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On Human Autonomic Nervous Activity Related to Behavior, Daily and Regional Changes Based on Big Data Measurement via Smartphone  [PDF]
Makoto Komazawa, Kenichi Itao, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Zhiwei Luo
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.89088
Abstract: This research uses a large amount of autonomic nervous system data (approximately 100,000 entries) to investigate the relationship between human autonomic nervous activity and behaviors, daily and regional changes. Data were measured via a heart rate variability analysis system that utilizes the camera of smartphones. This system was developed by the authors during previous research. The relations between autonomic nervous system and behaviors, total power and sympathetic nervous activity were found to rise after waking, while during leisure time, the total power rises and sympathetic nervous activity is inhibited. Concerning the relationship between autonomic nervous system and day of the week, it was found that total power decreases from the middle through the latter part of the week (namely, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday), while it rises on Saturday, while the sympathetic nervous activity is suppressed on Saturday. Regarding the relationship between autonomic nervous system and region, it was found that total power is lower in the Kanto region of Japan than in others. This study also shows statistical proof (using a large amount of measurement data) to ideas held by the public for years. Thus, the data can be considered meaningful to the society, and the authors hope that it helps to improve work-life balance.
Anatomy and Assessment of the Autonomic Nervous System  [cached]
Gülseren Akyüz,Merve AKDEN?Z LEBLEB?C?ER
Türkiye Fiziksel Tip ve Rehabilitasyon Dergisi , 2012,
Abstract: Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) is responsible for the vegetative functions of the body. It is composed of many ganglions, plexi, cerebrospinal nuclei and nerves. ANS, which is also known as visceral or vegetative nervous system, helps to control many functions, such as blood pressure, gastrointestinal motility, glands, bladder functions, sweating and body temperature. ANS innervates all the smooth muscles and the heart, and keeps to stabilize body functions within certain limits. ANS is composed of 3 components: sympathetic system (thoracolomber-adrenergic), parasympathetic system (craniosacral- cholinergic) and enteric system (nonadrenergic- noncholinergic). Autonomic nerves are classified with regard to their origin from central nervous system, the distribution of peripheral ganglions, their various physiological effects on visceral organs, and response to pharmacological agents. It is essential to know the anatomy and the physiology of the ANS, in order to evaluate disorders, achieve the correct diagnosis and to plan accurate treatment. Turk J Phys Med Re-hab 2012;58 Suppl 1: 1-5.
Nutritional stimulation of the autonomic nervous system  [cached]
Misha DP Luyer,Quirine Habes,Richard van Hak,Wim Buurman
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2011, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v17.i34.3859
Abstract: Disturbance of the inflammatory response in the gut is important in several clinical diseases ranging from inflammatory bowel disease to postoperative ileus. Several feedback mechanisms exist that control the inflammatory cascade and avoid collateral damage. In the gastrointestinal tract, it is of particular importance to control the immune response to maintain the balance that allows dietary uptake and utilization of nutrients on one hand, while preventing invasion of bacteria and toxins on the other hand. The process of digestion and absorption of nutrients requires a relative hyporesponsiveness of the immune cells in the gut to luminal contents which is not yet fully understood. Recently, the autonomic nervous system has been identified as an important pathway to control local and systemic inflammation and gut barrier integrity. Activation of the pathway is possible via electrical or via pharmacological interventions, but is also achieved in a physiological manner by ingestion of dietary lipids. Administration of dietary lipids has been shown to be very effective in reducing the inflammatory cascade and maintaining intestinal barrier integrity in several experimental studies. This beneficial effect of nutrition on the inflammatory response and intestinal barrier integrity opens new therapeutic opportunities for treatment of certain gastrointestinal disorders. Furthermore, this neural feedback mechanism provides more insight in the relative hyporesponsiveness of the immune cells in the gut. Here, we will discuss the regulatory function of the autonomic nervous system on the inflammatory response and gut barrier function and the potential benefit in a clinical setting.
