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佛经译论中的“取意译”与“敌对翻”  [PDF]
陶磊
- , 2015,
Abstract: “取意”是《华严大疏钞》等华严一系的佛典注疏中经常使用的词语,其字面意思是“采取其意”,往往和各种动词搭配,表示对经文大意的概括。通过对“孟夏月”、《金刚经》“六喻”、“船师”等具体译例的考察,本文认为“取意译”是指根据原文大意进行翻译,相当于现代意义上的意译。类似的表达方式还有“会意译”,即在汇通原文大意的基础上进行翻译。和“取意译”(“会意译”)相对的翻译方法被注者称为“敌对翻(译)”。这里的“敌对”取其本意“对等”,“敌对翻”的意思就是“对等的翻译”,相当于直译。不过翻译的“对等”并没有统一标准,被不空视为“敌对翻”的做法,在良贲看来便成了“会意译”,这是因为他们采用了不同的意义单位作为衡量“对等”的标准。“敌对翻”在不同的翻译语境中可以指向不同层级的意义单位,但强调译出语文本和译入语文本在同一层级保持语义对等则是其共同特征。
Abstract:As a frequent word in Hua yan da shu chao and other Buddhist scripture commentaries of Huayan Sect, “quyi” (to generalize) often collocated with different verbs and indicated a summary of the text discussed. “Quyiyi” meant to translate the main idea of the scripture, analogous to paraphrasing. According to our study on its use in the interpretations of “mengxiayue”, the six metaphors in Diamond Sutra, “oarsmen” and several other translations. A similar expression was named “huiyiyi”, which signified a translation of the general meaning of the text. The method contrast to “quyiyi” or “huiyiyi” was called “diduifan(yi)”. “Didui” here denoted “equivalent(ly)”. Thus “didui fan” literally meant to translate equivalently and was the equal of metaphrasing. However there was no unified standard to judge a translation was “equivalent” or not. A translation which was regarded as “didui fan” by Bukong could be considered as “huiyiyi” by another commentator, Liangbi, because they had adopted different units of meaning to measure “equivalence”. Although “diduifan” referred to different units of meaning in different translation contexts, it emphasized on semantic equivalence of a certain unit of meaning all the same.
翻译理论研究反常语的译与解——兼论基于翻译实践的中西译论互补  [PDF]
孙靖
- , 2017,
Abstract: 反常语不仅常见于文学作品,在非文学文本中也常有运用,国内和西方学者对这种特殊的语言表现手段皆有关注和讨论。钱锺书先生在《谈艺录》中专门提起这一现象,称之为“反常之语言”;美国学者刘易斯剖析了翻译中不同于“常语”的“反常语”现象,指出反常语特点鲜明,自成体系,翻译反常语不仅要有相应的原则,而且还需要新的忠实观。韦努蒂也明确认为反常语的翻译要遵循“反常的忠实”,以目的语的反常来达到对原语中反常语的忠实。无独有偶,我国译界前辈许渊冲先生更有针对性地强调了反常语“非常译”的原则,以不循常规的灵活译法来破译反常语。理清这些涉及反常语和反常语翻译的论述,无疑将有助于我们加深对于反常语的认识,进而加强对于反常语翻译的研究。本文通过一些反常语的现成译例,分析、讨论了反常语的类别划分,指出了几种不同的翻译概念对反常语翻译的适用性和局限性。反常语翻译的理论和实践说明,中西译论可以相互补充,理应兼收并蓄,而翻译理论需要有翻译实践作为检验的标准。
Abstract:Non-usage is a special language phenomenon which is often seen both in literary and non-literary writings. As a result, it has been notified in the academic discussions of Chinese and western scholars. Qian Zhong-shu in his Notes on Literature and Art referred to “non-usage expressions” as classic examples of poetic language. Philip Lewis furthered the discussion by studying “abuse” in comparison with “use.” The abuse is a typical case of its own and must be translated in accordance with a new principle of translation and “a new axiomatics of fidelity.” Lawrence Venuti followed it up by exploring the idea of “abusive fidelity” which encourages the faithful translation of the abuse in the original by means of abusiveness in the target language. As it happens, Xu Yuan-chong in China has made a point of emphasizing the principle of “abusive translation” for rendering non-usage expressions by way of breaking through the conventional rules. This article is intended to acquire an in-depth understanding and a proper classification of the phenomenon of non-usage, and at the same time to clarify the related translation concepts in terms of their appropriateness and limitation for translating expressions of non-usage. Either the comparison of theories or the analysis of translation cases in this study has convinced us of the actual significance in combining the Chinese and Western translation theories for their complementary strengths and therefore the conclusion that translation practice serves as the criterion for judging translation theories.
