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Elderly People Benefit More from Positive Feedback Based on Their Reactions in the Form of Facial Expressions during Human-Computer Interaction  [PDF]
Stefanie Rukavina, Sascha Gruss, Holger Hoffmann, Harald C. Traue
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.79124
Abstract: In this brief report, we present the results of our investigation into the impact of age on reactions in the form of facial expressions to positive and negative feedback during human-computer interaction. In total, 30 subjects were analyzed after a video-recorded mental task in the style of a Wizard of Oz scenario. All subjects and their facial reactions were coded using the Facial Expression Coding System (FACES). To summarize briefly, we can conclude from our facial expression analysis that compared with their younger counterparts, elderly people show significantly lower levels of negative expression in response to positive feedback from the technical system (“Your performance is improving!”). This result indicates that elderly people seem to benefit more from praise during interaction than younger people, which is significant for the design of future companion technologies.
The Effects of Transformed Gender Facial Features on Face Preference of College Students: Based on the Test of Computer Graphics and Eye Movement Tracks
男性化与女性化对面孔偏好的影响—— 基于图像处理技术和眼动的检验

WEN Fang-Fang,ZUO Bin,

心理学报 , 2012,
Abstract: Perceived facial attractiveness can influence people’s social interactions with one another, including mate selection, intimate relationship, hiring decision, and voting behavior. People evaluate faces using multiple trait dimensions such as attractiveness and trustworthiness both of which are affected by facial masculinity or femininity cues. However, studies manipulating the computer graphics of sexual dimorphism on facial attractiveness have yielded inconsistent results. Some found that feminine facial features in male faces were more attractive than masculine ones. Some others found that women prefer masculine male faces. And still others found that women preferred femininity in male faces. The current study used the computer graphics and the eye tracker to assess the effect of the dimorphic cues on the perception of facial attractiveness among Chinese college students through two experiments. Experiment 1 assessed women’s perceptions of attractiveness and trustworthiness of men’s faces under the condition of either perceived masculinity vs. femininity or the sexual dimorphism. Results showed that, when non-face cues (e.g., hairstyle) were masked, women perceived femininity in men’s faces as more attractive and trustworthy than the masculinity. However, in the sexual dimorphism condition in which the non-face cues were not masked, women found masculinity in men’s faces more attractive and trustworthy. Experiment 2 used the eye tracker to assess the effects of the dimorphic cues on the evaluation of facial attractiveness. Results showed that the subjects preferred the masculine male faces obtained by the sexual dimorphism and feminized female face. Eye movement tracking showed that average pupil dilation and average fixation count on a male face were significantly higher than on a female face. The first fixation time was significantly greater for the masculine faces than for the feminine ones, but the first fixation time was significantly shorter for the male faces than the female ones. The first fixation time and first fixation duration for masculine faces were both significantly longer than for feminine ones. These indicators of eye movement provide some evidence for the effect of the sexual dimorphism on the facial attractiveness.
Geometric Facial Gender Scoring: Objectivity of Perception  [PDF]
Syed Zulqarnain Gilani, Kathleen Rooney, Faisal Shafait, Mark Walters, Ajmal Mian
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099483
Abstract: Gender score is the cognitive judgement of the degree of masculinity or femininity of a face which is considered to be a continuum. Gender scores have long been used in psychological studies to understand the complex psychosocial relationships between people. Perceptual scores for gender and attractiveness have been employed for quality assessment and planning of cosmetic facial surgery. Various neurological disorders have been linked to the facial structure in general and the facial gender perception in particular. While, subjective gender scoring by human raters has been a tool of choice for psychological studies for many years, the process is both time and resource consuming. In this study, we investigate the geometric features used by the human cognitive system in perceiving the degree of masculinity/femininity of a 3D face. We then propose a mathematical model that can mimic the human gender perception. For our experiments, we obtained 3D face scans of 64 subjects using the 3dMDface scanner. The textureless 3D face scans of the subjects were then observed in different poses and assigned a gender score by 75 raters of a similar background. Our results suggest that the human cognitive system employs a combination of Euclidean and geodesic distances between biologically significant landmarks of the face for gender scoring. We propose a mathematical model that is able to automatically assign an objective gender score to a 3D face with a correlation of up to 0.895 with the human subjective scores.
Universitas Psychologica , 2003,
Abstract: Gender differences in the recognition of facial expressions of anger, happiness and sadness wereresearched in students 18-25 years of age. A reaction time procedure was used, and the percentage ofcorrect answers when recognizing was also measured. Though the work hypothesis expected genderdifferences in facial expression recognition, results suggest that these differences are not significant at alevel of 0.05%. Statistical analysis shows a greater easiness (at a non-significant level) for women torecognize happiness expressions, and for men to recognize anger expressions. The implications ofthese data are discussed, and possible extensions of this investigation in terms of sample size andcollege major of the participants.
