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Reflections on the performance of Ireland and Portugal in the OECD/PISA 2000 assessment of reading literacy  [cached]
Gerry Shiel
Revista Portuguesa de Educa??o , 2002,
Abstract: In 2000, 15-year olds in 28 member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and four additional countries took part in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). While PISA assessed three cognitive domains reading literacy, mathematical literacy and scientific literacy this paper focuses on reading literacy the major assessment domain in 2000. The purpose of the paper is to reflect on the performance of students in two OECD countries Ireland and Portugal. First, a context for considering the outcomes of PISA is provided by reviewing the outcomes of earlier international assessments of reading, in which Irish and Portuguese students performed at about the same levels. Second, the relatively strong performance of Ireland on the PISA reading literacy combined scale and subscales is contrasted with the relatively weaker performance of Portugal. Third, variables that are associated with performance on PISA, including school and student-level socio-economic status, are considered. Fourth, links between the curriculum in English in Irish schools, the Irish Junior Certificate examination, and performance on PISA reading literacy are explored, and it is concluded similarities between these may account, in part, for the strong performance of Irish students on PISA. The paper concludes with a consideration of ways in wich PISA can inform policy in relation to the improvement of reading literacy in both Ireland and Portugal.
Welfare systems, ageing and work: an OECD perspective  [cached]
Ignazio Visco
PSL Quarterly Review , 2000,
Abstract: This paper examines the scale of the demographic problem facing OECD economies and the labour market trends among older workers, considering the macroeconomic implications of welfare provision for ageing on living standards and fiscal balances. The nature and the scale of incentives for early retirement are then discussed, concluding that welfare systems in OECD countries will come under increasing pressure as the share of public pension payments on total welfare outlays could rise dramatically over the coming decades. The paper illustrates some of the recent OECD recommendations for responding to the challenges posed by ageing societies in the context of diverse social welfare systems and concludes that policies are urgently needed in a number of countries to pursue two fundamental objectives: increasing the average number of years individuals spend active in the labour force and raising the sources of provision for an adequate retirement income.
Welfare, invecchiamento della popolazione e lavoro: una prospettiva OCSE (Welfare Systems, Ageing and Work: An OECD Perspective)  [cached]
Ignazio Visco
Moneta e Credito , 2000,
Abstract: This paper examines the scale of the demographic problem facing OECD economies and the labour market trends among older workers, considering the macroeconomic implications of welfare provision for ageing on living standards and fiscal balances. The nature and the scale of incentives for early retirement are then discussed, concluding that welfare systems in OECD countries will come under increasing pressure as the share of public pension payments on total welfare outlays could rise dramatically over the coming decades. The paper illustrates some of the recent OECD recommendations for responding to the challenges posed by ageing societies in the context of diverse social welfare systems and concludes that policies are urgently needed in a number of countries to pursue two fundamental objectives: increasing the average number of years individuals spend active in the labour force and raising the sources of provision for an adequate retirement income.
Analysis of PISA 2009 Exam according to some variables
Murat Yalcin*,Sevda Aslan,Ertugrul Usta
Mevlana International Journal of Education , 2012,
Abstract: Within this research, maths, reading and science skills of the students at the age group 15 were aimed to be examined according to some variables in the scope of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009. Research was carried out with 4,996 students at the age group 15 and is patterned in screening model. One-way analysis of variance was used in data analysis. According to the research findings, a significant difference was obtained in students’ maths, reading and science skills with regard to their having quality time at home with their parents. In the comparison made by taking into account Parents’ education level and socio-economic status, a significant difference in the students’ maths, reading and science skills was found as well.
European welfare regimes: Political orientations versus poverty  [PDF]
Josifidis Kosta,Hall John,Supi? Novica,Ivan?ev Olgica
Panoeconomicus , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/pan1105651j
Abstract: This inquiry analyzes how political orientations shape welfare states and labour market institutions when seeking to reduce poverty. In order to identify effects of these two key variables, we conduct a panel regression analysis that includes two poverty measures: poverty rates before and after social spending. This inquiry considers 14 EU countries, and in the period from 1995 to 2008, which are grouped according to welfare state regimes. We consider Social Democratic, Corporatist, Mediterranean and Liberal welfare state regimes. Panel regression results indicate that political orientation engenders no significant statistically measurable effects on poverty rates before social spending. Effects register, however, as significant when considering poverty rates after social spending. With respect to the first set of results, we advance two key explanations. First, we note a longer period of time is necessary in order to observe actual effects of political orientation on market generated poverty. Second, political parties with their respective programs do not register as influential enough to solve social problems related to income distribution when taken alone. Influences register as indirect and are expressed through changes in employment rates and social spending. The second set of results support the hypothesis that a selected political regime does indeed contribute to poverty reduction. In sum, political orientation and political regime does indeed affect poverty through welfare state institutions, as well as through labour market institutions.
