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Biochemical Changes in Green and Etiolated Stems of MM106 Apple Rootstock  [PDF]
Aysel Sivaci,Munevver Sokmen,Tohit Giines
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: In the present study, total chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids, anthocyanin, carbohydrate, phenolic constituents, antioxidant activity and root formation percentage of MM106 apple rootstock in etiolated and green stem cuttings were investigated. The rooting studies were carried out climatic room in dark and daily period at 25°C. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids and anthocyanin contents of etiolated stems were significantly lower than green stems. Similarly, total phenolic and carbohydrate contents and antioxidant activity were found lower in etiolated stems but root formation percentage increased significantly with etiolation.
Reactivación de material vegetal élite de pinus radiata d. Don. Mediante microinjerto in vitro
Materán,María Elena; Vega,María Carolina; Sánchez-Olate,Manuel; Sáez,Katia; Rodríguez,Roberto; Ríos,Darcy;
Interciencia , 2008,
Abstract: the effect of two asepsis protocols, scion type (apical shoot tips and brachyblast), gathering season (autumn and summer) and insertion position of the scion in the ortet (apical and basal) upon the micrograft establishment and consolidation of pinus radiata d. don. was evaluated. scions were obtained from mature nursery cultivated clones. the asepsis consisted on the immersion in sodium hypochlorite to 2.5% v/v i.a for 15min (a1); or for 20min, followed by the immersion in a solution with benomyl+cisteyne 50mg·l-1 each, until their use (a2). hypocotyls from seeds germinated in vitro in ql medium without growth regulators were used as rootstock grafting. micrografting was carried out using the apical wedge technique. the micrografts were kept in tubes with ql medium + 0.1mg·l-1 aib and 1mg·l-1 bap at 25 ±2°c, light intensity of 80μmol·m-2·s-1 and photoperiod of 16h. a completely random design with factorial arrangement (24) was used, with 13 replications. micrograft establishment showed significant differences in the type of interactions between asepsis/gathering season and type of scion/gathering season, turning out to be the apical shoot-tips gathered during the autumn and the a2 asepsis the best treatments for the micrograft establishment of p. radiata. the consolidation was influenced by the scion type and the time of the year when micrografting was carried out, the apical shoot tips (ba) behaving again as the most reactive material.
Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Pinus laricio Needles and Their Responses to Prescribed Burnings  [PDF]
Magali Cannac Cannac,Vanina Pasqualini,Stéphane Greff,Catherine Fernandez,Lila Ferrat
Molecules , 2007, DOI: 10.3390/12081614
Abstract: Fire is a dominant ecological factor in Mediterranean-type ecosystems. Management strategies include prescribed (controlled) burning, which has been used in the management of several species, such as Pinus nigra ssp laricio var. Corsicana, a pine endemic to Corsica of great ecological and economic importance. The effects of prescribed burning on Pinus laricio have been little studied. The first aim of this study was to characterize total and simple phenolic compounds in Pinus laricio. The second aim was to understand: i) the short term (one to three months) and medium term (three years) effects of prescribed burning, and ii) the effects of periodic prescribed burning on the production of phenolic compounds in Pinus laricio. The first result of this study is the presence of total and simple phenolic compounds in the needles of Pinus laricio. 3-Vanillyl propanol is the major compound. After a prescribed burning, the synthesis of total phenolic compounds increases in Pinus laricio for a period of three months. Total phenolic compounds could be used as bioindicators for the short-term response of Pinus laricio needles to prescribed burning. Simple phenolic compounds do not seem to be good indicators of the impact of prescribed burning because prescribed burnings are low in intensity.
