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Prevention of Fractures in Older People with Calcium and Vitamin D  [PDF]
Caryl A. Nowson
Nutrients , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/nu2090975
Abstract: The greatest cause of fracture in older people is osteoporosis which contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in older people. A number of meta-analyses have been performed assessing the effectiveness of calcium supplementation alone, vitamin D supplementation alone and the combined therapy on bone loss and fracture reduction in older people. The results of these meta-analyses indicate that vitamin D supplementation alone is unlikely to reduce fracture risk, calcium supplementation alone has a modest effect in reducing total fracture risk, but compliance with calcium supplements is poor in the long term. The combination of calcium supplementation with vitamin D supplementation, particularly in those at risk of marginal and low vitamin D status reduces total fractures, including hip fractures. Therefore older people would be recommended to consume adequate dietary calcium (>1100 mg/day) together with maintaining adequate vitamin D status (>60 nmol/L 25(OH)D) to reduce risk of fracture. It is a challenge to consume sufficient dietary calcium from dietary sources, but the increasing range of calcium fortified foods could assist in increasing the dietary calcium intake of older people. In addition to the usual dairy based food sources, vitamin D supplements are likely to be required for older people with reduced mobility and access to sunlight.
Ready-to-Eat Cereal Consumption Patterns: The Relationship to Nutrient Intake, Whole Grain Intake, and Body Mass Index in an Older American Population  [PDF]
Ann M. Albertson,A. Christine Wold,Nandan Joshi
Journal of Aging Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/631310
Abstract: Objective. To investigate the relationship between ready-to-eat (RTE) breakfast cereal consumption patterns and body mass index (BMI), nutrient intake, and whole grain intake in an older American population. Design. A cross-sectional survey of US households, collected by the NPD Group via the National Eating Trends (NET) survey. Main outcome measures include BMI, nutrient intake, and whole grain intake. Subjects/Setting. The sample included 1759 participants age 55 and older, which was divided into approximate quartiles based on intake of RTE breakfast cereal for the 2-week period (0 servings, 1–3 servings, 4–7 servings, and ≥8 servings). Results. In the multivariate linear regression analysis adjusted for energy and age; intake of dietary fiber, whole grains, and the majority of micronutrients examined were found to be positively associated with frequent RTE cereal consumption. The proportion of participants consuming less than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) was lower for the highest quartile of RTE cereal consumers compared to nonconsumers, for the majority of vitamins and minerals examined. Significant differences in BMI between RTE breakfast cereal intake groups were found for men. Conclusion. Results suggest that ready-to-eat breakfast cereals may contribute to the nutritional quality of the diets of older Americans. Prospective studies and experimental trials are needed to better evaluate the role of RTE cereal consumption in energy balance. 1. Introduction According to US Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Aging population estimates, the number of older Americans is expected to grow dramatically. By 2030, the number of adults aged 60+ is expected to increase to approximately 25% of the population, while the number of the oldest old (age 85+) is expected to double [1]. Adequate nutrition is an important factor in continued health and independence for older adults [2, 3]. Homebound elderly people who skip breakfast are more likely to have inadequate nutrient intakes [2]. Caloric needs typically drop with advancing age, while needs for certain micronutrients such as calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin B12 increase [4]. Thus the importance of choosing nutrient dense foods increases for this population. Several cross-sectional studies have found positive associations between breakfast consumption and RTE breakfast cereal consumption, and increased nutrient intake for adult and elderly adult populations [5–8]. RTE cereal provides a convenient and easy to prepare breakfast option, which can provide whole grains and dietary
Intake of Dairy Products in Relation to Periodontitis in Older Danish Adults  [PDF]
Amanda R. A. Adegboye,Lisa B. Christensen,Poul Holm-Pedersen,Kirsten Avlund,Barbara J. Boucher,Berit L. Heitmann
Nutrients , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/nu4091219
Abstract: This cross-sectional study investigates whether calcium intakes from dairy and non-dairy sources, and absolute intakes of various dairy products, are associated with periodontitis. The calcium intake (mg/day) of 135 older Danish adults was estimated by a diet history interview and divided into dairy and non-dairy calcium. Dairy food intake (g/day) was classified into four groups: milk, cheese, fermented foods and other foods. Periodontitis was defined as the number of teeth with attachment loss ≥3 mm. Intakes of total dairy calcium (Incidence-rate ratio (IRR) = 0.97; p = 0.021), calcium from milk (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.025) and fermented foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.03) were inversely and significantly associated with periodontitis after adjustment for age, gender, education, sucrose intake, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, vitamin D intake, heart disease, visits to the dentist, use of dental floss and bleeding on probing, but non-dairy calcium, calcium from cheese and other types of dairy food intakes were not. Total dairy foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.003), milk (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.028) and fermented foods intakes (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.029) were associated with reduced risk of periodontitis, but cheese and other dairy foods intakes were not. These results suggest that dairy calcium, particularly from milk and fermented products, may protect against periodontitis. Prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.
