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Neglected Infections of Poverty in the United States of America  [PDF]
Peter J. Hotez
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000256
Abstract: In the United States, there is a largely hidden burden of diseases caused by a group of chronic and debilitating parasitic, bacterial, and congenital infections known as the neglected infections of poverty. Like their neglected tropical disease counterparts in developing countries, the neglected infections of poverty in the US disproportionately affect impoverished and under-represented minority populations. The major neglected infections include the helminth infections, toxocariasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, and cysticercosis; the intestinal protozoan infection trichomoniasis; some zoonotic bacterial infections, including leptospirosis; the vector-borne infections Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, trench fever, and dengue fever; and the congenital infections cytomegalovirus (CMV), toxoplasmosis, and syphilis. These diseases occur predominantly in people of color living in the Mississippi Delta and elsewhere in the American South, in disadvantaged urban areas, and in the US–Mexico borderlands, as well as in certain immigrant populations and disadvantaged white populations living in Appalachia. Preliminary disease burden estimates of the neglected infections of poverty indicate that tens of thousands, or in some cases, hundreds of thousands of poor Americans harbor these chronic infections, which represent some of the greatest health disparities in the United States. Specific policy recommendations include active surveillance (including newborn screening) to ascertain accurate population-based estimates of disease burden; epidemiological studies to determine the extent of autochthonous transmission of Chagas disease and other infections; mass or targeted treatments; vector control; and research and development for new control tools including improved diagnostics and accelerated development of a vaccine to prevent congenital CMV infection and congenital toxoplasmosis.
Incomes and poverty among population of the United States - chosen issues
S?awomir Kalinowski
Journal of Agribusiness and Rural Development , 2009,
Abstract: The income situation of the United States population and its influence on poverty size were presented in the article. The average incomes in households between 1967 and 2006 and their diversity according to gender and age as well as concentration of incomes in quintile groups were discussed. The poverty thresholds used by Census Bureau as well as size and poverty rate between 1959 and 2006 were presented. The poverty size according to age was also discussed.
Inclusive business and poverty: prospects in the Brazilian context
Teodósio, Armindo dos Santos de Sousa;Comini, Graziella;
Revista de Administra??o (S?o Paulo) , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0080-21072012000300006
Abstract: inclusive business is a term currently used to explain the organizations that aim to solve social problems with efficiency and financial sustainability by means of market mechanisms. it can be said that inclusive businesses are those targeted at generating employment and income for groups with little or no market mobility, in keeping with the standards of so-called "decent jobs" and in a self-sustaining manner, i.e., generating profit for the enterprises, and establishing relationships with typical business organizations as suppliers of products and services or in the distribution of this type of production. this article discusses the different concepts found in the scientific literature on inclusive businesses. it also analyses data from a survey conducted with the audiences of social corporate responsibility seminars held by fiemg. this analysis reveals that prospects, risks and idealizations similar to those found in inclusive business theories can also be found among individuals that run social corporate responsibility projects, even if this designation is new for them. the connection between companies and poverty, especially in relation to inclusive businesses, seems full of stumbling blocks and traps in the brazilian context.
Altruity: Key to the Fight Against Poverty  [cached]
Philippe Kourilsky
Field Actions Science Reports , 2012,
Abstract: This paper presents the concept of altruity and illustrates its philosophical and practical importance in the fight against poverty. Altruity –a highly specific form of rational altruism– is the duty that comes with freedom. The individual duty of altruity is the necessary counterpart of the right to individual freedoms. It is, by its very nature, distinct from (though complementary to) generosity, and devoid of any expectation of reciprocity (while not excluding it). The idea of altruity is the cornerstone of a theory of individual responsibility, and of a theory of justice, which provide a conceptual framework for the struggle against poverty. And because it is only meaningful if implemented with a pre-defined method, it also provides a framework for action, as the FACTS Initiative has shown. Altruity thus emerges as one of the keys to the fight against poverty.
Potential and prospects for development of academic entrepreneurship in Poland
Joanna Wyrwa, Ph.D. , Alina Pi tyszek-pych, M.Sc.
Management , 2012, DOI: 10.2478/v10286-012-0009-5
Abstract: The development of knowledge-based economy has forced - especially in countries with advanced industries - profound changes in the operation of all scientific institutions, including higher education, which is one of the most important intellectual assets available to national economies. Triggering the entrepreneurial potential of academic staff and opening to business of university research laboratories has become a primary objective of scientific and technical policy in many countries, including Poland. This article aims to present the state of academic entrepreneurship in Poland, including the factors determining its development. The first section discusses the theoretical issues related to the essence of academic entrepreneurship and the results of selected research and analytical work on issues of development of academic entrepreneurship in Poland. In the further part of the article, in relation to the discussed research, presented are conclusions and recommendations on how to best support the development of academic entrepreneurship. The article uses the reports and expertise resulting from research conducted in this field.
Prospects of Poland’s Socio-Economic Development in Light of Statistical Data  [PDF]
Witold Luciński
e-Finanse , 2011,
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to evaluate, in light of statistical data, Poland’s capacity for dynamic development in the future and its possibilities for the attainment of its ambitious economic and social goals. The analysis was based on the latest available data drawn primarily from Eurostat. They concern a number of EU countries, chosen as the reference countries in the paper. The Author discusses different measures for the evaluation of the economic and social processes to assess Poland’s development opportunities in the coming years. For the sake of simplicity of presentation, the Author has divided the measures into short- and long-term indices. Short-term analysis shows that Poland is successful in the short run. Unfortunately, long-term indices, which are rarely discussed by the public, reveal a grim picture of the performance of Poland in comparison with the reference EU countries. The Author concludes that Poland is a country which does not pay much attention to its long-term socio-economic development.
