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Architecture Capabilities to Improve Healthcare Environments
Ali Ebrahimi,Karim Mardomi,Kasra Hassanpour Rahimabad
Trauma Monthly , 2013, DOI: 10.5812/traumamon.9999
Abstract: Background: The physical environment of healthcare buildings has great importance in issues such as patient safety, functional efficiency, user satisfaction, healthcare outcomes, and energy and resources consumption.Objectives: The present study assesses physical environments of Iranian healthcare buildings.Materials and Methods: This study was performed using a descriptive-analytical method. Data collection was carried out via a written questionnaire.Results: Based on the findings of this study, "functional efficiency", "user satisfaction", "environmental issues", "patient safety”, “accountability in incidents and disasters", and "flexibility" are regarded as the most issues in the country's hospitals. Also, none of the parameters is "without any problem" and has a "desirable status".Conclusions: According to the responses, all of the healthcare buildings in this research had flaws in their physical environment, which require attention. Thus, it is necessary to review and pay more attention to the architecture of the country's healthcare buildings.
Sensors in Distributed Mixed Reality Environments
Felix Hamza-Lup,Charles Hughes,Jannick Rolland
Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics , 2005,
Abstract: A distributed mixed-reality (MR) or virtual reality (VR) environment implies the cooperative engagement of a set of software and hardware resources. With the advances in sensors and computer networks we have seen an increase in the number of potential MR/VR applications that require large amounts of information from the real world collected through sensors (e.g. position and orientation tracking sensors). These sensors collect data from the real environment in real-time at different locations and a distributed environment connecting them must assure data distribution among collaborative sites at interactive speeds. With the advances in sensor technology, we envision that in future systems a significant amount of data will be collected from sensors and devices attached to the participating nodes This paper proposes a new architecture for sensor based interactive distributed MR/VR environments that falls in-between the atomistic peer-to-peer model and the traditional client-server model. Each node is autonomous and fully manages its resources and connectivity. The dynamic behavior of the nodes is dictated by the human participants that manipulate the sensors attached to these nodes.
Wearable Sensors for Remote Healthcare Monitoring System
Narendra Kumar, Alok Aggrawal, Nidhi Gupta
International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: — In Today’s tautness life people are facing multiple physical, physiological, psychological problems. They have no time to visit doctors again and again. Sometimes there is a situation when a patient requires treatment on the spot. To solve these problems we require a technique which collects all the data about people’s disease in spaces ranging from personal to urban. Wireless sensor network (WSN) technologies are considered one of the key research areas in computer science and the healthcare application industries for improving the quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to provide a snapshot of current developments and future direction of research on wearable and implantable body area network systems for continuous monitoring of patients. In this paper, medical sensors were used to collect physiological data from patients and transmit it to Intelligent Personal digital Assistant (IPDA). This paper explains the important role of body sensor networks in medicine to minimize the need for caregivers and help the chronically ill and elderly people live an independent life, besides providing people with quality care. Although offering significant benefits, the field of wearable and implantable body sensor networks still faces major challenges and open research problems which are investigated and covered, along with some proposed solutions, in this paper
Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for Harsh Environments  [PDF]
Stephen J. Mihailov
Sensors , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/s120201898
Abstract: Because of their small size, passive nature, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and capability to directly measure physical parameters such as temperature and strain, fiber Bragg grating sensors have developed beyond a laboratory curiosity and are becoming a mainstream sensing technology. Recently, high temperature stable gratings based on regeneration techniques and femtosecond infrared laser processing have shown promise for use in extreme environments such as high temperature, pressure or ionizing radiation. Such gratings are ideally suited for energy production applications where there is a requirement for advanced energy system instrumentation and controls that are operable in harsh environments. This paper will present a review of some of the more recent developments.
Linear programming applied to healthcare problems  [PDF]
Frederico Rafael Moreira
Einstein (S?o Paulo) , 2003,
Abstract: Objective and Method: To present a mathematical modelingtechnique by means of linear programming as an efficient tool tosolve problems related to optimization in healthcare. Twoapplications are approached: formulation of a balanced diet at aminimum cost and optimal allocation of resources for a set ofmedical interventions that comply with cost and medical visitrestrictions. Results: The balanced diet proposed would comprise1.4 glasses of skimmed milk/day and 100 g of salad/day (2/10 of a500 g portion) at a total minimum cost of R$ 2.55/day. The optimalsolution for the allocation model among the five types of medicalintervention programs maximizing quality-adjusted life year wasestablished as follows: use of 100% of intervention type 4 and 50%of intervention type 2, determining a maximum value of 20.5 QALY.Conclusion: In a world with increasingly scarce resources andevery day more competitive, linear programming could be used tosearch optimized solutions for healthcare problems.
