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Block Based Video Watermarking Scheme Using Wavelet Transform and Principle Component Analysis
Nisreen I. Yassin,Nancy M. Salem,Mohamed I. El Adaway
International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2012,
Abstract: In this paper, a comprehensive approach for digital video watermarking is introduced, where a binary watermark image is embedded into the video frames. Each video frame is decomposed into sub-images using 2 level discrete wavelet transform then the Principle Component Analysis (PCA) transformation is applied for each block in the two bands LL and HH. The watermark is embedded into the maximum coefficient of the PCA block of the two bands. The proposed scheme is tested using a number of video sequences. Experimental results show high imperceptibility where there is no noticeable difference between the watermarked video frames and the original frames. The computed PSNR achieves high score which is 44.097 db. The proposed scheme shows high robustness against several attacks such as JPEG coding, Gaussian noise addition, histogram equalization, gamma correction, and contrast adjustment.
Multiresolution successive elimination block matching

MA She-xiang,LIU Tie-gen,

计算机应用 , 2006,
Abstract: In order to increase the computational speed of the motion estimation and to improve the image quality of the motion compensation in video coding, a multiresolution successive elimination block - matching algorithm was introduced. In motion estimation, four kinds of resolution are obtained by down sampling of every pixel block. For one match point, if the optimal necessary condition is not satisfied in the lower resolution, then the point will be eliminated by the spatial correlation of pixels, Otherwise, the process is operated in the higher resolution again. By the way, a lot of match points will be eliminated with a few amount of computation. Meanwhile, the idea of NTSS was also used to the multiresolution successive elimination algorithm. Experimental results show that the scheme is effective.
A Survey on Digital Video Watermarking  [PDF]
Swati Patel,Anilkumar Katharotiya,Mahesh Goyani
International Journal of Computer Technology and Applications , 2011,
Abstract: At the leading edge of the information world everything is in available in form of digital media. Digital watermarking was introduced to provide the copy right protection and owners’ authentication. Digital video watermarking is the process to embedding a digital code into digital video sequences. Digital video watermarking nothing but a sequence of consecutive still images. In recent few years the applications based on video like, pay-per-view, video-on-demand, video broadcasting are becomes more and more popular, so the requirement of a secure video distribution increases. In this paper, the concept of digital video watermarking, its terminology, principle, properties, applications, and classification is introduced. Classification is based on the types of key used for embedding/detecting purpose, types of carriers and the working domains of watermark embedding are included.
A Blind DWT-SCHUR Based Digital Video Watermarking Technique  [PDF]
Lama Rajab, Tahani Al-Khatib, Ali-Al Haj
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2015.84023
Abstract: Digital watermarking is one of the most powerful tools used in ownership and copyrights protection in digital media. This paper presents a blind digital video watermarking technique based on a combination scheme between the Discrete Wavelet transform in (DWT) and the real Schur Decomposition. The scheme starts with applying twolevel DWT to the video scene followed by Schur decomposition in which the binary watermark bits are embedded in the resultant block upper triangular matrix. The proposed technique shows high efficiency due to the use of Schur decomposition which requires fewer computations compared to other transforms. The imperceptibility of the scheme is also very high due to the use of DWT transform; therefore, no visual distortion is noticed in the watermarked video after embedding. Furthermore, the technique proves to be robust against set of standard attacks like: Gaussian, salt and pepper and rotation and some video attacks such as: frame dropping, cropping and averaging. Both capacity and blindness features are also considered and achieved in this technique.
Robust Adaptive Video Watermarking Algorithm Based on HVS

CHEN Guang-xi,CHENG Yan,

计算机科学 , 2008,
Abstract: A robust adaptive Video Watermarking algorithm based on Human Visual System(HVS)was proposed.By comparing the direct current DCT coefficients of the I frame and its neighbor frame of the video,a fast moving image block set was chosen.The new algorithm embedded watermarking bits adaptively in proper place for some image block,which was decided based on HVS.Experiments show that the proposed algorithm is robust against MPEG compression,also the attacks of RST.
Compressed-domain watermarking for AVS video authentication

