Abstract:
We investigate the propagation of electromagnetic waves in resistive pair plasmas using a onefluid theory derived from the relativistic two-fluid equations. When the resistivity normalized by the electron/positron inertia variable exceeds a critical value, the dispersion relation for electromagnetic waves shows that the group velocity is larger than the light speed in vacuum. However, in such a case, it also is found that the plasma parameter is less than unity: that is, the electron-positron pair medium no longer can be treated as plasma. Thus the simple two-fluid approximation is invalid. This confirms that superluminal propagation of electromagnetic wave is forbidden in a plasma -- a conclusion consistent with the relativistic principle of causality. As an alternative, we propose a new set of equations for ``causal relativistic magnetohydrodynamics", which both have non-zero resistivity and yet are consistent with the causality principle.

Abstract:
In this paper we discuss a causal network approach to describing relativistic quantum mechanics. Each vertex on the causal net represents a possible point event or particle observation. By constructing the simplest causal net based on Reichenbach-like conjunctive forks in proper time we can exactly derive the 1+1 dimension Dirac equation for a relativistic fermion and correctly model quantum mechanical statistics. Symmetries of the net provide various quantum mechanical effects such as quantum uncertainty and wavefunction, phase, spin, negative energy states and the effect of a potential. The causal net can be embedded in 3+1 dimensions and is consistent with the conventional Dirac equation. In the low velocity limit the causal net approximates to the Schrodinger equation and Pauli equation for an electromagnetic field. Extending to different momentum states the net is compatible with the Feynman path integral approach to quantum mechanics that allows calculation of well known quantum phenomena such as diffraction.

Abstract:
Diffraction of scalar plane waves by resistive surfaces are investigated by defining a new boundary condition in terms of the Dirichlet and Neumann conditions. The scattering problems of waves by a resistive half-plane and the interface between resistive and perfectly magnetic conducting half-planes are examined with the developed method. The resulting fields are plotted numerically. The numerical results show that the evaluated field expressions are in harmony with the theory.

Abstract:
Formalism to calculate the hydrodynamic fluctuations by applying the Onsager theory to the relativistic Navier-Stokes equation is already known. In this work, we calculate hydrodynamic-fluctuations within the framework of the second order hydrodynamics of M\"{u}ller, Israel and Stewart and its generalization to the third order. We have also calculated the fluctuations for several other causal hydrodynamical equations. We show that the form for the Onsager-coefficients and form of the correlation-functions remains same as those obtained by the relativistic Navier-Stokes equation and it does not depend on any specific model of hydrodynamics. Further we numerically investigate evolution of the correlation function using the one dimensional boost-invariant (Bjorken) flow. We compare the correlation functions obtained using the causal hydrodynamics with the correlation-function for the relativistic Navier-Stokes equation. We find that the qualitative behavior of the correlation-functions remain same for all the models of the causal hydrodynamics.

Abstract:
Formalism to calculate the hydrodynamic fluctuations by applying the Onsager theory to the relativistic Navier-Stokes equation is already known. In this work, we calculate hydrodynamic-fluctuations in the framework of the causal hydrodynamics of M\"{u}ller, Israel and Stewart and the other related approaches. We show that expressions for the Onsager-coefficients and the correlation-functions have forms similar to the ones obtained by using the relativistic Navier-Stokes equation. However, spatio-temporal evolution of the correlation functions obtained using MIS and the other causal theories can be significantly different from the correlation functions obtained using the Navier-Stokes equation. Finally, as an illustrative example, we numerically evaluate the correlation-functions using the one dimensional expanding boost-invariant (Bjorken) flows and compare the correlation-functions obtained using the various hydrodynamic approaches.

Abstract:
We derive causal relativistic fluid dynamical equations from the relaxation model of kinetic theory as in a procedure previously applied in the case of non-relativistic rarefied gases. By treating space and time on an equal footing and avoiding the iterative steps of the conventional Chapman-Enskog --- CE---method, we are able to derive causal equations in the first order of the expansion in terms of the mean flight time of the particles. This is in contrast to what is found using the CE approach. We illustrate the general results with the example of a gas of identical ultrarelativistic particles such as photons under the assumptions of homogeneity and isotropy. When we couple the fluid dynamical equations to Einstein's equation we find, in addition to the geometry-driven expanding solution of the FRW model, a second, matter-driven nonequilibrium solution to the equations. In only the second solution, entropy is produced at a significant rate.

Abstract:
The general method to obtain solutions of the Maxwellian equations from scalar representatives is developed and applied to the diffraction of electromagnetic waves. Kirchhoff's integral is modified to provide explicit expressions for these representatives. The respective integrals are then evaluated using the method of stationary phase in two dimensions. Hitherto unknown formulae for the polarization appear as well as for imaging by diffraction. Ready-to-use formulae describing Fresnel diffraction behind a round stop are presented.

Abstract:
Diffraction phenomena usually can be formulated in terms of a potential that induces the redistribution of a wave's momentum. Using an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate coupled to the orbitals of a state-selective optical lattice, we investigate a hitherto unexplored nonadiabatic regime of diffraction in which no diffracting potential can be defined, and in which the adiabatic dressed states are strongly mixed. We show how, in the adiabatic limit, the observed coupling between internal and external dynamics gives way to standard Kapitza-Dirac diffraction of atomic matter waves. We demonstrate the utility of our scheme for atom interferometry and discuss prospects for studies of dissipative superfluid phenomena.

Abstract:
It has been proved theoetically and numerically that the highly relativistic electron beam can be accelerated efficiently via the Compton scattering induced by nonlinear Landau and cyclotron damping of the lower-hybrid waves.

Abstract:
Gravitational waves (GW) propagating through a magnetised plasma excite low-frequency magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. In this paper we investigate whether these waves can produce observable radio emission at higher frequencies by scattering on an an-isotropic intrinsically relativistic distribution of electrons and positrons in the force-free wind surrounding a double neutron star binary merger. The relativistic particle distribution is assumed to be strictly along the magnetic field lines, while the magneto-plasma streams out at a relativistic speed from the neutron stars. In the case of Compton scattering of an incident MHD wave transverse to the magnetic field, we find that the probability of scattering to both a transverse x-mode and a quasi-transverse Langmuir-o mode is suppressed when the scattered frequency is below the local relativistic gyro-frequency, i.e. when the magnetic field is very strong.