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Substance abuse and intimate partner violence: treatment considerations
Keith C Klostermann
Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1747-597x-1-24
Abstract: While historically considered a private family matter, intimate partner violence (IPV) has more recently been conceptualized as a widespread public health concern, requiring the attention of both the treatment community and criminal justice system. In fact, representative surveys of couples, which include less severe instances of aggression, such as single occurrences of pushing or slapping one's partner, suggest rates of 15% to 20% annually for any husband-to-wife violence [1,2]. Yet, these estimates are dwarfed in comparison to those observed among married or cohabiting substance-abusing patients entering substance abuse treatment. More specifically, studies conducted over the last decade have consistently revealed that roughly 60% of substance-abusing men with intimate partners report at least one instance of IPV during the year prior to program entry. Given the increased use of family-involved assessments and interventions in substance abuse treatment programs, providers are increasingly faced with the challenge of addressing this complex clinical issue.Unfortunately, effective treatment options for providers who must deal with this issue are limited. To date, the typical answer has been for providers to refer these cases to agencies specializing in batterers' treatment. However, there are three fundamental problems with this strategy. First, many batterers' treatment programs will only accept individuals who are specifically mandated by the legal community to participate in IPV treatment. Yet, most patients in substance abuse treatment settings are not required to attend a batterers' program; in fact, a large majority of substance-abusing patients are not identified as having engaged in IPV or are only so identified after lengthy or careful assessment while receiving treatment for substance abuse. Second, in those instances in which batterers' programs will accept referrals of nonmandated substance-abusing patients, the vast majority of these patients typically
Evaluation of Health Outcomes with Relation to Intimate Partner Abuse among Pregnant Women Attending Gachsaran Hospitals in 2007
M Dolatian
Qom University of Medical Sciences Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background and Objectives Intimate partner abuse during pregnancy is a major problem associated with a variety of negative health outcomes. However, this relationship has not been adequately explored, especially in the developing countries. The present study seeks to determine the relationship between of intimate partner abuse and reproductive health outcome among pregnant women attending Gachsaran Hospitals in 2007. Methods This is a correlation descriptive study performed on 500 pregnant women attending Gachsaran hospitals chosen by convenience sampling. The data collecting instrument was a questionnaire which was completed by the researchers and consisted of the section: demographic characteristics of samples and their partners, questions related to abuse screening and information of health outcome. Validity and reliability of the tool were respectively established using content validity and test-retest technique. Results The findings of this study indicated that 48/6% of women during pregnancy had suffered abuse from their husbands and there were significant correlations between abuse and unwanted pregnancy, inadequate prenatal visit, short birth interval, lack of use of contraceptive methods and delay in the initiation of breast feeding. (>p0.05 ). Conclusion According to the results of this study, intimate partner abuse can negatively affect reproductive health of pregnant women. It is therefore, necessary to detect cases of intimate partner violence at a primary health care level.
Clinical Screening and Intervention in Cases of Partner Violence
Griffin, M., Koss, M
Online Journal of Issues in Nursing , 2002,
Abstract: Partner violence is a long-term health risk factor that can potentially have far-reaching, negative consequences on both those abused and their loved ones. The term "partner" is used to define opposite and same sex couples who are in relationships on a continuum ranging from casually dating to marriage. Partner violence includes physical, sexual, psychological, and economic abuse, as well as stalking behaviors. Even though the American Medical Association recommends screening for partner violence at multiple levels, there are many shortcomings of the current screening and intervention practice. Several factors facilitating the ineffectiveness of current practice include a lack of information related to the prevalence, duration, and severity of partner violence; physician’s misguided beliefs regarding a victim’s desire to disclose; and barriers that the victim faces when deciding whether to disclose partner violence. This article addresses these shortcomings and identifies nurses as an invaluable resource that has been under-utilized for screening and responding to partner violence. Also highlighted is one technique know by the acronym "RADAR" that is designed to address issues of both screening and intervention. Finally, resources for both health care practitioners and victims of abuse are provided.
