular cartilage and synovial fluid of OA model in rabbits. Methods We randomly divided 40 New Zealand white rabbits into experimental group (n=30) and control group (n=10). Pathological changes in articular cartilage of the femoral condyle were scored at weeks 2, 6 and 12 after surgery. We detected the expressions of IL-1β and MMP-13 by immunohistochemistry. The cell fractions of IL-1β and MMP-13 were recorded by ELISA. Results The articular cartilage score and HE staining significantly differed at various time points of gross and pathological observation between control group and experimental group (P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry showed that IL-1β was expressed in both groups and that the cell fraction differed significantly at weeks 6 and 12 ??(P<0.05),?? but not at week 2 between the two groups. MMP-13 protein expression was not detected in articular condrocytes in control group, but was detected in experiment group with a significant difference (P<0.05). IL-1β expression was consistent in articular cartilage and synovial fluid. Conclusion The reasonable rabbit animal OA model could be established by knee meniscus injury caused by surgical method. Expressions of IL-1β and MMP-13 change obviously in the pathomechanism of OA. Further clinical studies are needed to determine whether they can be used as markers in early diagnosis of OA
Percutaneous cartilage injection: A prospective animal study on a rabbit model
Olivier X Beaudoin, Andrew Mitchell, Akram Rahal
Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1916-0216-42-7
Abstract: Auricular cartilage was harvested bilaterally in 10 New Zealand white rabbits. A 1 cm2 cartilage graft was implanted surgically on the upper nasal dorsum. The remaining cartilage was crushed and percutaneously injected on the lower nasal dorsum. Volume and mass of each graft were compared between pre-implantation and after 3 months of observation. A histological study was conducted to evaluate chondrocyte viability and degree of fibrosis on pre and post-implantation cartilage.Mass and volume remained similar for surgically implanted cartilage grafts. Mass and volume diminished by an average of 47% and 40% respectively after 3 months for the injected crushed cartilage grafts. Chondrocyte viability was an average of 25% lower in the injected grafts.Cartilage injection is a promising technique that must be refined to increase chondrocyte viability. Developing an appropriate injection apparatus would improve this technique.
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