Variability in Vitamin A Intake of Pregnant Women in Ngaoundere-Cameroon with Geographic Origin, Socio-Professional and Demographic Factors  [PDF]
Edith N. Fombang, Wilfred Damndja Ngaha, Richard Aba Ejoh
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2016.72009
Abstract: Variability in vitamin A (VA) intake of pregnant women in Ngaoundere town according to geographic origin, socio-professional and demographic factors was studied. A total of 100 pregnant women attending ante natal visits at the Regional Hospital in Ngaoundere were involved in the survey. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on geographic origin, socio-professional status, birth history, demographic and anthropometric factors. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-hour dietary recall. Meals potentially rich in VA consumed by these women were collected, their carotenoids contents quantified and VA activity determined by conversion. Results indicated that daily VA intake of these women varied significantly (p < 0.05) with geographic origin, level of education and age of pregnancy. VA intake of pregnant women of Northern origin (Adamawa, North and Far North Regions) was significantly (p < 0.05) lower (496 μg/day/woman) than that of women of Southern origin (588 μg/day/woman), although both were below the recommended intake of 800 μg/day/woman. The more educated a woman and the older her pregnancy, the higher her VA intake. VA consumption of pregnant women of Northern origin was significantly influenced by their age, whereas for pregnant women of Southern origin, BMI (Body Mass Index) equally had a significant influence on their VA intake. Socio-professional status, marital status and number of children did not significantly influence the daily VA intake of these women. Thus, a pregnant woman originating from the Northern part of the country and having no formal education, consumed less foods rich in carotenoids and therefore was more at risk for vitamin A deficiency.
Sources and Determinants of Vitamin D Intake in Danish Pregnant Women  [PDF]
Camilla B. Jensen,Sesilje B. Petersen,Charlotta Granstr?m,Ekaterina Maslova,Christian M?lgaard,Sjurdur F. Olsen
Nutrients , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/nu4040259
Abstract: Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy has been associated with the development of several adverse health outcomes, e.g., pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm delivery, low birth weight, birth length, and bone mineral content. The aims of the present study were to estimate the intake and sources of vitamin D in Danish pregnant women and to examine potential determinants of vitamin D intake of the recommended level (10 μg per day). In 68,447 Danish pregnant women the mean ± SD for vitamin D intake was 9.23 ± 5.60 μg per day (diet: 3.56 ± 2.05 μg per day, supplements: 5.67 ± 5.20 μg per day). 67.6% of the women reported use of vitamin D supplements but only 36.9% reported use of vitamin D supplements of at least 10 μg. Supplements were the primary source of vitamin D for the two higher quartiles of total vitamin D intake, with diet being the primary source for the two lower quartiles. Determinants of sufficient total vitamin D intake were: high maternal age, nulliparity, non-smoking, and filling out of the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) during summer or fall. We propose that clinicians encourage vitamin D supplementation among pregnant women, with special focus on vulnerable groups such as the young, smokers and multiparous women, in order to improve maternal and fetal health both during and after pregnancy.
The relationship between dental status, food selection, nutrient intake, nutritional status, and body mass index in older people
Marcenes, Wagner;Steele, Jimmy George;Sheiham, Aubrey;Walls, Angus Willian Gilmour;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2003000300013
Abstract: this paper reviewed the findings from a national survey in great britain which assessed whether dental status affected older people's food selection, nutrient intake, and nutritional status. the survey analyzed national random samples of free-living and institution subjects for dental examination, interview, and four-day food diary as well as blood and urine tests in the free-living sample, intakes of non-starch polysaccharides, protein, calcium, non-heme iron, niacin, and vitamin c were significantly lower in edentulous as compared to dentate subjects. people with 21 or more teeth consumed more of most nutrients, particularly non-starch polysaccharides. this relationship in intake was not apparent in the hematological analysis. plasma ascorbate and retinol were the only analytes significantly associated with dental status. having 21 or more teeth increased the likelihood of having an acceptable body mass index (bmi). thus, maintaining a natural and functional dentition defined as having more than twenty teeth into old age plays an important role in having a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables, a satisfactory nutritional status, and an acceptable bmi.
