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Prevalence of alexithymia and its association with anxiety and depression in a sample of Greek chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) outpatients
Athanasios Tselebis, Epaminondas Kosmas, Dionisios Bratis, Georgios Moussas, Athanasios Karkanias, Ioannis Ilias, Nikolaos Siafakas, Alexandros Vgontzas, Nikolaos Tzanakis
Annals of General Psychiatry , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1744-859x-9-16
Abstract: The present study included 167, randomly selected, outpatients diagnosed with COPD. Alexithymia, anxiety and depression were assessed using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), respectively.The mean BDI score was 12.88 (SD: 7.7), mean STAI score 41.8 (SD: 11.0) and mean TAS-20 score 48.2 (SD: 11.5). No differences were observed between genders regarding age and alexithymia (t test P > 0.05), while female patients presented higher depression and trait anxiety scores than males (t test P < 0.05). Clinically significant levels of anxiety were present in 37.1% of men, and in 45.7% of women. The mean depression score was also higher than the corresponding mean score in the general population (one-sample t test P < 0.01), while 27.7% and 30.5% of the sample presented mild and moderate to severe depression, respectively. Finally, a strong correlation was observed between alexithymia, depression and anxiety.This study confirms the high prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms in Greek outpatients with COPD. The prevalence of alexithymia in COPD patients, contrary to what has been observed in patients with other chronic respiratory diseases, seem to be lower. However, we observed a strong association between alexithymia, depression and anxiety levels. This observation suggests that alexithymia should be taken into consideration when drafting specific psychotherapeutic interventions for these patients.Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The disease is very common especially in smoker adults over 40 years of age and has a considerable social and economic impact [1]. In the USA it is the fourth highest ranked condition leading to chronic morbidity and mortality and, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), it is expected to rank fifth in the year 2020 for burden of disease worldwide [2,3]. The disease is ch
TAíNO WARRIORS?: STRATEGIES FOR RECOVERING INDIGENOUS VOICES IN COLONIAL AND CONTEMPORARY HISPANIC CARIBBEAN DISCOURSES  [cached]
Yolanda Martínez-San Miguel
Centro Journal , 2011,
Abstract: This essay explores how to study and recover Caribbean indigenous voices by discussing two cases as a possible example of "strategic essentialism", contemporary neo-Taíno movements and the study of indigeneity in colonial texts of the Hispanic Caribbean. After reviewing several approaches to study indiano textualities in the Hispanic Caribbean, the essay concludes by criticizing indigenous revivals in the Caribbean as an essentialist reappropriation of Latin American indigenismo that reduces the translocal and diasporic dimension of the Caribbean.
The relationship between alexithymia, shame, trauma, and body image disorders: investigation over a large clinical sample
Franzoni E, Gualandi S, Caretti V, Schimmenti A, Di Pietro E, Pellegrini G, Craparo G, Franchi A, Verrotti A, Pellicciari A
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S34822
Abstract: elationship between alexithymia, shame, trauma, and body image disorders: investigation over a large clinical sample Original Research (736) Total Article Views Authors: Franzoni E, Gualandi S, Caretti V, Schimmenti A, Di Pietro E, Pellegrini G, Craparo G, Franchi A, Verrotti A, Pellicciari A Published Date February 2013 Volume 2013:9 Pages 185 - 193 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S34822 Received: 08 June 2012 Accepted: 01 September 2012 Published: 18 February 2013 Emilio Franzoni,1 Stefano Gualandi,1 Vincenzo Caretti,2 Adriano Schimmenti,3 Elena Di Pietro,1 Gaetano Pellegrini,1 Giuseppe Craparo,3 Arianna Franchi,1 Alberto Verrotti,4 Alessandro Pellicciari1 1Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, University of Bologna, Italy; 2Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Italy; 3Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, Kore University of Enna, Enna, Italy; 4Department of Pediatrics, University of Chieti, Italy Background: The connections between eating disorders (EDs) and alexithymia have not been fully clarified. This study aims to define alexithymia's connections with shame, trauma, dissociation, and body image disorders. Methods: We administered the Dissociative Experience Scale-II, Trauma Symptom Inventory, Experience of Shame Scale, Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20, and Body Uneasiness Test questionnaires to 143 ED subjects. Extensive statistical analyses were performed. Results: The subjects showed higher scores on alexithymia, shame, dissociation, and traumatic feelings scales than the nonclinical population. These aspects are linked with each other in a statistically significant way. Partial correlations highlighted that feelings of shame are correlated to body dissatisfaction, irrespective of trauma or depressed mood. Multiple regression analysis demonstrates that shame (anorexic patients) and perceived traumatic conditions (bulimic and ED not otherwise specified) are associated with adverse image disorders. Conclusion: Shame seems to hold a central role in the perception of an adverse self-image. Alexithymia may be interpreted as being a consequence of previous unelaborated traumatic experiences and feelings of shame, and it could therefore be conceptualized as a maladaptive–reactive construct.