Measurement and Evaluation of the Autonomic Nervous Function in Daily Life  [PDF]
Makoto Komazawa, Kenichi Itao, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Zhiwei Luo
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.810099
Abstract: We developed a smart-phone based system to measure the activities of autonomic nervous system during everyday life. Using commonly marketed smart phones, by touching your fingertips on the phone’s camera over a short time of about 30 seconds, it will detect changes in the brightness of the blood flow and in turn analyze your heart rate variability. By using this system, about 100,000 cases were measured and from this large amount of data regarding heart rate variability, we evaluated the autonomic nervous function in their daily life. As a result, for the correlation between autonomic nervous system and age, we found that as the increase of age, the total power becomes decreased and the sympathetic nervous system tends to increase between thirties and fifties. For the correlation between autonomic nervous system and BMI (Body Mass Index), it is found that in general, the higher the BMI, the lower the total power and the stronger the sympathetic nervous system. In other words, people who are fat are lower about the total power and stronger about the sympathetic nervous system. In addition, for the correlation between autonomic nervous system and one day life, it is found that total power and sympathetic function tend to increase, while as evening approaches, sympathetic function tends to become suppressed.
Autonomic Nervous System and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  [cached]
Ekambaram Desigan, Anand P, Balumahendran K, Gnanagurudasan E
Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus has now assumed epidemic proportions in many countries of the world. With the present population of 19.4 million diabetics, and approximately 60 million by the year 2025, India would rank first in its share of the global burden of diabetes. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is an extensive neural network whose main role is to regulate the milieu intérieur by controlling homeostasis and visceral functions. Diabetes mellitus is most commonly associated with autonomic dysfunction, in persons with diabetes; prolonged hyperglycemia leads to degradation of the microvasculature, leading to a specific form of autonomic dysfunction firmed “Diabetes Autonomic Neuropathy”. The diagnosis of Autonomic Neuropathy is often difficult to establish in individuals, since clinical symptoms generally appear late in the course of the disease and may be nonspecific, Early detection of Autonomic Neuropathy would suggest the need for an aggressive approach in the management of diabetes mellitus with the help of simple autonomic function test.
Gyrosonics a Novel Stimulant for Autonomic Nervous System  [PDF]
S. K. Ghatak,S. S. Ray,R. Choudhuri,S. Banerjee
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: Gyrosonics refers to novel audio binaural stimulus that produces rotational perceptions of sound movement in head at a particular predetermined frequency. Therapeutic effect observed with this is considered to be associated with modification of arousal of autonomic nervous system. The heart rate variability (HRV), non-invasive measure of autonomic nervous system, has been measured for group of 30 subjects for pre- and post- gyrosonic installation. The time- and frequency- domain analysis of HRV results show overall decrease in sympathetic response and increase in para- sympathetic response due to listening of gyro sonics.
Evidence for an Autonomic Nervous System in Decapod Crustaceans
Z.P. Shuranova,Y.M. Burmistrov,J.R. Strawn,R.L. Cooper
International Journal of Zoological Research , 2006,
Abstract: In vertebrates, the regulation of internal organs is primarily driven by the autonomic nervous system. In crustaceans, nervous control of organs has been investigated elaborately but primarily on the isolated organs. The increased interest in examining the whole system in crustaceans, especially in freely behaving animals, indicates that an ample and sophisticated nervous control of these internal organs is typical for these higher invertebrates. To prepare for rapid escape or confrontation, or for maintenance of a resting state during a relaxed period, these animals appear to need certain neural structures which can be compared to the autonomic nervous system of vertebrates. This review is to examine evidence for an analog to the autonomic nervous system in the crayfish and other decapod crustaceans. It was concluded that, notwithstanding obvious structural differences, some functional similarities take place in both groups of animals. The common features include the existence of its own nerve nets in the heart and digestive system as well as an inhibitory or acceleratory extrinsic control of their functions by specialized neurotransmitters. Additionally, the release of neuromodulators and neurohormones into the circulation appears to be widespread and extremely important for control of the vegetative organs in decapods as in vertebrates.
