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Prospect Conceiving of Joint Research and Development of Shale Gas and Coalbed Methane in China  [PDF]
Shangbin Chen, Yanming Zhu, Meng Wang, Wu Li, Huaimeng Wang
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2011.33044
Abstract: Inspired by successful development of shale gas in USA and influenced by hydrocarbon resources shortage currently, China has strengthened shale gas research and accelerated its exploration process. In order to enrich coalbed methane (CBM) and shale gas geological theory and promote their development process, this paper compared shale gas with CBM in accumulation, distribution, reservoir and production. It expatiated on the background and significance of the combined research and development, and analyzed the geological foundation and future prospects. Our investigation demonstrated that there are many sets of coal-bearing strata in Shanxi formation of Permian system in Ordos in North China, Longtan formation of Upper Permian and Xujiahe formation of Upper Triassic in Southern Yangtze region, Xishanyao formation of Middle Jurassic in Turpan-Hami Basin and Junggar Basin in Northwest China, and Shahezi formation of Cretaceous in Songliao Basin in northeast China. In these regions, shales which are interbeded with coal seams have the characters of big thickness, continuous distribution, high content of organic matter, good parent material and high maturity, accord with the basic geological conditions to format shale gas and CBM reservoir and composite gas reservoir, thus form appropriate regions and layers to carry out joint research and exploration with good prospects for development.
Recommendations on Improving Fiscal and Taxation Policies of Shale Gas Industry in China  [PDF]
Boya Zeng
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.44007
Abstract: With the rapid development of economy and the sharp increase of population, energy consumption is increasing and fossil energy reserves are decreasing. It has become an urgent problem to be solved by all the countries that seek for clean and renewable energy. Natural gas is a kind of environment-friendly energy, but conventional natural gas production cannot completely meet the growing demand of natural gas consumption. Shale gas, as a kind of unconventional natural gas, is very rich in our country, which makes the development and utilization of natural gas enter an important field. Therefore, this paper introduces the development situation of shale gas industry in our country and the advantages and disadvantages of the development and utilization of shale gas, and finally discusses the fiscal and taxation policy suitable for the development of shale gas industry in our country by drawing on the successful experience of shale gas development in the USA.
Technologies in Discovery and Exploration of Fuling Shale Gas Field, China  [PDF]
Xusheng Guo, Dongfeng Hu, Yuping Li, Xiangfeng Wei, Qingbo Wang, Hui Zhang
Natural Resources (NR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2016.75024
Abstract: Marine shale gas in South China is widely distributed and demonstrates an enriched resource. Compared with the North American commercial shale gas field, the shale formation in South China is featured by old age, multiple stages tectonic movements, and high thermal evolution degree and complex reservoir forming conditions. As a result, the existing theories and technical methods of exploration in North America cannot be simply applied to South China. Since 2007, based on the in-depth study on a large quantity of analytical test data, we have conducted the theory and technology research for the southern marine shale gas, found Wufeng-Longmaxi Group deep water shelf high-quality shale gas critical parameters coupling laws, proposed the “Binary Enrichment” theory for highly evolved marine shale gas in southern complex tectonic zone, and established a zone selection and evaluation criteria, which are based on the quality of shale, for the key of preservation condition, and for the purpose of economy. Taking this as a guide, we selected Longmaxi formation Lower Silurian of Fuling area in southeastern Sichuan Province as the preferred breakthrough field for the shale gas exploration. The Jiaoye 1 well has the daily gas production of 20.3 × 104 m3, which embarked the found of China’s first large-scale business development gas field, the Fuling shale gas field. And we submit the first domestic shale gas proven reserves of 1067.5 × 108 m3. The Fuling shale gas reservoirs are deep water shelf marine high-quality shale, with favorable thickness and even distribution, without dissection in the middle. They are typical self-generation and self-storage shale gas reservoirs. The gas fields have high production gas well; high pressure gas reservoir, good gas components and good exploit results, and there for the Fuling shale gas field is characterized by mid-depth, high pressure, high reservoir pressure, and high quality gas accumulation. Up to March 24, 2014, all of the 101 fracture-gas testing wells have obtained middle and upper shale airflow, with the average single well test production of 32.6 × 104 m3/d. In the exploration and development process, technology series in geological evaluation, horizontal well, drilling, well completion, piecewise fracturing techniques have been gradually formed. It is of great importance to commercially develop the domestic shale gas and promote the restructuring of China’s energy structure.
The Development Status and Trends of China Shale Gas Industry

晁明伟, 张立军, 王旱祥, 李乐乐
Advances in Energy and Power Engineering (AEPE) , 2014, DOI: 10.12677/AEPE.2014.23005

China’s shale gas resources are rich and widely distributed. After ten years of development, substantial progress has been made, and the development of shale gas industry in Chinawill be in full swing. This paper mainly introduces the distribution of the shale gas, the present development status of shale gas. On this basis, the development trend of shale oil and gas industry in China is pointed out.

