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Protein Kinase C (PKC) Isozymes and Cancer  [PDF]
Jeong-Hun Kang
New Journal of Science , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/231418
Abstract: Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of phospholipid-dependent serine/threonine kinases, which can be further classified into three PKC isozymes subfamilies: conventional or classic, novel or nonclassic, and atypical. PKC isozymes are known to be involved in cell proliferation, survival, invasion, migration, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and drug resistance. Because of their key roles in cell signaling, PKC isozymes also have the potential to be promising therapeutic targets for several diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, immune and inflammatory diseases, neurological diseases, metabolic disorders, and multiple types of cancer. This review primarily focuses on the activation, mechanism, and function of PKC isozymes during cancer development and progression. 1. Introduction Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of phospholipid-dependent serine/threonine kinases that function in numerous different cell types. Based on their structural and activation characteristics, this protein family can be further classified into three subfamilies: conventional or classic PKC isozymes (cPKCs; α, βI, βII, and γ), novel or nonclassic PKC isozymes (nPKCs; δ, ε, η, and θ), and atypical PKC isozymes (aPKCs; ζ, ι, and λ). The activation of cPKCs requires diacylglycerol (DAG) as the primary activator along with phosphatidylserine (PS) and calcium (Ca2+) as cofactors of activation. The nPKCs are also regulated by DAG and PS but do not require Ca2+ for activation. In the case of aPKCs, their activity is stimulated only by PS and not by DAG and Ca2+ [1, 2]. PKC isozymes are involved in multiple signal transduction systems that respond to a variety of external stimulators, including hormones, growth factors, and other membrane receptor ligands. For this reason, PKC isozymes can act as therapeutic targets for several diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis, myocardial fibrosis, cardiac hypertrophy, and hypertension) (for reviews, see [3, 4]), immune and inflammatory diseases (e.g., asthma, arthritis, and hepatitis) [5, 6], neurological diseases (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease and bipolar disorder) [7, 8], and metabolic disorders (e.g., obesity, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and hypercholesterolemia) [9–11]. Further, significant work has also explored the activation, mechanism, and function of PKC isozymes in the development and progression of multiple types of cancer, which will be the primary focus of this review. 2. PKC Isozymes and Their Target Proteins There are five consensus phosphorylation site motifs recognized by PKC isozymes, each of which has an
Protein kinase C in the wood frog, Rana sylvatica: reassessing the tissue-specific regulation of PKC isozymes during freezing  [PDF]
Christopher A. Dieni,Kenneth B. Storey
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7717/peerj.558
Abstract: The wood frog, Rana sylvatica, survives whole-body freezing and thawing each winter. The extensive adaptations required at the biochemical level are facilitated by alterations to signaling pathways, including the insulin/Akt and AMPK pathways. Past studies investigating changing tissue-specific patterns of the second messenger IP3 in adapted frogs have suggested important roles for protein kinase C (PKC) in response to stress. In addition to their dependence on second messengers, phosphorylation of three PKC sites by upstream kinases (most notably PDK1) is needed for full PKC activation, according to widely-accepted models. The present study uses phospho-specific immunoblotting to investigate phosphorylation states of PKC—as they relate to distinct tissues, PKC isozymes, and phosphorylation sites—in control and frozen frogs. In contrast to past studies where second messengers of PKC increased during the freezing process, phosphorylation of PKC tended to generally decline in most tissues of frozen frogs. All PKC isozymes and specific phosphorylation sites detected by immunoblotting decreased in phosphorylation levels in hind leg skeletal muscle and hearts of frozen frogs. Most PKC isozymes and specific phosphorylation sites detected in livers and kidneys also declined; the only exceptions were the levels of isozymes/phosphorylation sites detected by the phospho-PKCα/βII (Thr638/641) antibody, which remained unchanged from control to frozen frogs. Changes in brains of frozen frogs were unique; no decreases were observed in the phosphorylation levels of any of the PKC isozymes and/or specific phosphorylation sites detected by immunoblotting. Rather, increases were observed for the levels of isozymes/phosphorylation sites detected by the phospho-PKCα/βII (Thr638/641), phospho-PKCδ (Thr505), and phospho-PKCθ (Thr538) antibodies; all other isozymes/phosphorylation sites detected in brain remained unchanged from control to frozen frogs. The results of this study indicate a potential important role for PKC in cerebral protection during wood frog freezing. Our findings also call for a reassessment of the previously-inferred importance of PKC in other tissues, particularly in liver; a more thorough investigation is required to determine whether PKC activity in this physiological situation is indeed dependent on phosphorylation, or whether it deviates from the generally-accepted model and can be “overridden” by exceedingly high levels of second messengers, as has been demonstrated with certain PKC isozymes (e.g., PKCδ).