Evaluation of Health Outcomes with Relation to Intimate Partner Abuse among Pregnant Women Attending Gachsaran Hospitals in 2007
M. Dolatian,M. Gharache,M. Ahamadi,J. Shams
Qom University of Medical Sciences Journal , 2009,
Abstract: Background and ObjectivesIntimate partner abuse during pregnancy is a major problem associated with a variety of negative health outcomes. However, this relationship has not been adequately explored, especially in the developing countries. The present study seeks to determine the relationship between of intimate partner abuse and reproductive health outcome among pregnant women attending Gachsaran Hospitals in 2007.MethodsThis is a correlation descriptive study performed on 500 pregnant women attending Gachsaran hospitals chosen by convenience sampling. The data collecting instrument was a questionnaire which was completed by the researchers and consisted of the section: demographic characteristics of samples and their partners, questions related to abuse screening and information of health outcome. Validity and reliability of the tool were respectively established using content validity and test-retest technique.ResultsThe findings of this study indicated that 48/6% of women during pregnancy had suffered abuse from their husbands and there were significant correlations between abuse and unwanted pregnancy, inadequate prenatal visit, short birth interval, lack of use of contraceptive methods and delay in the initiation of breast feeding. (>p0.05 ). ConclusionAccording to the results of this study, intimate partner abuse can negatively affect reproductive health of pregnant women. It is therefore, necessary to detect cases of intimate partner violence at a primary health care level. Keywords: Violence; Outcome Assessment (Health Care); Pregnancy.
Perception of Partner Abuse and Its Impact on Marital Violence from Both Spouses  [PDF]
Claude Bélanger, Cynthia Mathieu, Hélène Brisebois
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.411123
Abstract:

Few studies have investigated bi-directional models of marital violence. Research suggests that female victims are also often perpetrators of violence. Accordingly, some researchers propose that we should test the hypothesis that the victim and perpetrator roles can be played by both men and women. The current study addresses this issue by attempting to understand the effect that perceptions of spousal violence will have on both partners’ level of marital violence. Our objectives were to verify the links between levels of violence and perceptions of violence by both partners, and actual self-reports of each type of violence perpetrated. We verified if self-reports and partner’s reports of violence would differ, if one partner’s abuses would influence the other partner’s abuses, and whether the spouse’s self-reported violence or the other spouse’s perception of that violence had a differential impact on the level of violence perpetrated. Twenty-three couples in which the male partner was undergoing treatment for marital violence took part in the study. Results indicate that for both partners perceptions of partner violence modulate the level of marital violence that is perpetrated. The link between perceptions and violent behaviors appears to explain female marital violence better than that it does for males. Implications based on these results are discussed.

Animal abuse and intimate partner violence: researching the link and its significance in Ireland - a veterinary perspective
B Gallagher, M Allen, B Jones
Irish Veterinary Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/2046-0481-61-10-658
Abstract: A number of recent studies have highlighted the relationship between non-accidental injury (NAI) in animals (also known as 'battered pet syndrome') and domestic violence [20,3,6,15]. Further research identifies that intimate partner violence, abuse of children and abuse of companion pets tends to occur in the same families ([9,1,2]; Boat, 1995; [6,15,14]). Flynn [15] found that 46.5% of women using a refuge in South Carolina reported that their abuser had either harmed or threatened to harm their pets. Other studies have suggested a higher prevalence. Ascione [5] demonstrated that almost two-thirds of women who suffered domestic violence also witnessed abuse of, or threats to, their pets. A study in the United Kingdom identified similar statistics, with 66% of women in one survey reporting threats, and 38% reporting actual abuse of their pet [26]. This data indicates that animal abuse in the context of interpersonal violence is likely to be more prevalent and universal than was previously realised. While it is likely that similar patterns of multiple forms of abuse can be found in Ireland, no Irish study has examined this aspect of intimate partner violence.The purpose of this study, undertaken by veterinary practitioners and a social worker, was to examine the 'link' between domestic violence and animal abuse in Ireland, and to establish to what extent the abuse of pets is used to control women within an abusive relationship. In doing so, the aim is to raise awareness of the 'link' amongst the staff of women's refuges, social workers, childcare workers and veterinary practitioners.Official Irish statistics place reports of violence against women within European and US figures, with the only Irish national prevalence study to-date [19] showing that 18% of women had, at some time in their lives, been victims of emotional, sexual or physical violence, or subject to threats of violence, and had their property or pets damaged, by male intimate partners. European Union f
Psychometric Assessment of the Burgess-Partner Abuse Scale for Teens (B-PAST)
Burgess,Stephanie E; Tavakoli,Abbas;
Aquichán , 2005,