Microseismic Imaging of Hydraulically Induced-Fractures in Gas Reservoirs: A Case Study in Barnett Shale Gas Reservoir, Texas, USA  [PDF]
Abdulaziz M. Abdulaziz
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2013.35041

Microseismic technology has been proven to be a practical approach for in-situ monitoring of fracture growth during hydraulic fracture stimulations. Microseismic monitoring has rapidly evolved in acquisition methodology, data processing, and in this paper, we evaluate the progression of this technology with emphasis on their applications in Barnett shale gas reservoir. Microseismic data analysis indicates a direct proportion between microseismic moment magnitude and depth, yet no relation between microseismic activity and either injection rate or injection volume has been observed. However, large microseismic magnitudes have been recorded where hydraulic fracturing stimulation approaches a fault and therefore the geologic framework should be integrated in such programs. In addition, the geometry of fracture growth resulted by proppant interactions with naturally fractured formations follows unpredictable fashion due to redirecting the injection fluids along flow paths associated with the pre-existing fault network in the reservoir. While microseismic imaging is incredibly useful in revealing the fracture geometry and the way the fracture evolves, recently several concerns have been raised regarding the capability of microseismic data to provide the fracture dimensional parameters and the fracture mechanism that could provide detailed information for reservoir characterization.

Characteristics of the shale gas reservoir rocks in the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation,East Sichuan basin,China

LIU ShuGen,MA WenXin,LUBA Jans,HUANG WenMing,ZENG XiangLiang,

岩石学报 , 2011,
Abstract: The Sichuan basin is an oil-bearing and gas-rich basin with extensive development of the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation shale in southwestern China.The gas shows in the shale were identified in exploration wells mainly located between southeastern Sichuan basin and western Hubei-eastern Chongqing.The thickness of the Silurian Longmaxi Formation shale ranges from 65 to 516m.The base of the Longmaxi Formation shale is graptolite-rich transgressive black shale.Its thickness increases eastward in the study a...
Major Factors Controlling the Accumulation and High Productivity of Marine Shale Gas and Prospect Forecast in Southern China

Zhai Gangyi
, Wang Yufang, Bao Shujing, Guo Tianxu, Zhou Zhi, Chen Xianglin, Wang Jinzhu

地球科学(中国地质大学学报) , 2017, DOI: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.085
Abstract: 近年来我国在四川盆地率先实现了页岩气商业开发,奥陶系五峰组-志留系龙马溪组成为南方海相页岩气开发的主力层系.通过梳理页岩气沉积与分布特征、构造演化特征、构造样式及保存特征、页岩储层特征,提出了我国南方海相页岩气富集高产的主控因素:深水陆棚相富有机质优质页岩是物质基础;构造抬升时间和构造样式是页岩气富集保存的关键因素,总结了构造保存“完整型、残留型、破坏型”3大类页岩气构造样式;地层超压是页岩气高产的必要条件.最终展望了页岩气发展前景,预测了我国南方几个古隆起的边缘和滇黔桂地区是未来页岩气勘探开发的有利区.
Sichuan basin has been taking the lead in China for the shale gas business development in recent years. Ordovician Wufeng FormationSilurian Longmaxi Formation has been the main layer of marine shale gas development in the south. Based on the analysis of shale gas deposition and distribution, tectonic evolution, tectonic patterns and preservation, shale reservoir characteristics, the main controlling factors on enrichment and high-production of marine shale gas are summarized. The rich organic shale formed in deep shelf sedimentary environment is taken of the main factor as the material basis. The time and style of tectonic uplift are the key factors of shale gas accumulation and preservation. Three types of shale gas tectonic styles are determined, including intact type, residual type and destructive type. Overpressure of formation is a necessary condition of high shale gas production. In this paper the prospect of shale gas in South China has been forecasted. Edges of paleohighs and Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi region are predicted as the favorable areas for future exploration and development of shale gas
Differential Enrichment Mechanism and Key Technology of Shale Gas in Complex Areas of South China

Xie Xinong
, Hao Fang, Lu Yongchao, He Sheng, Shi Wanzhong, Jiang Zhenxue, Xiong Yongqiang, Zhang Jinchuan