Welfare program organization and legitimacy. A comparison of eleven OECD countries  [cached]
Calzada, Inés
Revista Internacional de Sociologia , 2012,
Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to analyze the relationship between the institutionalisation of the Welfare State (WS) and its legitimacy, that is, until what extent the way of organising welfare programs have an impact on citizen’s perceptions of these programs and, hence, on the size and composition of the legitimacy basis of the WS. In order to comply with this objective the paper is organised as follows: first we will present data showing the cross-country variation in support for three main welfare programs (health care, old-age pensions, unemployment benefits); then we will analyse until what extent high levels of legitimacy are achieved through cross-class coalitions or cross-ideology coalitions. Finally we evaluate the impact of different program characteristics on the aggregate level of popular support each program achieves. El objetivo principal de este artículo es analizar la relación entre la institucionalización del estado del bienestar (eb) y su legitimidad, es decir, hasta qué punto la forma de organizar el eb afecta a las percepciones que los ciudadanos desarrollan sobre el mismo y, de esta manera, modifica el tama o y composición de sus bases de apoyo. A fin de cumplir con este objetivo el artículo se estructura de la siguiente forma: en primer lugar presentamos un panorama de la variación internacional en las actitudes hacia tres programas de bienestar (sanidad, pensiones y desempleo). Seguidamente estudiaremos de dónde proviene el apoyo extra que algunos programas consiguen, centrándonos específicamente en comprobar si una alta legitimidad se logra mediante la construcción de consensos inter-clases o inter-ideologías. terminaremos evaluando qué características organizativas concretas son las que correlacionan con el nivel de apoyo popular que un programa recibe.
Liberalizing Agriculture by OECD Countries: Welfare, Growth and Distributional Impact in Developing Countries  [cached]
Sharif Mosharraf Hossain
International Journal of Economics and Finance , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ijef.v3n3p167
Abstract: Although it is often argued that liberalization provides opportunities for growth and development in all over the world, there are divergent views about the effects of agricultural trade liberalization on growth and income distribution in developing countries. The developing countries’ main complaint in this regard is that trade distorting activities in agriculture by developed countries adversely affecting their exports and consequently growth, and income and employment of the people therein. There is a general perception among the policymakers and academia that the developing countries would gain much from the removal of existing distortion in the agricultural market because of the tremendous importance of the agricultural sector in their economies. The current paper has analyzed the effect of trade liberalization in agriculture on welfare, growth and income distribution in developing countries, using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model and indicates that the effect is not similar for all the developing countries.
Solid-phase microextraction for bioconcentration studies according to OECD TG 305
Rolf-Alexander Düring, Leonard B?hm, Christian Schlechtriem
Environmental Sciences Europe , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2190-4715-24-4
Abstract: The European Community Regulation on chemicals and their safe use dealing with Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals [REACh] [1] defines specific registration requirements for substances that are (very) persistent, (very) bioaccumulative, and toxic [PBT/vPvB substances]. As part of other regulatory chemical safety assessments such as for pharmaceuticals, biocides, and pesticides, the identification of PBT/vPvB substances is of increasing importance. With regard to the bioaccumulative properties of substances, bioconcentration factors [BCFs], which are defined as the concentration of a test substance in fish divided by the concentration of the chemical in the surrounding medium exceeding 2,000 and 5,000, are limiting criteria for B and vB substances, respectively. As a consequence, numerous BCF tests for hydrophobic organic compounds [HOCs] must be performed according to REACh requirements, and thus, efficient and reliable analytical methods for water and tissue samples are needed to guarantee accurate BCF estimates from flow-through fish tests carried out according to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Technical Guideline [OECD TG] 305 [2].OECD TG 305 describes a procedure for characterizing the bioconcentration potential of substances in fish. The test consists of two phases: the exposure (uptake) and post-exposure (depuration) phases. During the uptake phase, separate groups of fish of one species are exposed to at least two concentrations of the test substance. They are then transferred to a medium free of the test substance for the depuration phase. The concentration of the test substance in the fish is followed through both phases of the test. Where possible, the BCF is calculated preferably both as the ratio of the concentration in the fish and in the water at apparent steady state (BCFss) and as the kinetic bioconcentration factor BCFK, which is the ratio of the rate constants of uptake (k1) and depuration (k
Income Inequality, Poverty and Social Welfare Among Government and Private Employees in Lagos and Osun State of Nigeria
K.K. Salimonu,J.O. Atoyebi,W.A. Sanusi
Agricultural Journal , 2013,
Abstract: The study analyzed and compared income inequality, poverty and social welfare among Government and Private Employees in Lagos and Osun State of Nigeria. Primary data were randomly collected from 48 and 46 respondents ion the two states, respectively. The analytical tools employed in the study were descriptive statistics, Gini coefficient, Lorenz curve and social welfare model. The analysis revealed that generally, income inequality was higher in Lagos than Osun. Households headed by private sector employees in Lagos also have higher social welfare than those of Osun. However, government employees in Osun have higher poverty incidence, depth and severity than those of Lagos. It is therefore recommended that policies that encourage the private sector to improve the remuneration of their employees be put in place while the government should improve the income of the poor by increasing their access to productive assets.
Analysis of Poverty Profiles and Socioeconomic Determinants of Welfare among Urban Households of Ekiti State, Nigeria  [cached]
D. Akerele and S.A. Adewuyi
Current Research Journal of Social Science , 2011,
Abstract: The study focused on assessment of household poverty and welfare among households in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Using a multistage sampling approach, a total of 80 households were selected and interviewed with the aid of well structured questionnaire. Data collected were subjected to analyses such as descriptive statistics, poverty index and multiple regression analysis. The result revealed the 38.30 percent of the households covered by the study were poor and would have to mobilize financial resources up to 41.80% of 1 US Dollar (N130) per day (for each household member) to be able to escape poverty. Female headed households in the study area appear to be more vulnerable to income poverty with poverty incidence, depth and severity of values 0.221 and 0.239, 0.402 and 0.191, respectively. Highest levels of poverty were found among household with 7-9 dependants with values 1.00, 0.715 and 0.511 for the incidence, depth and severity of poverty respectively. Educational levels of household head and spouse, gender of household head and dependency ratio are factors that exact significance influence on household welfare. In order to reduce poverty and promote peoples’ welfare, policies that would promote employment opportunities; educational status of household head, spouse and household members as well as efforts to enhance women access to more productive resources and investment in infrastructural development are recommended.
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