The Analysis of Pine Needles as a Substrate for Gasification  [PDF]
Alok Dhaundiyal,V. K. Gupta
Hydro Nepal: Journal of Water, Energy and Environment , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/hn.v15i0.11299
Abstract: The forests of Chir pine (Pinus Roxburgii) encompass 97.4 thousand acres or 16.15 % of the total forest land of Uttrakhand, a state in India. According to Forest Department of India, Dehradun, a massive forest fire in 1995 engulfed 14.7 thousand acres of valuable forest area through 2,272 forest fire incidents in Uttrakhand, which resulted in the loss of crores of rupees and created various long-lasting ecological consequences. The fires damaged the fertile top layer of the soil and left a layer of pine needle litter that prevented rain water from being absorbed by the soil and contributed to early depletion of the groundwater cycle and stopped grass growth, thus depriving livestock of important food. So the question of what to do with these pine needles is an important one for forest and livestock. Regarding this problem, the German organization, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit, has been studying ways to use pine needles as a feedstock for downdraft gasifiers. If successful, the gasifier would provide incentive to collect the pine needles during dry months and improve the condition of the soil by allowing water to permeate top soils. Using chemical analysis, flue gas analysis, and combustion analysis, our paper analyzes the potential of pine needles as a substrate for gasification. We also argue that using pine needles in this way would alleviate carbon dioxide emissions due to forest fire. Average carbon dioxide emissions in forests that have an abundance of pine needles is 15.46%, but reduced to 12.8% when pine needles are used in a gasifier plant. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/hn.v15i0.11299 HYDRO Nepal Journal Journal of Water, Energy and Environment Volume: 15, 2014, July Page: 73-81
Identification of proanthocyanidins extracted from Pinus radiata D. Don bark
Cortés,Soledad; Pulgar,Hugo; Sanhueza,Verónica; Aspé,Estrella; Fernández,Katherina;
Ciencia e investigación agraria , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-16202010000200002
Abstract: the bark of pinus radiata d. don is recognized as a rich natural source of proanthocyanidins (pas). barks of pinus radiata d. don were extracted to produce a raw extract, and then purified to produce 4 fractions, with the aim of correlating its structural characteristics with the extract antioxidant capacity. the structural characterization was performed by acid catalysis in presence of phloroglucinol, foliowed by the detection of the components by high precision liquid chromatography (hplc). the subunits identified in the bark of pinus radiata were: epicatechin- (4?-2) - phloroglucinol (ec-p), catechin- (4á-2) - phloroglucinol (c-f) and (+) -catechin (c). the purified fractions showed different mean degree of polymerization (mdp), average molecular weight (amw), concentration and reaction yield (r) with phloroglucinol. the concentration of total phenols decreased according to the order in which the fractions were eluted. all the fractions presented a high antiradical activity (evaluated as scavenging capacity of radical dpph>). nevertheless, the fraction fu presented the greatest tannin concentration and antioxidant activity. the structural characteristics of the extract of pinus radiata d. don bark could be correlated with the antioxidant activity of the extract.
Carbon isotope distribution along pine needles (Pinus nigra Arnold)
Lidia Barszczowska,Mariusz Orion J?drysek
Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae , 2005, DOI: 10.5586/asbp.2005.013
Abstract: In this paper we show spatial carbon isotope variations in black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) needles, collected in spring 2001 and autumn 2003, from trees at the coast of south-western Croatia island ( irje) and southern Spain (Benalmadena near Malaga), respectively. Needles were segmented perpendicularly to the longer axis (base, middle and top) and each segment was analysed separately. d13C values in needles from Croatia varied between -26.65‰ to -24.43‰ (2 months old needles) and from -28.25‰ to -25.21‰ (1 year old needles), while d13C values in needles from Spain varied from -27.58‰ to -25.27‰. The difference between d13Cb (base) and d13Ct (top) in the same needle (D13Cb-t) varied from 1.85 to 2.05‰ (in young needles from Croatia), from 0,02 to 1,80‰ (young needles from Spain), and 1.16 to 2.32‰, (in old needles from Croatia). The average D13Cb-t values were 0.78‰ and 1.73‰ in Spain and Croatia, respectively. In each needle the base of the needle was always 13C-enriched as compared to the top of the same needle. This evidences that carbon isotopes are not retranslocated after its fixation into the leaf structure (after the growth process is over). Temperature variation was most probably negligible for the discovered intraneedle carbon isotope distribution. Although, the intraneedle carbon isotope inhomogeneity can be partly the result of seasonal variation in d13C of atmospheric CO2, most probably the remarkably high D13Cb-t values, and regular pattern, are predominantly resulting from isotopic and chemical composition of primary and secondary products contained in the growin part of needle and kinetic isotope fractionation during decomposition of storage materials at the base.
