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Responses of plasma lipids to edible mushroom diets in albino rats
FL Oyetayo
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2006,
Abstract: The potentials of two tropical edible mushrooms: Pleurtotus tuber-regium and Termitomycetes clypeatus in altering the plasma levels of some lipids in male albino rats fed high fat diets were investigated. Rats were randomly assigned to diet containing 20% fat, P. tuber-regium diet and T. clypeatus diet. Total body weight gain of rats fed mushroom diets were not significantly different (P>0.05) from one another. After a 28-day feeding trial, plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides concentrations were found to be significantly lower (P<0.05) than control while high density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher (P<0.05). The implications of these findings highlight the hypolipidemic properties of the two tropical edible mushrooms
In-Vitro Measurement of pH and Antioxidant Capacity during Colonic Fermentation of Selected Underutilized Wild and Edible Beans  [PDF]
O. A. Awoyinka, T. R. Omodara, F. C. Oladel, O. O. Aina, O. Akinluyi
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2018.812065
Abstract: Human gut flora-mediated non-digestible fraction of wild edible and common edible was observed for pH at every 6 hours regime. The antioxidant ability was measured up to 18 hours of fermentation with different associated gut microbes. Changes in pH provide an overview of the fermentation process. In the in-vitro study of antioxidant activity by DPPH test, anti-oxidants values showed differences, depending on the substrate and microbial fermenters used for fermentation. At first 6 hours interval, it was observed that the wild bean-Feregede fermented by Enterococcus feacalis exerts the highest antioxidant capacity of 0.0043 Cathechin equivalents. It also exerts lowest antioxidant capacity of 0.0034 Cathechin equivalents after 18 hours fermentation. These data provided preliminary evidence that consumption of beans diet such as the wild bean—Otili, Feregede, pakala and edible bean—oloyin is limiting factor to liberation of antioxidant components during the gastrointestinal digestion. Thus, disruption of normal cellular homeostasis by redox signaling may result in the development of various gastrointestinal pathological conditions, including inflammatory bowel diseases.
Comparative Studies on Mineral and Scavenging Ability of Edible and Some Underexploited Wild Beans in Nigeria
O. A. Awoyinka, A. Ileola, C. N. Imeoria, M. F. Asaolu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102318
Abstract: This work was set out to assay for some minerals essential for healthy state and biochemical indices that underlined degenerative diseases in some edible bean cultivar and nearly extinct local wild bean. Against this backdrop, ash composition was determined before Na , K , Ca2 , Mg2 , Zn2 , Fe2 , Pb2 and Cd were determined by Flame Photometer and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) respectively. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Vitamin E and Vitamin C were also assayed to determine the scavenging ability of the bean samples. The proximate ash composition result of unprocessed and malted edible bean IT99K-573-2-1 had the highest ash content value of 6.90 ± 0.01 and 6.92 ± 0.01 respectively. In the bean samples Pb2 and Cd2 were not detected. The empirical mineral composition varies across both the wild and edible bean without significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) except IT07K-243-1-10 that had Ca2 to be significantly higher than other bean samples. K was found to be significantly higher in Feregede and IT07K-243-1-10 compared to other bean samples. Changes in the radical scavenging ability of the various sample in this study after malting, showed a slight reduction in DPPH content except for the edible beans—IT04K-333-2 and IT845-2246-4. Well, there was slight reduction of Vitamin E only in Otili, Mucuna and IT99K-573-1-1. Compared to others only Otili and IT845-2246-4 had slight reduction in Vitamin C after malting.
