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Esophageal Cancer: Epidemiological, Clinical and Histopathological Aspects over a 24-Years Period at Kamenge University Hospital, Bujumbura, Burundi  [PDF]
Rénovat Ntagirabiri, Richard Karayuba, Gabriel Ndayisaba, Aline Nduwimana, Jean Claude Niyondiko
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2016.64014
Abstract: Aim: There were no data about esophageal cancer in Burundi. The aim of the study was to highlight the epidemiological, clinical and histopathological aspects of the esophageal cancer. Method: A retrospective study over a 24-years period (from January 1988 to December 2011) was carried out at Kamenge university hospital, including patients with esophageal cancer. The cases were selected on basis of the histological evidence of the cancer. Results: A total of 34 cases were retrieved and included for analysis. Among them, 24 patients (70.5%) were males. The esophageal cancer constituted 8.6% of digestive cancers over the period of the study. The average age was 50.9 years. It was revealed by dysphagia in 32 patients (94.1%) and was concomitantly metastatic in 12 patients. The squamous cell carcinoma was 30 cases (88.2%). 27 patients underwent a curative resection, but the outcome and prognosis were poor. In-hospital mortality and morbidity rates were respectively 8.8% and 17.7%. Conclusion: The present study showed evidence that the esophageal cancer in our country had the same characteristics and distribution as well as in developing countries. It had a poor prognosis and efforts had to be done in the early cancer detection.
EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF COLORECTAL CANCER
B. Shafayan M. Keyhani
Acta Medica Iranica , 2003,
Abstract: This study was carried out to analyze certain epidemiological variations in Iranian patients with colorectal cancer. (CRC): From March 1981 up to March 1993, 103 patients were analyzed retrospectively for age, gender, marital state, job, nutritional habits, presenting symptoms and histopathological features. Most of the patients with colorectal cancer were male, age range 20-75 (mean 56), 25.4 percent were long-term smokers and bleeding was the most common symptom. The rectum was the most common site and moderately differentiated carcinoma was considered as the main common histopathological variety. In conclusion, increasing incidence of colorectal cancer in younger Iranian population, below 30 and late admission and diagnosis were the main findings in the present study necessitating screening programs with annual fecal occult blood tests in high risk families.
Primary Malignant Bones Cancers in Cote d’Ivoire: Epidemiological and Histopathological Aspects  [PDF]
Kone Samba, J. N’dah Kouame, R. Kouakou Konan, A. Ngandjeu Nawé, Doukoure Brahima, Bana Abdoulaye, Eti Edmond, Agoh Serge
Open Journal of Pathology (OJPathology) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojpathology.2018.82006
Abstract: Primary bones cancers are rare and ubiquitous malignant tumors. Aim: Our study aimed was to describe the epidemiological and histopathological aspects of primary malignant bone cancers in Ivory Coast. Material and method: This is a retrospective and descriptive study of primary malignant bone cancers diagnosed over the period 1990 to 2013 (24 years). The studied parameters were: epidemiological aspects (frequency, age, sex, topography) and histological aspects. Results: Over the study period, primary malignant bone cancers accounted for 1.93% (n = 228) of cancers. The average age was 27.02 years with extremes of 2 and 85 years. The sex ratio was 1.65. They were in the skull and maxilla in 43.9% (n = 105), lower limbs (23.8%), spine and ribs (19.8%), pelvis (5.3%) and upper limbs (2.3%). The clinic was dominated by pain and alteration of general state. Radiology was variable depending on the histological type. In children, primary malignant bone cancers were found in the maxillary (77.9%) and the lower limb (15.8%). Burkitt’s lymphomas represented 36.4% (n = 66) of the histological types followed by 22.4% osteosarcomas (n = 51). In adults at histology, sarcomas were the most common (10%), followed by cancers of the hematopoietic and lymphatic organs (8.09%). Conclusion: Primary malignant bone cancers are rare in Ivory Coast. They most often affect male children with maxillofacial involvement and predominant lower extremity. Burkitt’s lymphoma and osteosarcoma are the often diagnosed histological types.
Review of Histopathological and Molecular Prognostic Features in Colorectal Cancer  [PDF]
Ola Marzouk,John Schofield
Cancers , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/cancers3022767
Abstract: Prediction of prognosis in colorectal cancer is vital for the choice of therapeutic options. Histopathological factors remain paramount in this respect. Factors such as tumor size, histological type and subtype, presence of signet ring morphology and the degree of differentiation as well as the presence of lymphovascular invasion and lymph node involvement are well known factors that influence outcome. Our understanding of these factors has improved in the past few years with factors such as tumor budding, lymphocytic infiltration being recognized as important. Likewise the prognostic significance of resection margins, particularly circumferential margins has been appreciated in the last two decades. A number of molecular and genetic markers such as KRAS, BRAF and microsatellite instability are also important and correlate with histological features in some patients. This review summarizes our current understanding of the main histopathological factors that affect prognosis of colorectal cancer.