Root induction in radiata pine using Agrobacterium rhizogenes
Li,Mingshan; Leung,David W.M.;
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology , 2003,
Abstract: root induction using agrobacterium rhizogenes was conducted in hypocotyl explants, intact seedlings, de-rooted seedling cuttings and adventitious shoots of radiata pine (pinus radiata d. don). use of two a. rhizogenes strains (a4t and lb9402), with or without application of iba, can trigger root formation in different explants. strain lba9402 was more effective than a4t in increasing rooting percentage and root number. addition of 4.4 umiba to the medium further enhanced rooting from the cultured hypocotyl segments inoculated with the two a. rhizogenes strains. strain lba9402+iba induced in about 75% of the cultured hypocotyl segments to form roots. in contrast the controls failed to initiate roots on intact seedlings or cultured segments in presence or absence of iba. rooting of adventitious shoots from 3 year-old radiata pine was improved following inoculation with lba9402, suggesting that this rooting treatment has potential to aid clonal propagation of radiata pine.
Influence of toxic metal ions phenols in needles and roots, and on root respiration of Scots pine seedlings
Piotr Karolewski,Marian J. Giertych
Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae , 1994, DOI: 10.5586/asbp.1994.005
Abstract: Nitrates of aluminum, cadmium, manganese and lead cause changes in the content of phenolic compounds (o-dPh and TPh) in needles and roots, and in the rate of dark respiration (DR) of roots of one-year-old seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The changes depend on the cation, the salt concentration used, and the analyzed plant part. The observed changes in the levels of phenolic compounds in needles and roots, and the rate of respiration in roots, indicate the following rank in toxicity of the studied metal cations: Mn < Al < Pb < Cd.
The effect of industrial air pollution on membrane lipid composition of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles
Pawe? M. Pukacki
Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae , 2004, DOI: 10.5586/asbp.2004.025
Abstract: This work was undertaken to determine lipids changes in needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations growning on polluted stands near a phosphate fertilizer factory in Luboń, and copper smelter in G ogów and in a control area in Kórnik. Needles from polluted areas had a lower content of total phospholipids than samples from the unpolluted site. Greater changes were detected in membranes of needles collected in October and January. In comparison with the control total phospholipid in needles of populations from polluted areas were 14 to 33% lower. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylglicerol (PG) were the dominant phospholipids. The analysis of fatty acids in phospholipid fraction showed a decrease of linoleic acid (18:2) and linolenic acid (18:3) contents. The level of polyunsaturated fatty acids in needles of three populations from polluted areas was up to 40% lower as compared with the control. Moreover, phospholipids and their fatty acids showed seasonal fluctuations. The contents of PC, PG and PE increased in autumn and in winter, during the process of cold acclimation. In July, current-year needles did not show significant differences in membrane lipid composition between the polluted areas of Scots pine populations. The results suggest that the lipid changes of needles could be associated with disturbances in phohospholipid metabolism, caused by environmental pollution.
Catita Plopa,Ion Du?u,Marioara Fodor
Fruit Growing Research , 2012,
Abstract: Adaptabil` is interspecific hybrid (Prunus besseyi x open pollination), obtained at RIFG Pitesti that is recomanded like rootstock for peach, nectarin and some plum and apricot variety. In vitro propagation phases were realised efficient by using culture initiation on basal medium QL suplimented with 0.1 mg/l GA3 and 0.01 mg/l IBA. The optimal multiplication rate of the buds was 1/8 and was realised on QL culture media with hormonal balance formed by 0.1 mg/l GA3, 1.5 mg/l BAP and 0.2 mg/l ANA. Use of the DKW, MS, MS and QL culture media with Walkey vitamins in rooting phase recorded to yield by 98% rooting plants on formula basal culture medium: QL, Walkey vitamins and hormonal balance represented by0.01 mg/l GA3 and 1 mg/l IBA.
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