Validity of the portuguese version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-TAS in a sample of inpatients / Validade da vers o em português da Toronto Alexithymia Scale-TAS em amostra clínica  [cached]
Elisa Medici Piz?o Yoshida
Psicologia: Reflex?o e Crítica , 2007,
Abstract: Psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale -TAS were studied in a sample of 294 inpatients with different pathologies, assisted at a general hospital. Results showed good internal consistency (a = 0,72) and test-retest reliability (r= 0,72). For this population the data were best represented by a three-factor structure. The items on the first factor are associated with the ability to identify one's feelings and to distinguish them from bodily sensations. The items on the second subscale relate to a concrete style of thinking. The items on the third subscale pertain to daydreaming and imagination. In conclusion, alexithymia, as measured by the Portuguese version of the TAS, is multidimensional and not well-represented by a global severity score.
The relationship between alexithymia, shame, trauma, and body image disorders: investigation over a large clinical sample  [cached]
Franzoni E,Gualandi S,Caretti V,Schimmenti A
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment , 2013,
Abstract: Emilio Franzoni,1 Stefano Gualandi,1 Vincenzo Caretti,2 Adriano Schimmenti,3 Elena Di Pietro,1 Gaetano Pellegrini,1 Giuseppe Craparo,3 Arianna Franchi,1 Alberto Verrotti,4 Alessandro Pellicciari11Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, University of Bologna, Italy; 2Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Italy; 3Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, Kore University of Enna, Enna, Italy; 4Department of Pediatrics, University of Chieti, ItalyBackground: The connections between eating disorders (EDs) and alexithymia have not been fully clarified. This study aims to define alexithymia's connections with shame, trauma, dissociation, and body image disorders.Methods: We administered the Dissociative Experience Scale-II, Trauma Symptom Inventory, Experience of Shame Scale, Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20, and Body Uneasiness Test questionnaires to 143 ED subjects. Extensive statistical analyses were performed.Results: The subjects showed higher scores on alexithymia, shame, dissociation, and traumatic feelings scales than the nonclinical population. These aspects are linked with each other in a statistically significant way. Partial correlations highlighted that feelings of shame are correlated to body dissatisfaction, irrespective of trauma or depressed mood. Multiple regression analysis demonstrates that shame (anorexic patients) and perceived traumatic conditions (bulimic and ED not otherwise specified) are associated with adverse image disorders.Conclusion: Shame seems to hold a central role in the perception of an adverse self-image. Alexithymia may be interpreted as being a consequence of previous unelaborated traumatic experiences and feelings of shame, and it could therefore be conceptualized as a maladaptive–reactive construct.Keywords: eating disorders, trauma, alexithymia, shame, body image
Assessing Reliability and Validity of Farsi Version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 in a Sample of Opioid Substance Use Disordered Patients
Mohammad Ali Besharat,Reza Rostami,Reza Pourhosein,Mahmoud Mirzamani
Iranian Journal of Psychiatry , 2006,
Abstract: "nObjective: The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and validityof the Farsi version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 in a sample of opioidsubstance use disordered patients."n"nMethods: 321 substance dependent patients (287 male, 34 female)participated in this study. All of the participants were asked to complete theFarsi version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (FTAS-20), the EmotionalIntelligence Scale (EIS-41), and The Mental Health Inventory (MHI). In orderto examine the internal consistency of the FTAS-20, Cronbach's alphacoefficients were calculated for the entire sample. Pearson's correlationcoefficient was used to estimate the test-retest reliability of the alexithymiadimensions. To examine the concurrent validity of the FTAS-20, a series ofzero-order correlations were conducted between the FTAS-20 subscales,emotional intelligence and mental health variables. Confirmatory FactorAnalysis (CFA) was utilized to test the three-factor structure of the FTAS-20. "n"nResults: The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, concurrent validity,and the three-factor structure of the Farsi version of the TAS-20 forsubstance users were supported by findings. "nConclusions: The factors found in the Farsi version of the TAS-20, aresimilar to the three factors found in a study conducted by Bagby, Parker andTaylor; the factors were accordingly labeled as Difficulty Identifying Feelings(DIF), Difficulty Describing Feelings (DDF) and Externally-Oriented Thinking(EOT). The results provide evidence for applicability of the TAS-20 and itscross-cultural validity.
