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The Unexpected Impact of Parental Emotional Socialization on Theory of Mind and Emotion Regulation: The Case of Children with Intellectual Disabilities  [PDF]
Emilie Jacobs, Stéphanie Mazzone, Poline Simon, Nathalie Nader-Grosbois
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2019.109084
Abstract: Improving our understanding of contribution of environmental factors to Theory of Mind (ToM) and Emotion Regulation (ER) competences in children with intellectual disabilities (IDs) is crucial to helping them to boost their emotional and social abilities. Parental emotion-related socialization behaviors (ERSBs) have been shown to be favorable factors for the development of these competences in preschoolers. However, few studies have investigated links between mothers’ and fathers’ ERSBs and socio-emotional abilities in children with IDs. The goal of this study is to explore the share of the variance in ToM and ER abilities explained by individual characteristic and each parent’s reactions to the emotions of their children with IDs and emotion-related conversation. Twenty-seven mothers, 16 fathers, and their children with IDs participated. Direct and indirect measures of children’s ToM were used. Questionnaires about children’s ER competences and parents’ ERSBs were completed by parents. The results demonstrated that, at preschool developmental age, parents’ ERSBs had an impact on affective and cognitive ToM as well as on ER, depending on the parent’s gender, on children’s chronological and developmental age, and on the nature of ERSBs, namely reactions or conversations.
Variability and Predictors of Mothers and Fathers’ Socialization Behaviors and Bidirectional Links with Their Preschoolers Socio-Emotional Competences  [PDF]
Stéphanie Mazzone, Nathalie Nader-Grosbois
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2017.712043
Abstract: In their Parental Socialization of Emotions model, Eisenberg, Cumberland and Spinrad (1998) differentiated parents’ Emotion-Related Socialization Behaviours (ERSBs) that support their child’s socio-emotional development: their reactions to their child’s emotions, their discussions about emotions with the child and the expressions of their own emotions in the family. The cross- sectional study focused on the variability of parents’ ERSBs according to children’s and parents’ characteristics (Study 1) and included 167 mothers and 152 fathers of preschoolers. The short-term longitudinal study examined the interaction between parents’ ERSBs and children’s socio-emotional abilities (Theory of Mind, emotional regulation and social adjustment) (Study 2) in 53 two-parent families and their children, with a 6 months interval. In Study 1, parents’ ERSBs, their emotional competences and children’s personality were assessed by means of questionnaires. In Study 2, we combined direct and indirect measures to assess children’s socio-emotional competences. Results of Study 1 indicated that parental ERSBs were mainly predicted by children’s personality, such as emotional stability and parents’ emotional competences, such as communication about their own emotions. Moreover, we observed a differential sensitivity between mothers and fathers toward children’s personality. Results of Study 2 revealed that both mothers and fathers socialized their children’s socio-emotional competences, particularly by the way of emotion-related conversations with their children. Mothers’ emotion-related conversations predicted children’s Theory of mind abilities and social adjustment, while fathers’ emotion-related conversations predicted children’s emotional regulation. In addition, fathers’ reactions to their children’s emotions were predicted by children’s socio-emotional competences. These studies highlighted bidirectional effects between parents’ behaviours and children’s development. They emphasized also the importance to better identify predictors of parents’ ERSBs in order to know on which target the professionals should intervene.
Beauty and Art. Cognitive Function, Evolution, and Mathematical Models of the Mind  [PDF]
Leonid Perlovsky
Quantitative Biology , 2010,
Abstract: The paper discusses relationships between aesthetics theory and mathematical models of mind. Mathematical theory describes abilities for concepts, emotions, instincts, imagination, adaptation, learning, cognition, language, approximate hierarchy of the mind and evolution of these abilities. The knowledge instinct is the foundation of higher mental abilities and aesthetic emotions. Aesthetic emotions are present in every act of perception and cognition, and at the top of the mind hierarchy they become emotions of the beautiful. The learning ability is essential to everyday perception and cognition as well as to the historical development of understanding of the meaning of life. I discuss a controversy surrounding this issue. Conclusions based on cognitive and mathematical models confirm that judgments of taste are at once subjective and objective, and I discuss what it means. The paper relates cognitive and mathematical concepts to those of philosophy and aesthetics, from Plato to our days, clarifies cognitive mechanisms and functions of the beautiful, and resolves many difficulties of contemporary aesthetics.
Parental Care, Children’s Cognitive Abilities and Economic Growth: The Role of Fathers  [PDF]
Debora Di Gioacchino
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.23046
Abstract: Human capital is a key determinant of economic growth. Parents’ involvement during childhood is a predictor of educational attainment later in life. Thus, time devoted by parents to childcare is an important productive activity for society. This paper presents a model in which parental childcare is a key factor in determining children’s cognitive abilities. Parents’ must allocate their time between paid job and childcare. Because of diminishing return, the optimal allocation of parents’ time requires both parents to spend some time in childcare. Since a suboptimal allocation of time has implications both for children's cognitive abilities and for economic growth, our result has important policy implications.
