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Resource Usage Analysis for the Pi-Calculus  [PDF]
Naoki Kobayashi,Kohei Suenaga,Lucian Wischik
Computer Science , 2006, DOI: 10.2168/LMCS-2(3:4)2006
Abstract: We propose a type-based resource usage analysis for the π-calculus extended with resource creation/access primitives. The goal of the resource usage analysis is to statically check that a program accesses resources such as files and memory in a valid manner. Our type system is an extension of previous behavioral type systems for the π-calculus, and can guarantee the safety property that no invalid access is performed, as well as the property that necessary accesses (such as the close operation for a file) are eventually performed unless the program diverges. A sound type inference algorithm for the type system is also developed to free the programmer from the burden of writing complex type annotations. Based on the algorithm, we have implemented a prototype resource usage analyzer for the π-calculus. To the authors' knowledge, ours is the first type-based resource usage analysis that deals with an expressive concurrent language like the pi-calculus.
Developing an ecologically and economically more stable semi-domestic reindeer management - a Finnish point of view
Jouko Kumpula
Rangifer , 1999,
Abstract: In arctic and sub-arctic regions semi-domestic reindeer management forms an important livelihood which should be able to provide enough income for herders. Reindeer management has natural limits of growth. Consequently it should be managed to optimise both the use of reindeer pastures and herder income. Reindeer pastures should be grazed at the economic carrying capabity level. This gives the maximum sustained harvest from reindeer stock and also the maximum sustained foraging from pastures. How is this to be accomplished? First, reliable knowledge about reindeer pastures in time and place is necessary: to estimate the quantity and quality of specific reindeer pastures within each management district, as well as the productive capacity and the changes in condition and productivity of those pastures. Secondly, data is needed on the accurate productivity of reindeer stock and the production costs for each management district. Thirdly, study the relationships between pasture resources and productivity of reindeer stock together with the effects of long-term reindeer densities on pasture condition and productivity. Finally, knowledge is needed about the effects of herd structure on reindeer stock productivity as well as the factors which restrict the use of reindeer pastures. Models based on adequate data could provide a useful tool for optimising the use of reindeer pastures and herder income. First the economic carrying capacity of reindeer pastures should be studied. Subsequently the economy of reindeer husbandry could be modelled with respect to reindeer stock density. Also the economy of reindeer husbandry based on different levels of feeding, and the effects of this husbandry practice on pastures, should be modelled. Models should be accurate and flexible enough to use when looking for solutions to practical questions and challenges in reindeer management.
The Application of a Data Mining Framework to Energy Usage Profiling in Domestic Residences using UK data  [PDF]
Ian Dent,Uwe Aickelin,Tom Rodden
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: This paper describes a method for defining representative load profiles for domestic electricity users in the UK. It considers bottom up and clustering methods and then details the research plans for implementing and improving existing framework approaches based on the overall usage profile. The work focuses on adapting and applying analysis framework approaches to UK energy data in order to determine the effectiveness of creating a few (single figures) archetypical users with the intention of improving on the current methods of determining usage profiles. The work is currently in progress and the paper details initial results using data collected in Milton Keynes around 1990. Various possible enhancements to the work are considered including a split based on temperature to reflect the varying UK weather conditions.
Simulation of Resource Usage in Parallel Evolutionary Peptide Optimization using JavaSpaces Technology  [PDF]
Andias Wira-Alam
Computer Science , 2009,
Abstract: Peptide Optimization is a highly complex problem and it takes very long time of computation. This optimization process uses many software applications in a cluster running GNU/Linux Operating System that perform special tasks. The application to organize the whole optimization process had been already developed, namely SEPP (System for Evolutionary Pareto Optimization of Peptides/Polymers). A single peptide optimization takes a lot of computation time to produce a certain number of individuals. However, it can be accelerated by increasing the degree of parallelism as well as the number of nodes (processors) in the cluster. In this master thesis, I build a model simulating the interplay of the programs so that the usage of each resource (processor) can be determined and also the approximated time needed for the overall optimization process. There are two Evolutionary Algorithms that could be used in the optimization, namely Generation-based and Steady-state Evolutionary Algorithm. The results of each Evolutionary Algorithm are shown based on the simulations. Moreover, the results are also compared by using different parameters (the degree of parallelism and the number of processors) in the simulation to give an overview of the advantages and the disadvantages of the algorithms in terms of computation time and resource usage. The model is built up using JavaSpaces Technology.
Analysis and Clustering of Workload in Google Cluster Trace based on Resource Usage  [PDF]
Mansaf Alam,Kashish Ara Shakil,Shuchi Sethi
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Cloud computing has gained interest amongst commercial organizations, research communities, developers and other individuals during the past few years.In order to move ahead with research in field of data management and processing of such data, we need benchmark datasets and freely available data which are publicly accessible. Google in May 2011 released a trace of a cluster of 11k machines referred as Google Cluster Trace.This trace contains cell information of about 29 days.This paper provides analysis of resource usage and requirements in this trace and is an attempt to give an insight into such kind of production trace similar to the ones in cloud environment.The major contributions of this paper include Statistical Profile of Jobs based on resource usage, clustering of Workload Patterns and Classification of jobs into different types based on k-means clustering.Though there have been earlier works for analysis of this trace, but our analysis provides several new findings such as jobs in a production trace are trimodal and there occurs symmetry in the tasks within a long job type
Resource Usage Estimation of Data Stream Processing Workloads in Datacenter Clouds  [PDF]
Alireza Khoshkbarforoushha,Rajiv Ranjan,Raj Gaire,Prem P. Jayaraman,John Hosking,Ehsan Abbasnejad
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Real-time computation of data streams over affordable virtualized infrastructure resources is an important form of data in motion processing architecture. However, processing such data streams while ensuring strict guarantees on quality of services is problematic due to: (i) uncertain stream arrival pattern; (ii) need of processing different types of continuous queries; and (iii) variable resource consumption behavior of continuous queries. Recent work has explored the use of statistical techniques for resource estimation of SQL queries and OLTP workloads. All these techniques approximate resource usage for each query as a single point value. However, in data stream processing workloads in which data flows through the graph of operators endlessly and poses performance and resource demand fluctuations, the single point resource estimation is inadequate. Because it is neither expressive enough nor does it capture the multi-modal nature of the target data. To this end, we present a novel technique which uses mixture density networks, a combined structure of neural networks and mixture models, to estimate the whole spectrum of resource usage as probability density functions. The proposed approach is a flexible and convenient means of modeling unknown distribution models. We have validated the models using both the linear road benchmark and the TPC-H, observing high accuracy under a number of error metrics: mean-square error, continuous ranked probability score, and negative log predictive density.