地球科学(中国地质大学学报) , 2017, DOI: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.084
Abstract: 针对我国南方海相富有机质页岩时空非均质强、热演化程度高、构造演化历史复杂、页岩气具差异富集和保存条件多样等特点,采用多学科方法对南方五峰组-龙马溪组海相页岩气区进行精细解剖,形成了针对南方复杂地区海相高过成熟页岩气评价参数表征的多项关键技术.研究结果显示富泥硅质页岩和富泥/硅混合质页岩是五峰组-龙马溪组的优质岩相;页岩中孔和宏孔提供了主要的孔体积,微-纳米孔隙结构特征受页岩组分及其孔隙发育程度双重控制;页岩气富集演化具“二高、三复杂”特点(古温度高,热演化程度高,温压演化复杂,页岩气赋存方式复杂及保存条件复杂).研究中所提出的页岩岩相表征和优选技术、多尺度储集空间全息表征技术、海相页岩复杂演化改造过程表征技术、初步形成的甜点评价参数体系表征方法可有效地应用于南方五峰组-龙马溪组海相页岩气评价.研究成果可为南方页岩气基础地质调查工程提供技术支撑.
In view of the characteristics of strong temporal and spatial heterogeneity, high thermal maturity, complex tectonic evolution, differential enrichment and various preservation conditions of shale gas in southern China, multidisciplinary methods are applied to further study the Wufeng-Longmaxi marine shale gas, and a number of key technologies are developed to characterize the evaluation parameters of marine shale gas with over-high maturity in the complex geologic areas of southern China. The results show that argillaceous siliceous shales and argillaceous/siliceous mixed shales are the advantageous lithofacies in the Wufeng Formation-Longmaxi Formation. The meso-pore and macro-pore make a great contribution to the pore volume, and the micro-nano pore structure is controlled by mineral composition and porosity development. The enrichment and evolution of shale gas are characterized by high paleotemperature, high thermal evolution, complex evolution of temperature and pressure, complicated conditions for shale gas occurrence and preservation. The Wufeng-Longmaxi marine shale gas could be effectively evaluated in terms of technologies of lithofacies optimization, the characterization of pore space from macroscopic and microscopic perspectives, the complex evolution process of marine shale, and the evaluation parameters for sweet spots of shale gas. The research results can provide technical support for the basic geological survey of shale gas in southern China
Feasibility Study of Development of Shale Gas Reservoirs by Vertical Well Fracturing in China

关富佳, 王海涛, 姜宇玲, 肖娜
Journal of Oil and Gas Technology (JOGT) , 2016, DOI: 10.12677/JOGT.2016.383025
There existed great difference in the productivity of shale gas reservoir development between China and the foreign countries. The test open flow capacity of individual horizontal wells with multilevel segment fracturing could be 1 × 106 m3/d, which was much higher than that of the same reservoir aboard and it was also higher than that of the most of conventional gas reservoirs. By detail analysis and contrast of geological features of shale gas reservoirs both at home and abroad, it was discovered that the well developed fracture system of shale gas reservoirs in China was the decisive factor of higher gas production. In consideration of the geological difference of shale gas reservoirs, horizontal wells with multilevel segment fracturing were not suitable for the devel-opment of shale gas reservoirs in China. In this paper, fracturing simulation and numerical simu-lation methods are used to simulate the fracturing scale and production of horizontal wells with multilevel segment fractured and fractured vertical wells with same volume fracturing fluid. The simulation results show that with same shale parameters and reserves, better economic benefit can be achieved by using vertical fractured wells in shale gas reservoirs in our country.
Comparative Study of Scientific Publications in Urology and Nephrology Journals Originating from USA, China and Japan (2001–2010)  [PDF]
Juan Li, Xian Hua Gao, Qi Bian, Zhi Yong Guo, Xiao Bin Mei, Guang Yu, Hao Wu, Xue Li Lai, Wei Chen
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042200
Abstract: Background In the past decade, scientific research has developed rapidly in China, but the growth seems to vary widely between different disciplines. In this study, we aimed to compare the quantity and quality of publications in urology and nephrology journals from USA, China and Japan. Methods Journals listed in the “Urology and Nephrology” category of Science Citation Index Expanded subject categories were included. Scientific papers in these journals written by researchers from USA, Japan and China were retrieved from the “PubMed” and “Web of Knowledge” online databases. Results The annual number of total scientific articles increased significantly from 2001 to 2010 in China, and has ranked second in the world since 2006. In the field of urology and nephrology, the annual number increased significantly from 2001 to 2010 in USA and China; but not in Japan. The share of articles increased significantly over time in China, decreased significantly in Japan, and remained unchanged in USA. In 2010, USA contributed 32.17% of the total world output in urology and nephrology field and ranked 1st; Japan contributed 5.19% and ranked 5th; China contributed 3.83% and ranked 9th. Publications from USA had the highest accumulated IFs and the highest total citations of articles (USA>Japan>China, p<0.001). No significant difference was found in average IF among the three countries. USA published the most articles in the top 10 urology and nephrology journals (USA(35165)>Japan(6704)>China(2233), p<0.001). Researchers from USA published more clinical trials and randomized controlled trials than Japan and China (USA>Japan>China, p<0.001). Conclusion Although China has undergone significant increase in annual number and percentage of scientific publication in urology and nephrology journals in the past decade, it still lags far behind USA and Japan in the field of urology and nephrology in terms of quantity and quality.
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