Abstract: purpose. the purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the burgess-partner abuse scale for teens (b-past) by examining internal consistency and construct validity. methods. a convenience sample of 239 teen girls ages 13 to 19 years old that were seen in three private primary health care practices agreed to participate. subjects were administered two measures of interpersonal violence, two measures of psychosocial well-being, and a demographic questionnaire. construct validity was assessed by 1) conducting exploratory factor analysis with a priori decision to retain two factors, and 2) measuring differential correlates of interpersonal violence and psychosocial well-being using pearson correlation. in order to determine the instrument's ability to discriminate between teen girls who reported partner abuse and those who did not report partner abuse, differences in contrasted group means (abused vs. non-abused) were examined. one-way anova was used to determine differences in interpersonal violence and psychosocial wellbeing. the internal consistency of the b-past was examined by setting a criterion for the alpha coefficient above .70. results. the results showed that 70.9% of the variance was explained by the b-past. factor analysis demonstrated a 22-item scale with two distinct subscales. the b-past correlated with one measure of interpersonal peer violence (r = .39) and two measures of poor psychosocial well-being, low level of hope and increased depression (r = -.42, r = .46). differences in contrasted means showed that teen girls who were abused by a partner reported higher scores for interpersonal violence. one-way anova showed that abused teen girls scored higher for interpersonal violence and depression but lower in hope. the internal consistency for the final total scale was .97 and .95 for physical/sexual abuse and .91 for the social/emotional abuse subscales. conclusions. results provide support for reliability and validity for the b
Pharmacists’ Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs Regarding Intervention for Prescription Medicines Abuse
Sadia Shakeel, Wajiha Iffat, Sadaf Ibrahim, Shehla Imam
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102036
Abstract: Background: Abuse of medicines is becoming a serious problem in many parts of the world, with negative consequences ranging from addiction, psychosis, cardiovascular complications, and premature deaths from unintentional overdose. In Pakistan, prescription drugs, which are misused or abused by some patients, are often obtained from pharmacies. However, intervention for prescription drugs misuse has not been tested in this setting. Objectives: The objective of the study was to assess knowledge, perception and attitudes regarding interventions towards the abuse of prescription medicines (PM) among practicing pharmacists in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: This transversal study was conducted from June to September 2015 by adopting a pre validated questionnaire distributed to practicing pharmacists in different private and public sector hospitals of Karachi. Descriptive statistics were used to demonstrate participants’ demographic information and their response to the questionnaire items. Pearson’s chi-squared test was executed to evaluate the association of gender, age, organization, and experience of pharmacists with their response. A p value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The study revealed that mass population 75% claimed that they had adequate knowledge of prescription medicine abuse. 81.25% perceived drug abuse as a problem and 88.10% considered that the role of pharmacist was very important in prevention of PM abuse. However pharmacists were not confident that patients would take their advice, respond positively and make needed behavior changes. Respondents also were not confident regarding the manner in which screenings and interventions should occur. Conclusion: Findings from this study will assist health authorities to formulate appropriate health promotion interventions to control and prevent abuse of prescription medicines. Actions directed at early intervention, capacity building, education, public health initiatives and law enforcements will hopefully curb the menace of PM abuse.
Personal, Situational and Socio-Cultural Factors as Correlates of Intimate Partner Abuse in Nigeria  [PDF]
David Oladeji
Advances in Sexual Medicine (ASM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/asm.2013.34014
Abstract: This study established the relationships between personal, situational and socio-cultural factors and intimate partner abuse among couples in Nigeria. A multiple regression statistical procedure was employed in analyzing the data collected from 200 participants randomly selected from five ministries in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria. Results obtained indicated that the three variables when combined effectively predicted intimate partner abuse (F-ratio of 5.756 significant at 0.05 alpha level). Taken separately, situational and socio-cultural factors contributed significantly to the prediction (t = 2.146, p < 0.05; t = 2.284, p < 0.05), while personal factor did not (t = 1.705, p > 0.05). On the basis of these findings it was suggested that counselling psychologists should design intervention strategies to promote life-skills training in schools and out-of-schools settings. These include age-appropriate content on sexuality, conflict resolution, building healthy relationships and personal safety. Also, it was suggested that couples should be informed on the long-term health and social consequences of physical and sexual abuse.
A snapshot in time: Beliefs and practices of a pre-service mathematics teacher through the lens of changing contexts and situations
Lyn Webb,Paul Webb
Pythagoras , 2011, DOI: 10.4102/pythagoras.v33i68.66
Abstract: For the last decade research on teachers’ beliefs has made a distinction between mathematics teachers’ professed and attributed beliefs (practice) and studies have either found some or no correlation between the two. In this paper we investigate the beliefs and practices of a novice teacher and conclude that inconsistency between beliefs and practices may be an observer’s perspective that is not necessarily shared by the teacher, and that the view that there is a possible disjuncture does not do justice to the complexity of the practitioner’s tasks nor to the rapidly changing contexts and situations that may occur within a single lesson.
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