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Nurse specific intervention in first aid of serious traumatic injuries
Mónica Jiménez Sánchez,Elena Abad Domingo,Clara Mata Escriche
NURE Investigación , 2011,
Abstract: Nowadays the serious traumatic injuries is accepted as the first cause of death in the young people of the 15 to 34 years and third in the general population, causing about the 55% of children died between the 5 to 14 years. According to a study performed in 2000, more than 25% of the deaths have been due to inadequate first aid.Recent studies show the initial evaluation and medical attention and transport inprove the survival in these patients. Is accepted the first 30 minutes as the main moment to take decision and in consequence it is necessary multidisciplinary equipment, as well as the emergency plan, in order to assist every patient, mainly in case of multiple victims.The goal of this study is to review the first aid to serious traumatic patient and to approach specifically the nursery assistance as important element in the daily work.
Mapping of multiple criteria for priority setting of health interventions: an aid for decision makers  [cached]
Tromp Noor,Baltussen Rob
BMC Health Services Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-12-454
Abstract: Background In rationing decisions in health, many criteria like costs, effectiveness, equity and feasibility concerns play a role. These criteria stem from different disciplines that all aim to inform health care rationing decisions, but a single underlying concept that incorporates all criteria does not yet exist. Therefore, we aim to develop a conceptual mapping of criteria, based on the World Health Organization’s Health Systems Performance and Health Systems Building Blocks frameworks. This map can be an aid to decision makers to identify the relevant criteria for priority setting in their specific context. Methods We made an inventory of all possible criteria for priority setting on the basis of literature review. We categorized the criteria according to both health system frameworks that spell out a country’s health system goals and input. We reason that the criteria that decision makers use in priority setting exercises are a direct manifestation of this. Results Our map includes thirty-one criteria that are distributed among five categories that reflect the goals of a health system (i.e. to improve level of health, fair distribution of health, responsiveness, social & financial risk protection and efficiency) and leadership/governance one category that reflects feasibiliy based on the health system building blocks (i.e. service delivery, health care workforce , information, medical products, vaccines & technologies, financing and). Conclusions This conceptual mapping of criteria, based on well-established health system frameworks, will further develop the field of priority setting by assisting decision makers in the identification of multiple criteria for selection of health interventions.
Paediatric cholestatic liver disease: Diagnosis, assessment of disease progression and mechanisms of fibrogenesis  [cached]
Tamara N Pereira, Meagan J Walsh, Peter J Lewindon, Grant A Ramm
World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology , 2010,
Abstract: Cholestatic liver disease causes significant morbidity and mortality in children. The diagnosis and management of these diseases can be complicated by an inability to detect early stages of fibrosis and a lack of adequate interventional therapy. There is no single gold standard test that accurately reflects the presence of liver disease, or that can be used to monitor fibrosis progression, particularly in conditions such as cystic fibrosis. This has lead to controversy over how suspected liver disease in children is detected and diagnosed. This review discusses the challenges in using commonly available methods to diagnose hepatic fibrosis and monitor disease progression in children with cholestatic liver disease. In addition, the review examines the mechanisms hypothesised to be involved in the development of hepatic fibrogenesis in paediatric cholestatic liver injury which may ultimately aid in identifying new modalities to assist in both disease detection and therapeutic intervention.