The Political Gender Gap: Gender Bias in Facial Inferences that Predict Voting Behavior  [PDF]
Joan Y. Chiao, Nicholas E. Bowman, Harleen Gill
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003666
Abstract: Background Throughout human history, a disproportionate degree of political power around the world has been held by men. Even in democracies where the opportunity to serve in top political positions is available to any individual elected by the majority of their constituents, most of the highest political offices are occupied by male leaders. What psychological factors underlie this political gender gap? Contrary to the notion that people use deliberate, rational strategies when deciding whom to vote for in major political elections, research indicates that people use shallow decision heuristics, such as impressions of competence solely from a candidate's facial appearance, when deciding whom to vote for. Because gender has previously been shown to affect a number of inferences made from the face, here we investigated the hypothesis that gender of both voter and candidate affects the kinds of facial impressions that predict voting behavior. Methodology/Principal Finding Male and female voters judged a series of male and female political candidates on how competent, dominant, attractive and approachable they seemed based on their facial appearance. Then they saw a series of pairs of political candidates and decided which politician they would vote for in a hypothetical election for President of the United States. Results indicate that both gender of voter and candidate affect the kinds of facial impressions that predict voting behavior. All voters are likely to vote for candidates who appear more competent. However, male candidates that appear more approachable and female candidates who appear more attractive are more likely to win votes. In particular, men are more likely to vote for attractive female candidates whereas women are more likely to vote for approachable male candidates. Conclusions/Significance Here we reveal gender biases in the intuitive heuristics that voters use when deciding whom to vote for in major political elections. Our findings underscore the impact of gender and physical appearance on shaping voter decision-making and provide novel insight into the psychological foundations underlying the political gender gap.
Exploring the Gender Gap in Computer Science Education in Uganda  [cached]
James Ochwa-Echel
International Journal of Gender, Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: The purpose of this study is two-fold: to investigate the nature of the gender gap in computer science education in Uganda and to understand the factors that influence gender differences in computer science education in Uganda. The findings of the study indicate that there is a gender gap in computer science education. The reasons for the gap were revealed in the interviews, surveys and focus group discussions. The study concluded that several policy measures need to be taken to address the gender gap in computer science education in Uganda.
Gender, Computer Access and Use as Predictors of Nigerian Undergraduates’ Computer Proficiency
AO Agbatogun, OM Lawunmi
African Research Review , 2009,
Abstract: This study X-rayed the contributions of gender, access to computer and computer use to the Nigerian undergraduates’ computer proficiency. Three hundred and fifteen (315) undergraduates from the Faculty of Education of Olabisi Onabanjo University, Nigeria served as the sample for this study. The instruments used for the data collection were Computer Access and Usage Scale (CAUS) and Computer Proficiency Scale (CPS). The data collected were analysed using simple percentages, standard deviation, Analysis of Variance and Multiple regression statistics. Meanwhile, the findings revealed that gender, access to computer and computer usage jointly predicted the student’s computer proficiency. However, gender had the least predictive power of the criterion variable. Recommendations based on the outcome of this study were highlighted in this paper.
Instructional Computer Technology: Implications for Gender Achievement in Nigeria  [PDF]
S.A. Onasanya,C.O. Olumorin,E.N. Asuquo,G.B. Ogunojemite
Information Technology Journal , 2007,
Abstract: This study examined the instructional computer technology with its implications for gender achievement in Nigeria. The setting was in Graphcom Independent Educational Computer Laboratory, Ilorin in Nigeria. The participants were randomly selected Junior Secondary School (JSS) III students in Ilorin West local government area of Kwara State for a holiday computer technology instruction. A total of 30 students (15 boys and 15 girls), aged 15 and 16 years old, participated in this study. Scores from a pretest and posttest of male and female students were compared using Paired Sample t-test with repeated measures and gender as the factor. Analysis of data showed that there were gender differences in computer technology achievement. The findings were statistically significant. The results confirmed earlier findings and added to knowledge about gender differences and achievement in computer technology.
The Impact of Feedback in Computer-Aided Instruction
F. Fraij
International Journal of Soft Computing , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/ijscomp.2010.67.71
Abstract: Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI) can be effectively used in blended learning environment to achieve pedagogical goals. However, CAI systems typically lack of effective feedback mechanisms that ultimately lead to improve learners performance. This study introduces a CAI system equipped with effective dual feedback mechanism. The system provides effective feedback to the learners and maximizes the value of their feedback to instructors. The effect of the system was measured in the field on groups of learners. The results showed that the feedback mechanism of the system has positively impacted the performance of the learners.
Self-Relevance Appraisal Influences Facial Reactions to Emotional Body Expressions  [PDF]
Julie Grèzes, Léonor Philip, Michèle Chadwick, Guillaume Dezecache, Robert Soussignan, Laurence Conty
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055885
Abstract: People display facial reactions when exposed to others' emotional expressions, but exactly what mechanism mediates these facial reactions remains a debated issue. In this study, we manipulated two critical perceptual features that contribute to determining the significance of others' emotional expressions: the direction of attention (toward or away from the observer) and the intensity of the emotional display. Electromyographic activity over the corrugator muscle was recorded while participants observed videos of neutral to angry body expressions. Self-directed bodies induced greater corrugator activity than other-directed bodies; additionally corrugator activity was only influenced by the intensity of anger expresssed by self-directed bodies. These data support the hypothesis that rapid facial reactions are the outcome of self-relevant emotional processing.
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