Edible orthopteran and lepidopteran as protein substitutes in the feeding of experimental albino rats
R F Ogunleye, O T Omotoso
African Journal of Applied Zoology and Environmental Biology , 2005,
Abstract: Experiments was conducted on the use of Zonocerus variegatus (Orthopteran) and Cirina forda (Lepidopteran) as possible protein subtitutes in the feeding of experimental albino rats in the laboratory. The result of the proximate composition of C forda and Z variegatus showed a high crude protein values of 49.70%, 48.6%; moisture content of 10.92% and 11.11% and Fat of 22.21% and 7.14% respectively. These compares favourably well with the result recorded for fish. The two insects have a considerably high amounts of potassium, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, magnessiun and Iron. There was an increase in the weights and lengths of rats fed with diets containing C forda and Z variaegatus. There were no significant differences in growth recorded for the experimental diets and the control at 5% level of probability using fishers' least significant difference (LSD). AJAZEB Vol. 7 2005: pp. 48-51
Impact of petroleum refining activities on nitrate and nitrite content of edible vegetables and on their in vivo kinetics in albino rats  [PDF]
Gerald Otti, Paulicarp N. Okafor
Journal of Biophysical Chemistry (JBPC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbpc.2012.34032
Abstract: The influence of pollution from petroleum refining activities on the levels of nitrates and nitrites in five edible vegetable species was investigated. Besides, the kinetics of nitrite and nitrate was studied in vivo using albino rats with focus on the possible influence of concentration difference on kinetics and implications to toxicity. Leaf samples of the five vegetable species were collected randomly from various locations within Eleme, a host community of Port Harcourt Refinery Company and the Indorama Petrochemical Company. Also, samples were collected from Umuahia, which served as pollution-free control. The leaf samples were analyzed for their nitrite and nitrate contents. Nitrite was determined spectrophotometrically while nitrate was determined after cadmium column reduction. Results showed that samples from Eleme had higher mean nitrate (349.20 mg/100g dry leaf mass; P < 0.05) and nitrite (63.12 mg/100g dry leaf mass; P > 0.05) as compared to the same samples from Umuahia. Solutions of nitrate and nitrite, equivalent in concentration to mean nitrate and nitrite content of the vegetable samples from the two locations were administered enterally to four groups of albino rats. Analysis of their blood levels were monitored five times at 30 minutes intervals following administration. Rates of change of blood nitrites and nitrates were found to be fairly constant in absorption as well as in the elimination phase. Their peak blood concentrations varied proportionately with their concentrations in administered solutions. However, peak blood nitrate was attained later in group of animals receiving higher amount of nitrate solution. Refining activities may pre-dispose people living within Eleme community to health hazards through contamination of edible vegetables.
Microarray Analyses of Genes Differentially Expressed by Diet (Black Beans and Soy Flour) during Azoxymethane-Induced Colon Carcinogenesis in Rats  [PDF]
Elizabeth A. Rondini,Maurice R. Bennink
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/351796
Abstract: We previously demonstrated that black bean (BB) and soy flour (SF)-based diets inhibit azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancer. The objective of this study was to identify genes altered by carcinogen treatment in normal-appearing colonic mucosa and those attenuated by bean feeding. Ninety-five male F344 rats were fed control (AIN) diets upon arrival. At 4 and 5 weeks, rats were injected with AOM (15?mg/kg) or saline and one week later administered an AIN, BB-, or SF-based diet. Rats were sacrificed after 31 weeks, and microarrays were conducted on RNA isolated from the distal colonic mucosa. AOM treatment induced a number of genes involved in immunity, including several MHC II-associated antigens and innate defense genes (RatNP-3, Lyz2, Pla2g2a). BB- and SF-fed rats exhibited a higher expression of genes involved in energy metabolism and water and sodium absorption and lower expression of innate (RatNP-3, Pla2g2a, Tlr4, Dmbt1) and cell cycle-associated (Cdc2, Ccnb1, Top2a) genes. Genes involved in the extracellular matrix (Col1a1, Fn1) and innate immunity (RatNP-3, Pla2g2a) were induced by AOM in all diets, but to a lower extent in bean-fed animals. This profile suggests beans inhibit colon carcinogenesis by modulating cellular kinetics and reducing inflammation, potentially by preserving mucosal barrier function. 1. Introduction Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common neoplasms afflicting industrialized societies [1]. In 2008, there were 609,051 deaths due to colorectal cancer worldwide, with 50,640 cases in the United States alone [1]. Both genetic and environmental exposures have been implicated in the etiology of CRC, and it has been estimated that up to 75% of cases may be preventable by adequate diets and regular exercise [2–4]. Consumption of diets low in red meat and alcohol and high in vegetables and cereal grains is generally associated with a decreased risk of developing CRC [4–6]. Additionally, populations consuming higher intakes of legumes (peas, beans, lentils, peanuts) are reported to have a lower risk of [6–12] and mortality from CRC [13]. It has long been known that dietary patterns modulate the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer [2, 3], however, identification of specific mechanisms has been limited. The azoxymethane- (AOM-) induced colon cancer model in rodents has been utilized extensively to examine dietary influences on colon cancer. Tumors develop almost exclusively in the colon, primarily in the distal region, similar to the distribution observed in humans from high-risk areas. Additionally, many of the
