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 Aubin Jarry Computer Science , 2014, Abstract: Geographic routing consists in using the position information of nodes to assist in the routing process, and has been a widely studied subject in sensor networks. One of the outstanding challenges facing geographic routing has been its applicability. Authors either make some broad assumptions on an idealized version of wireless networks which are often unverifiable, or they use costly methods to planarize the communication graph. The overarching questions that drive us are the following. When, and how should we use geographic routing? Is there a criterion to tell whether a communication network is fit for geographic routing? When exactly does geographic routing make sense? In this paper we formulate the four principles that define geographic routing and explore their topological consequences. Given a localized communication network, we then define and compute its geographic eccentricity, which measures its fitness for geographic routing. Finally we propose a distributed algorithm that either enables geographic routing on the network or proves that its geographic eccentricity is too high.
 International Journal of Soft Computing & Engineering , 2011, Abstract: Mobile Ad hoc Networks are establishedfor extemporaneous services customized to application. Thesenetworks exist for limited period of time based on demands. Thisinfrastructure less networks support data networking servicesusing routing protocols. Reactive routing protocols serve theissue over proactive routing protocols [7]. As the communicationis through multiple intermediate nodes, circumstances lead forthe attacks lacking security [12]. Existing proactive routingprotocols does not endow with security aspects within [1]. In thispaper, we introduce an enhanced secured routing protocol andits performance is compared with the existing protocols namely,Ad hoc On demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV), DynamicSource Routing (DSR) & Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) in termsof delay, jitter and throughput using Qualnet simulationsoftware.
 Journal of Applied Sciences , 2008, Abstract: Siting of secured landfill is difficult because of the complexity of technical and social aspects. Technically, the appropriate tool for secured landfill sites analysis should be applied in the siting procedure. This study aims at developing a comprehensive tool to facilitate the analysis of secured landfill sites. It integrates Geographic Information System (GIS), Expert System (ES) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) into a packaged tool. The GIS represents spatial data, ES represents a knowledge base about secured landfill siting, AHP was applied for ranking of candidate sites and a user interface was developed to make this tool a user-friendly graphical system. The use of this tool was illustrated by identifying suitable sites for secured landfill in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand.
 Computer Science , 2011, DOI: 10.5121/ijdps.2011.2509 Abstract: This work presents a contribution to secure the routing protocol GPSR (Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing) for vehicular ad hoc networks, we examine the possible attacks against GPSR and security solutions proposed by different research teams working on ad hoc network security. Then, we propose a solution to secure GPSR packet by adding a digital signature based on symmetric cryptography generated using the AES algorithm and the MD5 hash function more suited to a mobile environment.
 International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering , 2011, Abstract: As mobile ad hoc network applications are deployed, security emerges as a central requirement..Position aided routing protocols can offer a significant performance increase over traditional ad hoc routing protocols. Boundary State Routing (BSR) is a geographic routing protocol which routes the data using the location of the nodes. Geographic routing protocols are known to be particularly susceptible to attacks.. In this paper we present the possible attacks on BSR protocol. One of the most popular and serious attacks in ad hoc networks is wormhole attack in which two or more colluding attackers record packets at one location, and tunnel them to another location for a replay at that remote location. A wormhole attack is very powerful, and preventing the attack has proven to be very difficult. In this paper, we devise efficient methods to detect and avoid wormhole attacks in the BSR protocol. The first method namely Reverse Routing Scheme (RRS) attempts to detect the intrusion action .The second technique namely Authentication of Nodes Scheme (ANS) uses cryptographic concepts to detect and prevent wormhole attacks. It not only detects the fake route but also adopts preventive measures against action wormhole nodes from reappearing during routing. The proposed system is designed in Boundary state routing (BSR)protocol and analysis and simulations are performed in network simulator (NS-2).