从“蝌蚪啃蜡”的弃用谈翻译对译入语语境的顺应  [PDF]
纪辉
湖南工业大学学报(社会科学版) , 2014,
Abstract: 各国学者对语境的研究琳琅满目,语境制约翻译的思想深入人心。维索尔伦从语用学角度提出顺应论,主张语言使用过程中语言的选择必须与语境关系和语言结构相顺应。翻译也是一个语言选择过程,同样适用顺应论。为进一步明确翻译与语境的关系,结合顺应论与语境理论,从翻译过程中语言选择对译入语具体语境的顺应角度分析“蝌蚪啃蜡”被弃用的原因。
似不可译而必须译似可译而不能译  [PDF]
曾立
湖南工业大学学报(社会科学版) , 2011,
Abstract: 诗歌一类文本似不可译而必须译,广告一类文本却可能似可译而不能译。“可译”与“不可译”,是基于由源文至目的语翻译难度而作出的判断;“必须译”与“不能译”,乃至“怎样译”,是根据翻译的社会需求而作出的决定。不同文体的社会需求各有特点,其翻译应采用不同的原则与方法。
跨語言資訊檢索:理論、技術與應用 | Cross-Language Information Retrieval: Theories and Technologies  [cached]
陳信希 Hsin-His Chen
Journal of Library and Information Science , 2002,
Abstract: 頁次:19-32 多語性是網路社會的重要特徵之一,如何將網路資源,介紹給不同語言的使用者,同時吸收其他語言所呈現的資訊,都是資訊國際化不能忽略的重要課題。跨語言資訊檢索,提供使用者以某種語言檢索另外一種語言表達的文件,為近年來很活躍的研究題目之一。本文嘗試將這個研究主題相關的理論和技術,介紹給有興趣的讀者。首先探討詢問翻譯、文件翻譯、和不翻譯等三類基本方法。接著考慮翻譯歧義性和目標多義性,以及專有名詞音譯等進階方法。評估是促進技術進步的必要工作,本文最後也介紹跨語言資訊檢索三大評比:TREC、 CLEF、與 NTCIR。 Multilinguality is one of the major characteristics in network era. The trend toward information globalization has brought new challenges for in-formation management. On the one hand, it is often necessary to share the valuable resources on the web with users of different languages. On the other hand, it is also necessary for a user to utilize knowledge presented in a foreign language. This paper introduces related theories and technologies of cross language information retrieval, which is kernel in multilingual information management. The basic concepts are presented in sequence on the basis of the classification of query translation, document translation, and no translation. Besides, some advanced concepts like translation ambiguity and target polysemy, as well as proper name transliteration are discussed. Performance evaluation is indispensable for improvement. This paper also shows three world-wide IR evaluation, including TREC, CLEF and NTCIR.
论朱熹音叶中平分阴阳的隐性取音倾向
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 [PDF]

刘晓南
- , 2018,
Abstract: 朱熹反切多承于前人,为了有效考察朱熹音叶中平声是否区分阴阳,在全面核查反切来源的基础上,依次进行自制率统计、协调率统计,可以看到,在尽可能排除承用前人的切语之后,朱熹自制音切中平声字音叶切语的内部阴阳协调比率大大超出自然概率。由此推知,朱熹给平声字创制音切时,隐性地实行了“阴阳协调”的取音倾向。这实际上反映了平分阴阳的音变在朱熹时代不但已经发生,而且发展的程度已很深了。
从SL-TL语域比较的角度谈翻译中的语域转换  [PDF]
刘晓峰
安徽大学学报(哲学社会科学版) , 2008,
Abstract: 从系统功能语言学主张的语域特点与功能出发,考察原文与译文的语域在译者的干预下的相同与相异的事实,得出翻译其实就是译者在原语与译语语境的共同关照下根据自己的意愿进行语域的转换与创造的结论。原文与译文语域的特点与功能比较既可以为翻译操作亦可以为译文评介提供更客观的理据。
关于“可译/不可译”的形而上与形而下思考  [PDF]
高宁
华东师范大学学报(哲学社会科学版) , 2015, DOI: 10.16382/ j.cnki.10005579.2015.02.018
Abstract: 笔者通过“静夜思”的外译,分别从形而上与形而下视角对“可译/不可译”展开讨论。简言之,可译/不可译主要取决于可说/不可说之上。在形而上层面,可译性是第一位的;在形而下层面,可译与不可译处在互以对方为生存条件的关系之中。可译之度不仅是不可译,同时也是可译的问题。
庞德《华夏集》创译的美学价值  [PDF]
江苏科技大学学报(社会科学版) , 2013,
Abstract: 美国著名诗人、翻译家埃兹拉·庞德提出的音诗、形诗和理诗的诗歌三分法理论表现了他对诗歌创作和诗歌翻译独特的美学思考。庞德创造性翻译而成的《华夏集》完美再现了其诗歌三分法理论。这部创译混杂的译诗集既蕴含了中国古典诗歌的美学特点,也融汇了庞德的现代主义诗学理念,体现了庞德复兴英语诗歌的美学追求。
《广雅疏证》以“凡”语说明 “名”、“实”、“义”关系情况浅析  [PDF]
马景仑
安徽大学学报(哲学社会科学版) , 2010,
Abstract: 《广雅疏证》以“凡”语说明“名”、“实”、“义”之间的关系。其中包括两种情况一、以“凡”语说明某些“实”之得“名”缘由和某些“名”所指的“实”的内容范围,指明“名”与“实”之间的关系。二、以“凡”语说明相同、相近、相因之“义”分别用相同之“名”或音同音近之“名”表示,指明“名”与“义”之间的关系。
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