CHEN Wei-bing,WU Di-feng,YANG Gao-bo,

计算机应用研究 , 2010,
Abstract: In order to improve the security of video watermarking, this paper proposed a watermarking-based content authentication scheme for AVS in compressed domain. It made use of the 3-dimensional characteristics of video space, and built the structure signature from the energy relationship between block of I frames, GOP and frame structural information. Both utilized the mid-frequency DCT coefficients and motion vectors for watermark embedding, made authentication by comparison between the extracted dual watermarking and restructure of the signature. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach is of better capability of tampering location.
Review of Robust Video Watermarking Algorithms  [PDF]
Neeta Deshpande,Archana Rajurkar,R Manthalkar
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: There has been a remarkable increase in the data exchange over web and the widespread use of digital media. As a result, multimedia data transfers also had a boost up. The mounting interest with reference to digital watermarking throughout the last decade is certainly due to the increase in the need of copyright protection of digital content. This is also enhanced due to commercial prospective. Applications of video watermarking in copy control, broadcast monitoring, fingerprinting, video authentication, copyright protection etc is immensely rising. The main aspects of information hiding are capacity, security and robustness. Capacity deals with the amount of information that can be hidden. The skill of anyone detecting the information is security and robustness refers to the resistance to modification of the cover content before concealed information is destroyed. Video watermarking algorithms normally prefers robustness. In a robust algorithm it is not possible to eliminate the watermark without rigorous degradation of the cover content. In this paper, we introduce the notion of Video Watermarking and the features required to design a robust watermarked video for a valuable application. We review several algorithms, and introduce frequently used key techniques. The aim of this paper is to focus on the various domains of video watermarking techniques. The majority of the reviewed methods based on video watermarking emphasize on the notion of robustness of the algorithm.
Robust Watermarking in Multiresolution Walsh-Hadamard Transform  [PDF]
Gaurav Bhatnagar,Balasubramanian Raman
Mathematics , 2009, DOI: 10.1109/IADCC.2009.4809134
Abstract: In this paper, a newer version of Walsh-Hadamard Transform namely multiresolution Walsh-Hadamard Transform (MR-WHT) is proposed for images. Further, a robust watermarking scheme is proposed for copyright protection using MRWHT and singular value decomposition. The core idea of the proposed scheme is to decompose an image using MR-WHT and then middle singular values of high frequency sub-band at the coarsest and the finest level are modified with the singular values of the watermark. Finally, a reliable watermark extraction scheme is developed for the extraction of the watermark from the distorted image. The experimental results show better visual imperceptibility and resiliency of the proposed scheme against intentional or un-intentional variety of attacks.
Survey on Digital Video Watermarking Techniques and Attacks on Watermarks
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: Digital video watermarking is a technique for embedding additional data along with video signal. Embedded data is used for copyright owner identification. A number of video watermarking techniques are proposed.These techniques exploit different ways in order to embed a robust watermark and to maintain the original video signal fidelity. In this paper, Digital video watermarking techniques and attacks on watermarks are presented.
Video Watermarking Robust Against Spatio-Temporal Attacks  [cached]
Hongbo BI,Yubo ZHANG,Xueming LI
Journal of Networks , 2011, DOI: 10.4304/jnw.6.6.932-936
Abstract: Space-time interest points (STIP) represent the significant variations in video, which do not alter greatly under spatial and temporal attacks and can enhance the robustness of video watermarking. In this paper, a novel video watermarking scheme exploiting STIP in DCT-SVD (Discrete Cosine Transform – Singular Value Decomposition) domain is proposed. Unlike the usual algorithm, STIP are selected by global and local steps. All global STIP are ordered in ascending order according to their response values, and STIP corresponding to the first several global response values are selected to maintain the stability. Afterwards, the STIP with largest local response value in one frame is selected as the center to generate square embedding region. The region is transformed into DCT-SVD domain, and the mid-frequency coefficients are segmented to embed the watermark by modifying the norm of the largest singular value using quantization. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme guarantees high peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), and is very robust against frame swapping, frame insert, frame dropping, noising, filtering etc.
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