Development of mental health first aid guidelines for deliberate non-suicidal self-injury: A Delphi study
Claire M Kelly, Anthony F Jorm, Betty A Kitchener, Robyn L Langlands
BMC Psychiatry , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-8-62
Abstract: This research was conducted using the Delphi methodology, a method of reaching consensus in a panel of experts. Experts recruited to the panels included 26 professionals, 16 people who had engaged in self-injurious behaviour in the past and 3 carers of people who had engaged in self-injurious behaviour in the past. Statements about providing first aid to a person engaged in self-injurious behaviour were sought from the medical and lay literature, but little was found. Panel members were asked to respond to general questions about first aid for NSSI in a variety of domains and statements were extracted from their responses. The guidelines were written using the items most consistently endorsed by the consumer and professional panels.Of 79 statements rated by the panels, 18 were accepted. These statements were used to develop the guidelines appended to this paper.There are a number of actions which are considered to be useful for members of the public when they encounter someone who is engaging in deliberate, non-suicidal self-injury. These guidelines will be useful in revising curricula for mental health first aid and NSSI first aid training programs. They can also be used by members of the public who want immediate information about how to assist a person who is engaging in such behaviour.A Mental Health First Aid training program was developed by Kitchener and Jorm [1] to train members of the public to assist others in getting appropriate professional help for mental disorders or assist in mental health crisis situations. The role of the giver of mental health first aid is "to assist the person until appropriate professional help is received or the crisis resolves [2]." This can involve a member of the public recognising the signs of developing mental illness and responding effectively, encouraging the person to seek professional help where needed and supporting them in the use of self help strategies when these are appropriate.When the program was first in develop
Role of Paediatricians in Paediatric Ophthalmology  [PDF]
Ujjowala Devi Shrestha
Journal of Nepal Paediatric Society , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/jnps.v33i1.7605
Abstract: Children are primarily examined by paediatricians. In Nepal, child health is in low priority due to illiteracy, there is total lack of awareness about children’s eye health. The common avoidable causes of childhood blindness are refractive errors, amblyopia, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), vitamin A deficiency (VAD), xerophthalmia, ophthalmia neonatorum (ON), congenital cataract, and retinoblastoma. Paediatricians could be the key persons for early referral of these children to a paediatric ophthalmologist. Paediatricians can send the patients for eye examination after birth within 6 weeks, at 6 months, at one year and before going to school. In conclusion, early screening and referral by the paediatricians to the paediatric ophthalmologist prevents children from being sightless. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jnps.v33i1.7605 J Nepal Paediatr Soc. 2013;33(1):80-82
STRATEGIC GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONING OF SEA LEVEL GAUGES TO AID IN EARLY DETECTION OF TSUNAMIS IN THE INTRA-AMERICAS SEA  [PDF]
Joshua I. Henson,Frank Muller-Karger,Doug Wilson,Steven L. Morey
Science of Tsunami Hazards , 2006,
Abstract: The potential impact of past Caribbean tsunamis generated by earthquakes and/or massive submarine slides/slumps, as well as the tsunamigenic potential and population distribution within the Intra-Americas Sea (IAS) is examined to help define the optimal location for coastal sea level gauges intended to serve as elements of a regional tsunami warning system. The goal of this study is to identify the minimum number of sea level gauge locations to aid in tsunami detection and provide the most warning time to the largest number of people. We identified 12 initial, prioritized locations for coastal sea level gauge installation. Our study area approximately encompasses 7oN, 59oW to 36oN, 98oW. The results of this systematic approach to assess priority locations for coastal sea level gauges will assist in developing a tsunami warning system (TWS) for the IAS by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Regional Sub-Commission for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (IOCARIBE-GOOS).
Evaluation of Mental Health First Aid training with members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne, Australia
Harry Minas, Erminia Colucci, Anthony F Jorm
International Journal of Mental Health Systems , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1752-4458-3-19
Abstract: Respondents were 114 participants in two-day MHFA training workshops for the Vietnamese community in Melbourne conducted by two qualified MHFA trainers. Participants completed the research questionnaire prior to the commencement of the training (pre-test) and at its completion (post-test). The questionnaires assessed negative attitudes towards people with mental illness (as described in four vignettes), ability to recognise the mental disorders described in the vignettes, and knowledge about how to assist someone with one of these disorders. Responses to open-ended questions were content analysed and coded. To evaluate the effect of the training, answers to the structured questions and to the coded open-ended questions given at pre- and post-test were compared using McNemar tests for dichotomous values and Wilcoxon tests for other scores.Between pre- and post-test there was significant improvement in recognition of mental disorders; more targeted and appropriate mental health first aid responses, and reduction in inappropriate first aid responses; and negative attitudes to the people described in the vignettes declined significantly on many items of the stigma scale.A two-day, MHFA training course for general members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne demonstrated significant reductions in stigmatising attitudes, improved knowledge of mental disorders and improved knowledge about appropriate forms of assistance to give to people in the community with mental disorder. There is sufficient evidence to scale up to a population level program for the Vietnamese community, and a need for longitudinal evaluation of such a scaled up program.The importance of effective response to mental illness has become increasingly acknowledged as a result of epidemiological data showing the high prevalence of mental disorders in many countries, including Australia [1,2], the large contribution of mental disorders to burden of disease [3], the high economic and social costs of menta
Genodermatoses in paediatric age group  [cached]
Kumar Sunil,Sharma R
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 1996,
Abstract: Pattern of genodermatoses in paediatric age group was studied. The relative incidence of genodermatoses in paediatric dermatology out patient department was 0.62%. The commonest genodermatoses observed was ichthyosis.
