Abstract:
A simplified version of the Wigner--transformed time--dependent Hartree--Fock--Bogoliubov equations, leading to a solvable model for finite systems of fermions with pairing correlations, is introduced. In this model, pairing correlations result in a coupling of the Vlasov--type equation for the normal phase--space density with that for the imaginary part of the anomalous density. The effect of pairing correlations on the linear response of the system is studied for a finite one--dimensional system and an explicit expression for the correlated propagator is given.

Abstract:
We propose a time-independent method for finding a correlated ground state of an extended time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory, known as the time-dependent density-matrix theory (TDDM). The correlated ground state is used to formulate the small amplitude limit of TDDM (STDDM) which is a version of extended RPA theories with ground-state correlations. To demonstrate the feasibility of the method, we calculate the ground state of 22O and study the first 2+ state and its two-phonon states using STDDM.

Abstract:
The spin-half XXZ model on the linear chain and the square lattice are examined with the extended coupled cluster method (ECCM) of quantum many-body theory. We are able to describe both the Ising-Heisenberg phase and the XY-Heisenberg phase, starting from known wave functions in the Ising limit and at the phase transition point between the XY-Heisenberg and ferromagnetic phases, respectively, and by systematically incorporating correlations on top of them. The ECCM yields good numerical results via a diagrammatic approach, which makes the numerical implementation of higher-order truncation schemes feasible. In particular, the best non-extrapolated coupled cluster result for the sublattice magnetization is obtained, which indicates the employment of an improved wave function. Furthermore, the ECCM finds the expected qualitatively different behaviours of the linear chain and the square lattice cases.

Abstract:
We study one-dimensional systems with random diagonal disorder but off-diagonal short-range correlations imposed by structural constraints. We find that these correlations generate effective conduction channels for finite systems. At a certain golden correlation condition for the hopping amplitudes, we find an extended state for an infinite system. Our model has important implications to charge transport in DNA molecules, and a possible set of experiments in semiconductor superlattices is proposed to verify our most interesting theoretical predictions.

Abstract:
We study nonequilibrium effects at the QCD phase transition within the framework of Polyakov loop extended chiral fluid dynamics. The quark degrees of freedom act as a locally equilibrated heat bath for the sigma field and a dynamical Polyakov loop. Their evolution is described by a Langevin equation with dissipation and noise. At a critical point we observe the formation of long-range correlations after equilibration. During a hydrodynamical expansion nonequilibrium fluctuations are enhanced at the first order phase transition compared to the critical point.

Abstract:
We study the effect of strong correlations on the zero bias anomaly (ZBA) in disordered interacting systems. We focus on the two-dimensional extended Anderson-Hubbard model, which has both on-site and nearest-neighbor interactions on a square lattice. We use a variation of dynamical mean field theory in which the diagonal self-energy is solved self-consistently at each site on the lattice for each realization of the randomly-distributed disorder potential. Since the ZBA occurs in systems with both strong disorder and strong interactions, we use a simplified atomic-limit approximation for the diagonal inelastic self-energy that becomes exact in the large-disorder limit. The off-diagonal self-energy is treated within the Hartree-Fock approximation. The validity of these approximations is discussed in detail. We find that strong correlations have a significant effect on the ZBA at half filling, and enhance the Coulomb gap when the interaction is finite-ranged.

Abstract:
In air shower experiments information about the initial cosmic ray particle or about the shower development is obtained by exploiting the correlations between the quantities of interest and the directly measurable quantities. It is shown how these correlations are properly treated in order to obtain unbiased results. As an example, the measurement of the average penetration depth as a function of the shower energy is presented.

Abstract:
We investigate the recent claim by Qin et al. that the observed correlations (or lack thereof) between the core dominance parameter and the core and extended powers of samples of lobe- and core-dominated quasars is in contradiction with beaming models. Contrary to their conclusion, we find that their results are in perfect agreement with such models, and support this assertion with Monte Carlo simulations.

Abstract:
The ground states and excited states of the Lipkin model hamiltonian are calculated using a new theoretical approach which has been derived from an extended time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory known as the time-dependent density-matrix theory (TDDM). TDDM enables us to calculate correlated ground states, and its small amplitude limit (STDDM), which is a version of extended RPA theories based on a correlated ground state, can be used to calculate excited states. It is found that this TDDM plus STDDM approach gives much better results for both the ground states and the excited states than the Hartree-Fock ground state plus RPA approach.

Abstract:
We explore the influence of an arbitrary external potential perturbation V on the spectral properties of a weakly disordered conductor. In the framework of a statistical field theory of a nonlinear sigma-model type we find, depending on the range and the profile of the external perturbation, two qualitatively different universal regimes of parametric spectral statistics (i.e. cross-correlations between the spectra of Hamiltonians H and H+V). We identify the translational invariance of the correlations in the space of Hamiltonians as the key indicator of universality, and find the connection between the coordinate system in this space which makes the translational invariance manifest, and the physically measurable properties of the system. In particular, in the case of localized perturbations, the latter turn out to be the eigenphases of the scattering matrix for scattering off the perturbing potential V. They also have a purely statistical interpretation in terms of the moments of the level velocity distribution. Finally, on the basis of this analysis, a set of results obtained recently by the authors using random matrix theory methods is shown to be applicable to a much wider class of disordered and chaotic structures.