Physics of the mind: Concepts, emotions, language, cognition, consciousness, beauty, music, and symbolic culture  [PDF]
Leonid Perlovsky
Quantitative Biology , 2010,
Abstract: Mathematical approaches to modeling the mind since the 1950s are reviewed. Difficulties faced by these approaches are related to the fundamental incompleteness of logic discovered by K. G\"odel. A recent mathematical advancement, dynamic logic (DL) overcame these past difficulties. DL is described conceptually and related to neuroscience, psychology, cognitive science, and philosophy. DL models higher cognitive functions: concepts, emotions, instincts, understanding, imagination, intuition, consciousness. DL is related to the knowledge instinct that drives our understanding of the world and serves as a foundation for higher cognitive functions. Aesthetic emotions and perception of beauty are related to 'everyday' functioning of the mind. The article reviews mechanisms of human symbolic ability, language and cognition, joint evolution of the mind, consciousness, and cultures. It touches on a manifold of aesthetic emotions in music, their cognitive function, origin, and evolution. The article concentrates on elucidating the first principles and reviews aspects of the theory proven in laboratory research.
When the Mind Affects the Heart  [PDF]
Cláudio Garcia Capit?o
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.616210
Abstract: This article aims to theoretically discuss the relationship between psychosomatic symptoms and heart diseases. It was used, as research technique, the narrative literature review, unsystematic, which consisted in presenting an open theme. Many authors point out the influence of the mind over the body—especially through emotions, psychic conflicts, stress—as responsible for, or adjuvants in the etiopathogenesis of many diseases. Emotions are acute emotional reactions triggered by external or internal stimuli, usually accompanied by neurodegenerative, visceral, hormonal and vascular somatic reactions. The conclusion is that heart diseases are multidetermined, influenced by environmental, organic and psychodynamic conditions.
Increased Prefrontal Cortical Thickness Is Associated with Enhanced Abilities to Regulate Emotions in PTSD-Free Women with Borderline Personality Disorder  [PDF]
Hannah Bruehl, Sandra Prei?ler, Isabella Heuser, Hauke R. Heekeren, Stefan Roepke, Isabel Dziobek
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065584
Abstract: Previous studies suggest that amygdala, insula and prefrontal cortex (PFC) disintegrity play a crucial role in the failure to adequately regulate emotions in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). However, prior results are confounded by the high rate of comorbidity with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), which itself has been associated with changes in frontolimbic circuitry. We thus scrutinized the link between PFC, amygdala, insula, and the ability to regulate emotions, contrasting 17 women with BPD without comorbid PTSD to 27 non-clinical control women and in addition to those with BPD and PTSD (n = 14). BPD women without PTSD, but not those with comorbid PTSD, had increased cortical thickness in the dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) in comparison to control women. Furthermore, cortical thickness in the DLPFC of BPD women without PTSD positively correlated with emotion regulation scores and furthermore was positively associated with amygdala volume, as well as cortical thickness of the insula. Our findings highlight the importance of disentangling the impact of BPD and PTSD on the brain and suggest possible compensatory mechanisms for the impaired emotion regulation in BPD women without PTSD.
A Maternal Influence on Reading the Mind in the Eyes Mediated by Executive Function: Differential Parental Influences on Full and Half-Siblings  [PDF]
Gillian Ragsdale,Robert A. Foley
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023236
Abstract: Parent-of-origin effects have been found to influence the mammalian brain and cognition and have been specifically implicated in the development of human social cognition and theory of mind. The experimental design in this study was developed to detect parent-of-origin effects on theory of mind, as measured by the ‘Reading the mind in the eyes’ (Eyes) task. Eyes scores were also entered into a principal components analysis with measures of empathy, social skills and executive function, in order to determine what aspect of theory of mind Eyes is measuring.
Why should our mind-reading abilities be involved in the explanation of phenomenal consciousness?
Pérez,Diana I.;
An??lisis filos?3fico , 2008,
Abstract: in this paper i consider recent discussions within the representationalist theories of phenomenal consciousness, in particular, the discussions between first order representationalism (for) and higher order representationalism (hor). i aim to show that either there is only a terminological dispute between them or, if the discussion is not simply terminological, then hor is based on a misunderstanding of the phenomena that a theory of phenomenal consciousness should explain. first, i argue that we can defend first order representationalism from carruthers' attacks and ignore higher order thoughts in our account of phenomenal consciousness. then i offer a diagnostic of carruthers' misunderstanding. in the last section i consider further reasons to include mindreading abilities in an explanation of phenomenal consciousness.
Brain. Conscious and Unconscious Mechanisms of Cognition, Emotions, and Language  [PDF]
Leonid Perlovsky,Roman Ilin
Brain Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/brainsci2040790
Abstract: Conscious and unconscious brain mechanisms, including cognition, emotions and language are considered in this review. The fundamental mechanisms of cognition include interactions between bottom-up and top-down signals. The modeling of these interactions since the 1960s is briefly reviewed, analyzing the ubiquitous difficulty: incomputable combinatorial complexity (CC). Fundamental reasons for CC are related to the G?del’s difficulties of logic, a most fundamental mathematical result of the 20th century. Many scientists still “believed” in logic because, as the review discusses, logic is related to consciousness; non-logical processes in the brain are unconscious. CC difficulty is overcome in the brain by processes “from vague-unconscious to crisp-conscious” (representations, plans, models, concepts). These processes are modeled by dynamic logic, evolving from vague and unconscious representations toward crisp and conscious thoughts. We discuss experimental proofs and relate dynamic logic to simulators of the perceptual symbol system. “From vague to crisp” explains interactions between cognition and language. Language is mostly conscious, whereas cognition is only rarely so; this clarifies much about the mind that might seem mysterious. All of the above involve emotions of a special kind, aesthetic emotions related to knowledge and to cognitive dissonances. Cognition-language-emotional mechanisms operate throughout the hierarchy of the mind and create all higher mental abilities. The review discusses cognitive functions of the beautiful, sublime, music.
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