High Availability Solution: Resource Usage Management in Virtualized Software Aging  [PDF]
Aye Myat Myat Paing,Ni Lar Thein
International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology , 2012,
Abstract: As businesses increasingly rely on IT for their mission-critical operations, continuous availability is auniversal concern. Nowadays, virtualized platform has become the popular option to deploy complexenough services. Deployed services are expected to be always, available, but these long running servicesare especially sensitive to suffer from software aging phenomenon. Software aging of virtual machinemonitors (VMMs) is becoming critical because performance degradation or crash failure of a VMM affectsall virtual machines (VMs) on it. To counteract this issue, we deploy software rejuvenation methodology.To eliminate the service outage during software rejuvenation process, we combine the rejuvenation withlive migration technology. Live VM migration enables a running VM on a host serer to move onto the otherhost server with very small interruption of the execution. Live VM migration depends on VMs placementand efficient resource available is required. The idea behind our paper is two-fold. First, we present theoptimization of the resource usage as accepting as many services as in virtualized environment whichsupport of VM live migration. Second, to demonstrate how much it can improve system availability, thestochastic Petri nets model a virtualized server system in case of using time based software rejuvenation forVMM is presented. Finally, we perform the numerical analysis to evaluate the model.
Survivable MPLS Over Optical Transport Networks: Cost and Resource Usage Analysis  [PDF]
Wojtek Bigos,Bernard Cousin,Stéphane Gosselin,Morgane Le Foll,Hisao Nakajima
Computer Science , 2007, DOI: 10.1109/JSAC.2007.070608
Abstract: In this paper we study different options for the survivability implementation in MPLS over Optical Transport Networks (OTN) in terms of network resource usage and configuration cost. We investigate two approaches to the survivability deployment: single layer and multilayer survivability and present various methods for spare capacity allocation (SCA) to reroute disrupted traffic. The comparative analysis shows the influence of the offered traffic granularity and the physical network structure on the survivability cost: for high bandwidth LSPs, close to the optical channel capacity, the multilayer survivability outperforms the single layer one, whereas for low bandwidth LSPs the single layer survivability is more cost-efficient. On the other hand, sparse networks of low connectivity parameter use more wavelengths for optical path routing and increase the configuration cost, as compared with dense networks. We demonstrate that by mapping efficiently the spare capacity of the MPLS layer onto the resources of the optical layer one can achieve up to 22% savings in the total configuration cost and up to 37% in the optical layer cost. Further savings (up to 9 %) in the wavelength use can be obtained with the integrated approach to network configuration over the sequential one, however, at the increase in the optimization problem complexity. These results are based on a cost model with different cost variations, and were obtained for networks targeted to a nationwide coverage.
Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting as an Alternative Domestic Water Resource in Zambia  [PDF]
Tseko Malambo, Qinghui Huang
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2016.413003
Abstract: Within the last decade, substantial progress has been achieved in the management of centralized water reticulation in Zambia. Characterized by diversified fiscal resourcing, concurrent institutional restructuring and introduction of new players in water governance, the water sector is set to achieve improved reliability on sustainable grounds. However, the threat of underground water pollution resulting from increased urbanization besides the unreliable energy sector presents new challenges for the current urban water. In effect, urban areas are affected by chronic water rationing creating public stress and insecurity which impacts domestic development. While the course of development has meant investment in the extension and expansion of water infrastructure in Zambia, alternative urban water resources are being sought to address challenges of traditional water systems globally. This paper therefore attempts to make a case for the modernization of Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting (RRWH) as an augmenting water resource in the Zambian urban housing sector. Here—in, it is identified as a Low Impact Development technology within the Integrated Urban Water Management framework currently being forged by local water. Based on a desktop literature survey and online questionnaire survey, an argument to support the development of RRWH in Zambia was developed. While literature survey results revealed evidence of economic loss and a growing compromise to public health resulting from inconsistent water supply in the study area of Lusaka city, the online questionnaire survey depicted significant domestic stress due to erratic water supply. Results confirmed that at one time residents observed an average of eight hours of power blackouts which effectively induced water disruption forcing homeowners to engage in various water storage methods which in turn are costly on domestic time, health and finances. A retrospective discussion based on both survey results attempts to present benefits and opportunities of urban RRWH to water sector stakeholders providing recommendations towards the mainstreaming of the practice in Zambia.
Should I quit using my resource? Modeling Resource Usage through Game Theory  [PDF]
Paraskevas V. Lekeas
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: Existing web infrastructures have supported the publication of a tremendous amount of resources, and over the past few years Data Resource Usage is an everyday task for millions of users all over the world. In this work we model Resource Usage as a Cooperative Cournot Game in which a resource user and the various resource services are engaged. We give quantified answers as to when it is of interest for the user to stop using part of a resource and to switch to a different one. Moreover, we do the same from the perspective of a resource's provider.
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