Paediatric intensive care: the why and how for trainees
Robert C Tasker
Critical Care , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/cc1504
Abstract: Surprisingly, I found Gale Pearson's Handbook of Paediatric Intensive Care an enjoyable read. I had expected to find yet another small book of unreadable lists and protocols. Instead, what I discovered was a text that provoked reflection about why we do what we do in paediatric critical care. This is consequently not a pocketbook that can be easily used at the bedside. Rather, this handbook is something that should be consumed during that coffee break, after the action. But that said, I highly recommend it as a starting point for all trainees working on paediatric intensive care units.This book has 20 chapters, numerous illustrative figures, and user-friendly tables and fact-boxes. There is a good 7-page introduction for the new trainee, instructing them on who comes to work on a paediatric unit, and providing tips before starting work. The chapter on audit and scoring systems is also palatable. The rest of the chapters cover each organ system, with subsections devoted to common clinical problems and derangements encountered within that system, their underlying pathophysiology, and the rationale for treatment or support intervention. Certainly, there are some omissions. But it is a small book, and most supervisors will pick these omissions up. For example, there is no mention of withdrawal syndrome and the now frequent use of clonidine in paediatric practice in the section on sedatives and analgesics. Also, there is no cautionary statement about the use of propofol. These, however, are minor points. What I really like about this book is its organisation and potential as an educational aid. In fact, it could very easily be used as a curriculum guide.In the United Kingdom, trainees working in paediatric anaesthesia, acute paediatrics, and paediatric critical care can spend 3 or 6 months, or 1 or 2 years assigned to a regional training unit. It is to Gale Pearson's credit that this book could also form the basis or structure for a learner's portfolio. The supervisor co
Framework conditions facilitating paediatric clinical research
Anne-Laure Knellwolf, Stéphane Bauzon, Ornella Alberighi, Irja Lutsar, Ern? Bácsy, Deborah Alfarez, Pietro Panei
Italian Journal of Pediatrics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1824-7288-37-12
Abstract: The Coordination of Research on Priority Medicines for Children (ERA-NET PRIOMEDCHILD) is a network of research funding organisations from eleven different European Union (EU)-member-states, initially founded on January 1st, 2007 for a period of three years extended to four due to an official extension by the European Community (EC). The network's primary goal is to contribute to the European Research Area on priority medicines for children by implementing a European joint research programme including development and innovation themes [1]. ERA-NET PRIOMEDCHILD's concern is also to bring coherence and cooperation to national research programmes and to establish policies on priority medicines for children research.Between 2007 and 2010, key national and international organisations including the European Medicine Agency (EMA) and its Paediatric Committee (PDCO) representative members have been consulted to address research, research funding, public-private research cooperation, ethical and regulatory issues. A set of workshops and meetings involving stakeholders, i.e., academic experts from public hospitals, pharmaceutical industry's, insurance company's, parent associations' and health authorities representatives were held. Based on expert consultations, questionnaires sent to stakeholders and a literature review on that topic, ERA-NET PRIOMEDCHILD identified legal and ethical issues arising from the European Regulation of Paediatric Medicines and made recommendations for facilitating clinical research with children.The three legal pillars of the new Regulation [2] are i) the adoption of incentives for industry; ii) the implementation of a mandatory Paediatric Investigation Plan (PIP) considering all age ranges and iii) the creation of a Paediatric Committee (PDCO). The Regulation provides therefore strong obligations for the pharmaceutical industry together with some rewards and incentives in order to facilitate the development and accessibility of medicinal products
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