Cost and results of information systems for health and poverty indicators in the United Republic of Tanzania
Rommelmann,Vanessa; Setel,Philip W.; Hemed,Yusuf; Angeles,Gustavo; Mponezya,Hamisi; Whiting,David; Boerma,Ties;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862005000800009
Abstract: objective: to examine the costs of complementary information generation activities in a resource-constrained setting and compare the costs and outputs of information subsystems that generate the statistics on poverty, health and survival required for monitoring, evaluation and reporting on health programmes in the united republic of tanzania. methods: nine systems used by four government agencies or ministries were assessed. costs were calculated from budgets and expenditure data made available by information system managers. system coverage, quality assurance and information production were reviewed using questionnaires and interviews. information production was characterized in terms of 38 key sociodemographic indicators required for national programme monitoring. findings: in 2002-03 approximately us$ 0.53 was spent per tanzanian citizen on the nine information subsystems that generated information on 37 of the 38 selected indicators. the census and reporting system for routine health service statistics had the largest participating populations and highest total costs. nationally representative household surveys and demographic surveillance systems (which are not based on nationally representative samples) produced more than half the indicators and used the most rigorous quality assurance. five systems produced fewer than 13 indicators and had comparatively high costs per participant. conclusion: policy-makers and programme planners should be aware of the many trade-offs with respect to system costs, coverage, production, representativeness and quality control when making investment choices for monitoring and evaluation. in future, formal cost-effectiveness studies of complementary information systems would help guide investments in the monitoring, evaluation and planning needed to demonstrate the impact of poverty-reduction and health programmes.
UNITED STATES, EUROPE AND POLAND. DIFFERENT STAGES OF ANTITRUST TYING WAR IN THE NEW ECONOMY.
Mariusz SWORA
Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Microsoft’s case has led to heated debates, both in Europe and the United States of America, on the abuse of the dominant position and on the prohibition of tying. This discussion, both in Europe and the United States, is not finished. In this article the author presents legal implications of tying products in Europe and Poland and confronts them with the American approach to tying. In Poland, a country with a fast developing economy, with the growing level of foreign investments, discussion on monopolist practices under the conditions of a fast technological development1 has not really commenced yet. The problems of innovation and development of New Economy undertakings has gained new impetus following Poland’s accession to the European Union. It is a matter of time when the anti-trust law begins to show interest in them. There are some indications that this has already taken place. In the first part of this article the author briefly presents the discussion related to Microsoft III case in the United States insofar as it pertains to New Economy issues. The second and third parts address legal and political aspects of the Microsoft case in the European Union. In the fourth part legal aspects related to tying practices in Poland are presented. The article aims to show that instrumental and mechanical treatment of tying practices used by firms having the market power under conditions of technological progress is not proper. The problem of antitrust analysis of such practices is universal, as universal as these practices are. However, the problem is solved differently in the United States and in Europe and the reasons for such a different approach are rooted in the legal system and policy enforcement. Microsoft antitrust is global. After US and European cases, Korean competition authority has found Microsoft guilty of tying practices2. Regarding Microsoft problems with tying it is necessary to ask the question whether tying practices are characteristic only to enterprises like Microsoft or constitute a general problem from the New Economy perspective. An important question here is (to paraphrase M. D. Bradley and D. W. Jansen)3: should we teach an old economy dog New Economy tricks?
DIRECTIONS AND PROSPECTS OF TRANSFORMATION IN CULTURAL LANDSCAPES OF POLAND - CONSIDERATIONS AND ATTEMPTS OF EVALUATION  [PDF]
URSZULA MYGA-PIATEK
Acta Geographica Debrecina. Landscape and Environment Series , 2010,
Abstract: The article points to several very up-to-date issues that occur in relation with the vanishing of traditional forms of land use and introduction of new, other than indigenous, management styles in Poland. Current processes of deterioration of the structure of the cultural landscapes have been discussed with regard to natural values and the historical process of land management by man. The article is a peculiar case study for quite common negative transformation of the polish countryside caused by relatively free use of the space, legal negligence, low awareness and poor identification of residents with the landscape – the countryside which loses its peculiar and typical features as the result of “mass consumption”. The text also presents positive examples of care taken for the regional landscape and lists initiatives aimed at improving the image of polish area.
Millennium Development Goals and the Poverty Question in Nigeria  [PDF]
Akpomuvie Orhioghene Benedict
Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The paper examined the poverty question in Nigeria within the context of the Millennium Development Goals (NDGs), adopted by the United Nations in 2000. Over the past decades, Nigeria’s preoccupation with development has had very marginal success. The past failures and depressing prospects have provoked a great amount of concern. The paper revealed that most Nigerians are worse off than they were; health and nutrition problems are widespread and infrastructure eroding rapidly. It further revealed that the achievement of the goal of stopping the traumatic march of poverty has so far eluded Nigeria and may not be able to achieve the ambitious Millennium Development Goal target of reducing poverty by half by 2015. The paper however, called for target policy interventions to protect the poor and a culture of prudent fiscal and monetary policy with incentives for non-oil growth and the development of the private sector.
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