The relationship between dental status, food selection, nutrient intake, nutritional status, and body mass index in older people  [cached]
Marcenes Wagner,Steele Jimmy George,Sheiham Aubrey,Walls Angus Willian Gilmour
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2003,
Abstract: This paper reviewed the findings from a national survey in Great Britain which assessed whether dental status affected older people's food selection, nutrient intake, and nutritional status. The survey analyzed national random samples of free-living and institution subjects for dental examination, interview, and four-day food diary as well as blood and urine tests In the free-living sample, intakes of non-starch polysaccharides, protein, calcium, non-heme iron, niacin, and vitamin C were significantly lower in edentulous as compared to dentate subjects. People with 21 or more teeth consumed more of most nutrients, particularly non-starch polysaccharides. This relationship in intake was not apparent in the hematological analysis. Plasma ascorbate and retinol were the only analytes significantly associated with dental status. Having 21 or more teeth increased the likelihood of having an acceptable body mass index (BMI). Thus, maintaining a natural and functional dentition defined as having more than twenty teeth into old age plays an important role in having a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables, a satisfactory nutritional status, and an acceptable BMI.
Vitamin A Intake and Risk of Melanoma: A Meta-Analysis  [PDF]
Yun-Ping Zhang, Rui-Xue Chu, Hui Liu
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102527
Abstract: Background Mounting evidence from experimental and animal studies suggests that vitamin A may have a protective effect on melanoma, but the findings on the association of vitamin A intake with risk of melanoma have been inconsistently reported in epidemiologic studies. We attempted to elucidate the association by performing a meta-analysis. Methods Eligible studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE databases, as well as by reviewing the references of retrieved publications. Summary odds ratios (OR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were computed with a random-effects model. Study-specific ORs and 95% CIs for the highest vs. lowest categories of vitamin A intake were pooled. Results A total of 8 case-control studies and 2 prospective studies comprising 3,328 melanoma cases and 233,295 non-case subjects were included. The summary OR for the highest compared with the lowest intake of total vitamin A, retinol and beta-carotene was 0.86 (95% CI = 0.59–1.25), 0.80 (95% CI = 0.69–0.92) and 0.87 (95%CI = 0.62–1.20), respectively. Significant heterogeneity was observed among studies on vitamin A and beta-carotene intake, but not among studies on retinol intake. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses confirmed these findings. There was no indication of publication bias. Conclusion Findings from this meta-analysis suggest that intake of retinol, rather than of total vitamin A or beta-carotene, is significantly associated with reduced risk of melanoma.
Low levels of vitamin D in professional basketball players after wintertime: relationship with dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium
Bescós García,R.; Rodríguez Guisado,F. A.;
Nutrición Hospitalaria , 2011,
Abstract: introduction: although vitamin d deficiency has a high worldwide prevalence among the general population, very little is known about vitamin status in athletes. aim: to investigate serum vitamin d (25[oh]d) levels after wintertime in male elite basketball players, and to relate these levels to the dietary intake of vitamin d and calcium. methods: subjects were 21 players from the same professional spanish team. blood samples to assess 25(oh)d levels were collected after wintertime during the 2008/2009 (april) and 2009/2010 (march) seasons. in addition, athletes completed 4-day dietary records to estimate energy consumption and a food frequency questionnaire to determine dietary vitamin d and calcium intake. serum 25(oh)d levels were 47.8 ± 21.8 nmol/l, with twelve subjects (57%) being vitamin d deficient (< 50 nmol/l). results: vitamin d intake was 139 ± 78 iu/day and calcium intake was 948 ± 419 mg/day. serum 25(oh)d levels correlated with the daily dietary intake of vitamin d (r = 0.65; p = 0.001) and calcium (r = 0.82; p < 0.001). conclusion: professional basketball players are at higher risk of hypovitaminosis d after wintertime. adequate intake of dietary calcium and vitamin d is required if athletes are to avoid low serum 25(oh)d levels when exposure to sunlight is limited.
Vitamin D Receptor gene polymorphism may predict response to vitamin D intake and bone turnover
G Ahangari,A Hossein-Nezhad,H Behzadi,Z Maghbooli
DARU : Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: "n "n Background and the purpose of the study:The molecular and functional basis of the VDR polymorphisms is fundamental to appreciate their potential clinical implications. The rationale of this study was to determine the level of serum vitamin D response to vitamin D intake in different genotypes of VDR (FokI) polymorphism and its effect on the bone turnover in postmenopausal women. Methods:The subjects for the study were 312 pre and post-menopausal women aged between 20-75 year randomly selected from the participants of Iranian multicenter osteoporosis study. After an overnight fast, 4ml of peripheral blood was taken and centrifuged to separate serum for measurement of serum parathyroid hormone, 25 hydroxyvitamin D, osteocalcin and cross laps. The FokI polymorphism in exon 2 of the VDR gene was detected by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism Results and major conclusion: FOKI genotype predicted serum cross laps after adjustment for age, menopausal status, serum vitamin D (p<0.001) but did not find significant prediction regarding serum osteocalcin (p=0.3).Also in this model FOKI genotype predicted serum vitamin D after adjustment for age, menopausal status, calcium and vitamin D intake (p<0.001).VDR gene polymorphism may modifies response to vitamin D intake and predicts bone turnover. "n
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