Remote Driven and Read MEMS Sensors for Harsh Environments  [PDF]
Aaron J. Knobloch,Faisal R. Ahmad,Dan W. Sexton,David W. Vernooy
Sensors , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/s131014175
Abstract: The utilization of high accuracy sensors in harsh environments has been limited by the temperature constraints of the control electronics that must be co-located with the sensor. Several methods of remote interrogation for resonant sensors are presented in this paper which would allow these sensors to be extended to harsh environments. This work in particular demonstrates for the first time the ability to acoustically drive a silicon comb drive resonator into resonance and electromagnetically couple to the resonator to read its frequency. The performance of this system was studied as a function of standoff distance demonstrating the ability to excite and read the device from 22 cm when limited to drive powers of 30 mW. A feedback architecture was implemented that allowed the resonator to be driven into resonance from broadband noise and a standoff distance of 15 cm was demonstrated. It is emphasized that no junction-based electronic device was required to be co-located with the resonator, opening the door for the use of silicon-based, high accuracy MEMS devices in high temperature wireless applications.
Resistive Oxygen Gas Sensors for Harsh Environments  [PDF]
Ralf Moos,Noriya Izu,Frank Rettig,Sebastian Rei?,Woosuck Shin,Ichiro Matsubara
Sensors , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/s110403439
Abstract: Resistive oxygen sensors are an inexpensive alternative to the classical potentiometric zirconia oxygen sensor, especially for use in harsh environments and at temperatures of several hundred °C or even higher. This device-oriented paper gives a historical overview on the development of these sensor materials. It focuses especially on approaches to obtain a temperature independent behavior. It is shown that although in the past 40 years there have always been several research groups working concurrently with resistive oxygen sensors, novel ideas continue to emerge today with respect to improvements of the sensor response time, the temperature dependence, the long-term stability or the manufacture of the devices themselves using novel techniques for the sensitive films. Materials that are the focus of this review are metal oxides; especially titania, titanates, and ceria-based formulations.
Advances in Sensors Applied to Agriculture and Forestry  [PDF]
Gonzalo Pajares
Sensors , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/s110908930
Abstract: In agriculture and forestry, the need to increase production and the simultaneous efforts to minimize the environmental impact of agricultural production processes and save costs find in sensor systems the best allied tool. The use of sensors helps exploit all available resources appropriately and to apply hazardous products moderately. When nutrients in the soil, humidity, solar radiation, density of weeds and a broad set of factors and data affecting the production are known, this situation improves and the use of chemical products such as fertilizers, herbicides and other pollutants can be reduced considerably. Part of this knowledge allows also monitoring photosynthetic parameters of high relevance for photosynthesis. Most of the associated activities fall within the scope of what it is called Precision Agriculture, an emerging area receiving special attention in recent years. [...]
Reliability Testing Procedure for MEMS IMUs Applied to Vibrating Environments  [PDF]
Giorgio De Pasquale,Aurelio Somà
Sensors , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/s100100456
Abstract: The diffusion of micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology applied to navigation systems is rapidly increasing, but currently, there is a lack of knowledge about the reliability of this typology of devices, representing a serious limitation to their use in aerospace vehicles and other fields with medium and high requirements. In this paper, a reliability testing procedure for inertial sensors and inertial measurement units (IMU) based on MEMS for applications in vibrating environments is presented. The sensing performances were evaluated in terms of signal accuracy, systematic errors, and accidental errors; the actual working conditions were simulated by means of an accelerated dynamic excitation. A commercial MEMS-based IMU was analyzed to validate the proposed procedure. The main weaknesses of the system have been localized by providing important information about the relationship between the reliability levels of the system and individual components.
Using Wearable Sensors for Remote Healthcare Monitoring System  [PDF]
A. P. Abidoye, N. A. Azeez, A. O Adesina, K. K Agbele, H. O. Nyongesa
Journal of Sensor Technology (JST) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jst.2011.12004
Abstract: Recent technological advances in wireless communications and wireless sensor networks have enabled the design of low-cost, intelligent, tiny, and lightweight medical sensor nodes that can be strategically placed on human body, create a wireless body area network (WBAN) to monitor various physiological vital signs for a long period of time and providing real-time feedback to the user and medical staff. WBANs promise to revolutionize health monitoring. In this paper, medical sensors were used to collect physiological data from patients and transmit it to Intelligent Personal digital Assistant (IPDA) using ZigBee/IEEE802.15.4 standard and to medical server using 3G communications. We introduced priority scheduling and data compression into the system to increase transmission rate of physiological critical signals which improve the bandwidth utilization. It also extends the life time of hand-held personal server by reducing power consumption during transmission.
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