Thyroid Cancer in Western Algeria: Histopathological and Epidemiological Study  [PDF]
A. Benouis, Z. Bekkouche, M. S. Merad, L. Loudjedi, H. Khelil, N. Berber
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2017.87058
Abstract: Thyroid cancer is relatively rare, about 1% of all cancers combined. However, it accounts for 88% of all cancers of the endocrine organs. In recent years, the incidence of thyroid cancer has increased considerably compared to other types of endocrine cancers. The aim of our work is to study the epidemiological profile of thyroid cancer in the western part of Algeria and to determine the influence of sex, age and histological type. Patients and methods: Our study focuses on 1376 cases of thyroid cancer in patients attending the nuclear medicine department at the university hospital of Tlemcen over a period of 3 years, from 2013 to 2015. The average age of patients is estimated at 43. Each patient underwent an anatomo-histopathological examination of the surgical specimen. The data entry is done through the SPSS 20 statistical software. Results: The rates of the thyroid cancers listed during the three years of studies (2013-2014-2015) are 32.12%, 34.44% and 33.43% respectively. Our study shows that the female sex is largely incriminated (94.75%) compared to the male sex. The age group mostly affected was that ranging from 40 to 60 with 45.88%. The anatomo-histopathological analysis revealed that the papillary carcinoma is the most frequent histological type with 85.47% followed by the vesicular carcinoma with 14%, the medullary cancer MTC with 0.43%, and finally the anaplastic carcinoma with 0.07%. Conclusion: the epidemiological surveillance contributes to a better knowledge of thyroid carcinoma allowing a good patient management in Algeria. Early detection of small size cancers and the use of high-performing technologies will result in a decrease of the mortality rate associated to this type of cancer.
Epidemiological and molecular mechanisms aspects linking obesity and cancer
Osório-Costa, Felipe;Rocha, Guilherme Z.;Dias, Marília M.;Carvalheira, José B. C.;
Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-27302009000200013
Abstract: about 25% of cancer cases globally are due to excess weight and a sedentary lifestyle. these results are alarming, as the world knows a pandemy of obesity and, in consequence, insulin resistance. obesity may increase risk for various cancers by several mechanisms, including increasing sex and metabolic hormones, and inflammation. here, we present a review of epidemiological and molecular evidences linking obesity and cancer - particularly colorectal, post-menopausal breast, endometrial, pancreatic, high grade prostate, hepatocellular, gallbladder, kidney and esophageal adenocarcinoma. the expected striking increase in the incidence of cancer in the near future related to obesity turns the knowledge of this field of great impact as it is needed to the development of strategies to prevent and treat this disease.
Histopathological finding as a prognostic factor of the surgical treatment outcome in colorectal cancer  [PDF]
Se?en Svetozar,Moljevi? Neboj?a,Vukovi? Milivoje,Somer Ljiljana
Vojnosanitetski Pregled , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/vsp1008638s
Abstract: Background/Aim. Adenocarcinomas of the colon are the most common malignant colorectal tumors. Macroscopic and histopahtological features of colorectal cancer significantly affect its outcome. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of histopahological finding as a prognostic factor on the surgical treatment outcome and the course of the disease. Methods. In the first part of this study the distribution (numerical and proportional) of certain histopathological parameters in the examined groups of patients were reviewed; in the second part of the study the statistical significance of the impact of the certain elements of a histopahtological finding on the surgical treratment outcome was analyzed. The histopathological elements analyzed included: the hsitological tumor type grading according to Duke, ie Astler-Coller, and tumor, nodes, metastases (TNM) staging in the examined sample of 100 patients. Results. Statistically significant prognostic factors of the outcome of surgical treatment were selected after multivariant analysis. These factors comprise Astler-Coller-Dukes stage D (revealed in 77.78% patients died), stage IV according TNM classification (T1-4, N0-2, M1), histological structure (poorly diferentiated adenocarcinoma in 85.2% patents died) and type of tumor (mucynous adenocarcinoma was more often present in died, 77.78%). Since φ = 0.000 for four risk factors were formed using discriminant analysus, it was proved their significant influence on the outcome of surgical treatment. Discriminant coefficient showed that the greatest influence on surgical treatment were registred in patients with tumor of Astler-Coller-Dukes stage D (0.255), poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (histological structure) (0.139), mucynous adenocarcinoma (type of tumor) (0.074) and stage IV according to the TNM elassification (T1-4, N0-2, M1) (0.39). Conclusion. The prognostic factors influencing the outcome of surgery for colorectal carcinoma were defined. Patients with pathohistological finding of Astler-Coller-Dukes stage D, stage IV according to the TNM classification (T1-4, N0-2, M1) and poorly differentiated adenocarcioma have statistically highly significant mortality during the perioperative course of the disease.