 International Journal of Ad Hoc, Sensor & Ubiquitous Computing , 2010, Abstract: Wireless sensor networks are collections of large number of sensor nodes. The sensor nodes are featuredwith limited energy, computation and transmission power. Each node in the network coordinates withevery other node in forwarding their packets to reach the destination. Since these nodes operate in aphysically insecure environment; they are vulnerable to different types of attacks such as selectiveforwarding and sinkhole. These attacks can inject malicious packets by compromising the node.Geographical routing protocols of wireless sensor networks have been developed without considering thesecurity aspects against these attacks. In this paper, a secure routing protocol named secured greedyperimeter stateless routing protocol (S-GPSR) is proposed for mobile sensor networks by incorporatingtrust based mechanism in the existing greedy perimeter stateless routing protocol (GPSR). Simulationresults prove that S-GPSR outperforms the GPSR by reducing the overhead and improving the deliveryratio of the networks.
 Computer Science , 2010, Abstract: Wireless sensor networks are collections of large number of sensor nodes. The sensor nodes are featured with limited energy, computation and transmission power. Each node in the network coordinates with every other node in forwarding their packets to reach the destination. Since these nodes operate in a physically insecure environment; they are vulnerable to different types of attacks such as selective forwarding and sinkhole. These attacks can inject malicious packets by compromising the node. Geographical routing protocols of wireless sensor networks have been developed without considering the security aspects against these attacks. In this paper, a secure routing protocol named secured greedy perimeter stateless routing protocol (S-GPSR) is proposed for mobile sensor networks by incorporating trust based mechanism in the existing greedy perimeter stateless routing protocol (GPSR). Simulation results prove that S-GPSR outperforms the GPSR by reducing the overhead and improving the delivery ratio of the networks.
 International Journal of Computer Science and Network , 2012, Abstract: Routing protocols in WSNs might differ depending on theapplication and network architecture. Routing protocols that donot take the malicious attacks into account cannot be easilytamper proofed. Wireless sensor networks consist of smallnodes with sensing, computation, and wireless communicationcapabilities. Many routing, power management, and datadissemination protocols have been specifically designed forWSNs where energy awareness is an essential design issues.These protocols should be designed securely so that they arecapable of asserting countermeasures whenever they need to.This paper is an effort to evaluate the most important securityfactors in wireless sensor networks. Then, based on these factorsand the application type of the routing protocols, we comparethe vulnerability of different groups of protocols.
 International Journal of Network Security , 2007, Abstract: This paper proposes a multipath routing scheme SeReRoM for a multicast group communication with a single source and multiple destinations. SeReRoM provides an environment that tackles the twin issues of security and reliability. In SeReRoM the message to be sent is divided into 'k' packets. An error correcting scheme used to provide reliability converts the 'k' packets into 'n' packets (n > k) and the 'n' packets are transmitted through 'n' node disjoint multicast distribution trees to reach all the destinations in the group. The reception of 'k' packets out of 'n' packets will enable the destination user to recover the original message. Thus failure of (n-k) distribution tree will not affect the regular communication in the group. Any hacker listening to one single tree will not be able to retrieve the entire portion of the message from the source node, thus providing security in addition to the secure key management scheme that exist for the multicast group. The functionalities of the proposed routing scheme are verified and the performance results of the proposed multicasting scheme are presented in this paper.
 Mathematics , 2004, Abstract: Geographic routing with greedy relaying strategies have been widely studied as a routing scheme in sensor networks. These schemes assume that the nodes have perfect information about the location of the destination. When the distance between the source and destination is normalized to unity, the asymptotic routing delays in these schemes are $\Theta(\frac{1}{M(n)}),$ where M(n) is the maximum distance traveled in a single hop (transmission range of a radio). In this paper, we consider routing scenarios where nodes have location errors (imprecise GPS), or where only coarse geographic information about the destination is available, and only a fraction of the nodes have routing information. We show that even with such imprecise or limited destination-location information, the routing delays are $\Theta(\frac{1}{M(n)})$. We also consider the throughput-capacity of networks with progressive routing strategies that take packets closer to the destination in every step, but not necessarily along a straight-line. We show that the throughput-capacity with progressive routing is order-wise the same as the maximum achievable throughput-capacity.
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