An Electerophisioligic Study Of Autonomic Nervous System In Diabetic Patients
Noorolahi Moghaddam H,Naphisi S
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2003,
Abstract: Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in diabetics can occur apart from peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy and sometimes leads to complaints which may be diagnosed by electrodiagnostic methods. Moreover glycemic control of these patients may prevent such a complications."nMaterials and Methods: 30 diabetic patients were compared to the same number of age and sex-matched controls regarding to electrophysiologic findings of autonomic nervous system. Symptoms referable to autonomic disorder including nightly diarrhea, dizziness, urinary incontinence, constipation, nausea, and mouth dryness were recorded in all diabetic patients. Palmar and plantar SSR and expiration to inspiration ratio (E: I) and Valsalva ratio were recorded in all diabetics and control individuals by electromyography device. In addition NCS was performed on two sensory and two motor nerves in diabetic patients."nResults: There was no relation between age of diabetics and abnormal D: I ratio, Valsalva ratio and degree of electrophysiologic autonomic impairment. Also no relation between peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy and electrophysiologic autonomic impairment was found. Plantar SSR was absent in 80% of diabetics with orthostatic hypotension (p~ 0.019). Palmar and plantar SSR were absent in many diabetics in comparison to control group (for palmar SSR p~ 0.00 and for plantar SSR p< 0.015). There was no relation between diabetes duration since diagnosis and electrophysiologic autonomic impairment."nConclusion: According to the above mentioned findings diabetic autonomic neuropathy develops apart from peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy and probably with different mechanisms. Remarkable absence of palmar SSR in diabetics with orthostatic hypotension can be due to its sympathetic origin. Absence of any relation between diabetes duration and electrophysiologic autonomic impairment can be due to late diagnosis of type 2 diabetes or no pathophysiologic relation between chronic hyperglycemia and autonomic neuropathy."n"n
Autonomic nervous system activity in patients with Fabry disease  [PDF]
Eric Alamartine, Aurore Sury, Frédéric Roche, Vincent Pichot, Jean-Claude Barthelemy
Open Journal of Internal Medicine (OJIM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojim.2012.22021
Abstract: Background: Fabry disease is an inherited, multisystemic and progressive lysosomal storage disorder. The first symptoms of Fabry neuropathy reflect progressive loss of function of both peripheral somatic and autonomic nerve cells. We aimed to evaluate autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity in a cohort of patients with Fabry disease. Methods: ANS activity was evaluated by determining heart rate variability, spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity and ambulatory blood pressure in 9 patients with Fabry disease. Possible correlations between ANS activity and clinical phenotype were investigated. Results: Indices of global activity were frequently high, while ANS balance was disturbed only in a few patients. Sympathetic nervous system parameters were within normal ranges, but indices of parasympathetic parameters were highly variable. Baroreflex sensitivity was significantly correlated with glomerular filtration rate. Conclusion: Distribution of ASN activity indices is wide in patients with Fabry disease. Autonomic imbalance has been associated with non-Fabry chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular risk. In Fabry disease, monitoring of ANS activity may contribute to comprehensive disease staging, and may be of value in identifying patients at high risk of developing renal and cardiac events.
Pathology of the Central Autonomic Nervous System in Stillbirth
Luigi MatturriAnna Maria Lavezzi
The Open Pediatric Medicine Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.2174/1874309900701010001]
Abstract: The aim of this study was to identify in stillbirth a possible involvement of morphological and/or physiological alterations of structures of the central autonomic nervous system in the mechanism of death. The study, including the indepth histological examination of brainstem and cerebellum, was performed on 42 stillbirths, aged from 22 to 40 gestational weeks, 12 of which were explained and 30 were unexplained deaths. In the sudden unexplained stillbirths a variety of morphological and/or biological abnormalities of different structures and nuclei was found, above all the hypoplasia of the parafacial complex, frequently associated with hypoplasia of the arcuate and pre-B tzinger nuclei, and with thyrosine-hydroxylase immunonegativity in the locus coeruleus. A significant correlation was also observed between the neuropathologic findings and mother’s smoking habit.
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