Clinical and epidemiological evaluation of patients with colorectal cancer from Rio Grande do Sul
Eisenhardt, Michelle Fraga;Huwe, Fabrine;Dotto, Marcelo Luis;Severo, Cátia;Fontella, Juliana Jornada;Valim, Andreia Rosane De Moura;Rosa, Helen Tais Da;Reuter, Cézane Priscila;Possuelo, Lia Gon?alves;
Journal of Coloproctology (Rio de Janeiro) , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S2237-93632012000200008
Abstract: colorectal cancer has a high incidence in brazil, with the south and southeast regions presenting the largest number of cases. objective: identify the epidemiological characteristics and the regimens used as first-line treatment of patients with colorectal cancer treated at a cancer center in santa cruz do sul (rs, brazil) from 2006 to 2011. methods: the records of 130 patients were retrospectively evaluated. clinical and epidemiological characteristics, such as age, gender, ethnic group, stage of disease, primary site of disease and first-line treatment, were evaluated. the association of significance was evaluated using the chi-square and fischer exact tests. the confidence interval used was 95% (p<0.05). results: the mean age of patients with colorectal cancer in this study was 60.8 years, with higher incidence of the disease in men. at diagnosis, 40% of the patients had advanced disease stage iv. the regimen of 5-fluorouracil/folic acid (68.5%) was used as first-line treatment. conclusion: this study showed high prevalence of colorectal cancer in patients of advanced age with the diagnosis made in the later stage of the disease. this fact demonstrates the importance of prevention campaigns that encourage periodic examinations in patients over 50 years of age.
Tumor budding as a potential histopathological biomarker in colorectal cancer: Hype or hope?  [cached]
Fabio Grizzi,Giuseppe Celesti,Gianluca Basso,Luigi Laghi
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2012, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i45.6532
Abstract: Colorectal cancer (CRC), the third most commonly diagnosed type of cancer in men and women worldwide is recognized as a complex multi-pathway disease, an observation sustained by the fact that histologically identical tumors may have different outcome, including various response to therapy. Therefore, particularly in early and intermediate stage (stages II and III, respectively) CRC, there is a compelling need for biomarkers helpful of selecting patients with aggressive disease that might benefit from adjuvant and targeted therapy. Histopathological examination shows that likely other solid tumors the development and progression of human CRC is not only determined by genetically abnormal cells, but also by intricate interactions between malignant cells and the surrounding microenvironment. This has led to reconsider the features of tumor microenvironment as potential predictive and prognostic biomarkers. Among the histopathological biomarkers, tumor budding (i.e., the presence of individual cells and small clusters of tumor cells at the tumor invasive front) has received much recent attention, particularly in the setting of CRC. Although its acceptance as a reportable factor has been held back by a lack of uniformity with respect to qualitative and quantitative aspects, tumor budding is now considered as an independent adverse prognostic factor in CRC that may allow for stratification of patients into risk categories more meaningful than those defined by tumor-node-metastasis staging alone, and also potentially guide treatment decisions, especially in T2-T3 N0 (stage II) CRCs.
General Aspects of Colorectal Cancer  [PDF]
Josep J. Centelles
ISRN Oncology , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/139268
Abstract: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the main causes of death. Cancer is initiated by several DNA damages, affecting proto-oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes, and DNA repairing genes. The molecular origins of CRC are chromosome instability (CIN), microsatellite instability (MSI), and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). A brief description of types of CRC cancer is presented, including sporadic CRC, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) or Lynch syndromes, familiar adenomatous polyposis (FAP), MYH-associated polyposis (MAP), Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), and juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS). Some signalling systems for CRC are also described, including Wnt-β-catenin pathway, tyrosine kinase receptors pathway, TGF-β pathway, and Hedgehog pathway. Finally, this paper describes also some CRC treatments. 1. An Introduction on Colorectal Cancer Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer lethality. In the United States, 143,460 new cases of CRC are foreseen to be diagnosed during 2012 (73,420 men and 70,040 women), and 51,690 patients will die of this disease. From 2005 to 2009, the median age at death for CRC was 74 years of age (approximately 0.0% died under age 20; 0.6% between 20 and 34; 2.5% between 35 and 44; 8.6% between 45 and 54; 16.5% between 55 and 64; 22.0% between 65 and 74; 29.0% between 75 and 84; and 20.8% from 85 years of age and older [1]). CRC can be separated into 72% for the colon cancer and 28% for the rectum cancer, although incidence of CRC is generally reported together. Classification of CRC is referred to their pathological stage, which can be observed after surgery [2]. The clinical and the pathological stages may be different, as the imaging tests can be different from the observed stage after surgery. The most common used staging system for CRC is that of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC), known also as the TNM system. Nevertheless, other staging systems, such as the Dukes [3] and Astler-Coller [4] systems, are still in use. These old systems are not as precise as the TNM system [5, 6] (see Table 1 for correspondences between the three staging systems). Table 1: Stage systems AJCC, Dukes, and Astler-Coller. AJCC system is the most used and precise staging system for CRC and combines three letters (T: for the primary tumour, N: for spread to lymph nodes, and M: for metastasis) and numbers from 0 to 4 (indicating more severity for a higher number). The three letters combined in AJCC system mean the following:T describes how far the main (primary) tumour has grown into the wall of the
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