Microarray Analyses of Genes Differentially Expressed by Diet (Black Beans and Soy Flour) during Azoxymethane-Induced Colon Carcinogenesis in Rats  [PDF]
Elizabeth A. Rondini,Maurice R. Bennink
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/351796
Abstract: We previously demonstrated that black bean (BB) and soy flour (SF)-based diets inhibit azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancer. The objective of this study was to identify genes altered by carcinogen treatment in normal-appearing colonic mucosa and those attenuated by bean feeding. Ninety-five male F344 rats were fed control (AIN) diets upon arrival. At 4 and 5 weeks, rats were injected with AOM (15 mg/kg) or saline and one week later administered an AIN, BB-, or SF-based diet. Rats were sacrificed after 31 weeks, and microarrays were conducted on RNA isolated from the distal colonic mucosa. AOM treatment induced a number of genes involved in immunity, including several MHC II-associated antigens and innate defense genes (RatNP-3, Lyz2, Pla2g2a). BB- and SF-fed rats exhibited a higher expression of genes involved in energy metabolism and water and sodium absorption and lower expression of innate (RatNP-3, Pla2g2a, Tlr4, Dmbt1) and cell cycle-associated (Cdc2, Ccnb1, Top2a) genes. Genes involved in the extracellular matrix (Col1a1, Fn1) and innate immunity (RatNP-3, Pla2g2a) were induced by AOM in all diets, but to a lower extent in bean-fed animals. This profile suggests beans inhibit colon carcinogenesis by modulating cellular kinetics and reducing inflammation, potentially by preserving mucosal barrier function.
S-Adenosylmethionine Inhibits the Growth of Cancer Cells by Reversing the Hypomethylation Status of c-myc and H-ras in Human Gastric Cancer and Colon Cancer
Jin Luo, Yan-Ni Li, Fei Wang, Wei-Ming Zhang, Xin Geng
International Journal of Biological Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: A global DNA hypomethylation might activate oncogene transcription, thus promoting carcinogenesis and tumor development. S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) serves as a major methyl donor in biological transmethylation events. The object of this study is to explore the influence of SAM on the status of methylation at the promoter of the oncogenes c-myc, H-ras and tumor-suppressor gene p16 (INK4a), as well as its inhibitory effect on cancer cells. The results indicated that SAM treatment inhibited cell growth in gastric cancer cells and colon cancer cells, and the inhibition efficiency was significantly higher than that in the normal cells. Under standard growth conditions, C-myc and H-ras promoters were hypomethylated in gastric cancer cells and colon cancer cells. SAM treatment resulted in a heavy methylation of these promoters, which consequently downregulated mRNA and protein levels. In contrast, there was no significant difference in mRNA and protein levels of p16 (INK4a) with and without SAM treatment. SAM can effectively inhibit the tumor cells growth by reversing the DNA hypomethylation on promoters of oncogenes, thus down-regulating their expression. With no influence on the expression of the tumor suppressor genes, such as P16, SAM could be used as a potential drug for cancer therapy.
The structure of reversing symmetry groups  [PDF]
Michael Baake,John A. G. Roberts
Physics , 2006,
Abstract: We present some of the group theoretic properties of reversing symmetry groups, and classify their structure in simple cases that occur frequently in several well-known groups of dynamical systems.
Reversing Single Sessions  [PDF]
Francesco Tiezzi,Nobuko Yoshida
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Session-based communication has gained a widespread acceptance in practice as a means for developing safe communicating systems via structured interactions. In this paper, we investigate how these structured interactions are affected by reversibility, which provides a computational model allowing executed interactions to be undone. In particular, we provide a systematic study of the integration of different notions of reversibility in both binary and multiparty single sessions. The considered forms of reversibility are: one for completely reversing a given session with one backward step, and another for also restoring any intermediate state of the session with either one backward step or multiple ones. We analyse the costs of reversing a session in all these different settings. Our results show that extending binary single sessions to multiparty ones does not affect the reversibility machinery and its costs.
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