Health Status and Cancer Screening in Hispanic Women: A Sample from Cumberland County, North Carolina  [cached]
Heather Griffiths,Sharmila Udyavar
Sociation Today , 2011,
Abstract: This exploratory study examines self-reported breast and cervical cancer screening history among women aged 18 years and above in Cumberland County, NC. Cumberland County is a multi-ethnic, semi-urban, racially diverse community with a large Hispanic population. Cross-sectional, mixed methodology data collection took place in local Tiendas. The sample consists of women belonging to a variety of ethnic groups generally classified as “Hispanic.” The questionnaire and interview guide used in the study developed from the Center for Disease Control’s National Health Interview Survey, and measured breast examination, mammogram, Pap Smear, family cancer, and health insurance history, as well as self reported health status, socio-demographic, and cultural features of the respondents. We found that despite demographics from the 2010 Census showing a high incidence of breast and cervical cancers in the North Carolina Hispanic population, fewer Hispanic women in Cumberland County screened themselves for the presence of this cancer as compared to women at the national level. Education positively impacted both self rated health status as well as cancer screening behavior. Interview data suggested the lack of screening behavior in this population was due to a perceived lack of cultural sensitivity and a dearth of translators.
Problematic Internet Use in the Psychiatric Sample Compared Community Sample
Ay?egül Yolga TAH?RO?LU,Gonca Gül ?EL?K,????l FETTAHO?LU,Veli YILDIRIM
N?ropsikiyatri Ar?ivi , 2010,
Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the characteristics of internetuse and Problematic Internet Use (PIU) in adolescents with and withoutpsychiatric disorder.Methods: The present study was performed on 884 adolescents, who were in theage group of 12 to 18 years. Each o psychiatric sample (PS) and community sample(CS) included 442 age/gender matched adolescents. PS were patients at thechild and adolescent psychiatry departments of Cukurova, Mersin and AkdenizUniversities. Online Cognition Scale (OCS) was used for PIU.Results: The most common diagnoses in PS were attention deficit hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD; n: 260), followed by anxiety disorders (AD; n: 96), mood disorders(MD; n: 55), and other disorders (OD; n: 31, 7.0%). 23.3% of participants in PS and10.6% in CS reported use of internet for more than 8 hours/week (p=0.0001).Additionally, mean OCS scores of participants in PS were significantly higherthan those in CS (p=0.0001). The highest OCS score average was observed in theADHD group and it was significantly higher than that in CS (p=0.0001).Conclusion: This study has supported the relationship between PIU andpsychopathology among adolescents which is more pronounced in adolescentswith ADHD. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2010; 47: 241-6)
ALEXITHYMIA IN RELATION TO SPIRITUALITY  [PDF]
Titus Lassar,Sreekumar Radhakrishna Pillai,Raju,S.
Golden Research Thoughts , 2013, DOI: 10.9780/22315063
Abstract: The objective of the study was to explore the nature and extent of association between alexithymia and spirituality and also to explore how alexithymia varies across demographic variables. Even though research on the relationship between alexithymia and spirituality may have implications in mental health services, the studies in this area are very little. So the hypotheses formulated for the study were: there will be no significant relationship between alexithymia and spirituality; and, there will be no significant differences in alexithymia across gender, age classifications and locale. The tools used for procuring data were: Alexithymia Scale and Spirituality Index. Data were analysed using Carl Pearson Product Moment correlation, t-test .One way ANOVA and Duncan Procedure. The results show that there is a significant negative correlation between alexithymia and spirituality. Again, alexithymia is found to vary significantly across the age categories and locale, but no such difference was found for gender. The results of the present study have implications in the treatment of alexithymia and may guide future research in this area.
Assessment of Alexithymia: Psychometric Properties of the Psychological Treatment Inventory-Alexithymia Scale (PTI-AS)  [PDF]
Alessio Gori, Marco Giannini, Giulia Palmieri, Roberta Salvini, David Schuldberg
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.33032
Abstract: Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the psychometric properties of a new measure of alexithymia, the Psychological Treatment Inventory-Alexithymia Scale (PTI-AS). Method: A group of 778 participants completed the PTI-AS. In order to evaluate aspects of concurrent validity, a part of the sample (n = 116) completed the PTI-AS, the Twenty-Items Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire (BVAQ). In order to evaluate aspects of discriminant validity a group of patients with a diagnosis of Eating Disorders completed the PTI-AS, the TAS-20 and the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI-3). Results: Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) showed a solid structure with one factor. Results were confirmed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), which yielded good fit indices (CFI = .98; TLI = .95; RMSEA = .08; SRMR = .04). The PTI Alexithymia Scale showed a good degree of internal consistency (α = .88). Correlations between the PTI Alexithymia Scale, the TAS-20 (r = .74, p < .001) and the BVAQ (r = .40, p < .001) were statistically significant, supporting the scale’s concurrent validity. Conclusion: Thanks to its good psychometric properties the PTI-AS can be considered as a brief and useful measure for assessing alexithymia.
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