Protein kinase C in the wood frog, Rana sylvatica: reassessing the tissue-specific regulation of PKC isozymes during freezing  [PDF]
Christopher A. Dieni,Kenneth B. Storey
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.391v1
Abstract: The wood frog, Rana sylvatica, survives whole-body freezing and thawing each winter. The extensive adaptations required at the biochemical level are facilitated by alterations to signaling pathways, including the insulin/Akt and AMPK pathways. Past studies investigating changing tissue-specific patterns of the second messenger IP3 in adapted frogs have suggested important roles for protein kinase C (PKC) in response to stress. In addition to their dependence on second messengers, phosphorylation of three PKC sites by upstream kinases (most notably PDK1) is needed for full PKC activation, according to current generally-accepted models. The present study uses phospho-specific immunoblotting to investigate phosphorylation states of PKC- as they relate to distinct tissues, PKC isozymes, and phosphorylation sites- in control and frozen frogs. In contrast to past studies where second messengers of PKC increased during the freezing process, phosphorylation of PKC tended to generally decline in most tissues of frozen frogs. All PKC isozymes and specific phosphorylation sites detected by immunoblotting decreased in phosphorylation levels in hind leg skeletal muscle and hearts of frozen frogs. Most PKC isozymes and specific phosphorylation sites detected in livers and kidneys also declined; the only exceptions were the levels of isozymes/phosphorylation sites detected by the phospho-PKCα/βII (Thr638/641) antibody, which remained unchanged from control to frozen frogs. Changes in brains of frozen frogs were unique; no decreases were observed in the phosphorylation levels of any of the PKC isozymes and/or specific phosphorylation sites detected by immunoblotting. Rather, increases were observed for the levels of isozymes/phosphorylation sites detected by the phospho-PKCα/βII (Thr638/641), phospho-PKCδ (Thr505), and phospho-PKCθ (Thr538) antibodies; all other isozymes/phosphorylation sites detected in brain remained unchanged from control to frozen frogs. The results of this study indicate a potential important role for PKC in cerebral protection during wood frog freezing. Our findings also call for a reassessment of the previously-inferred importance of PKC in other tissues, particularly in liver; a more thorough investigation is required to determine whether PKC activity in this physiological situation is indeed dependent on phosphorylation, or whether it deviates from the generally-accepted model and can be “overridden” by exceedingly high levels of second messengers, as has been demonstrated with certain PKC isozymes (e.g. PKCδ).
Inhibitors of protein kinase C
Shiying Liu,Yuyang Jiang,Jian Cao,Feng Liu,Li Ma,Yufen Zhao
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2005, DOI: 10.1360/982004-328
Abstract: Protein kinase catalyzes the transfer of the γ-phosphoryl group from ATP to the hydroxyl groups of protein side chains, which plays critical roles in signal transduction pathways by transmitting extracellular signals across the plasma membrane and nuclear membrane to the destination sites in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Protein kinase C (PKC) is a superfamily of phospholipid-dependent Ser/Thr kinase. There are at least 12 isozymes in PKC family. They are distributed in different tissues and play different roles in physiological processes. On account of their concern with a variety of pathophysiologic states, such as cancer, inflammatory conditions, autoimmune disorder, and cardiac diseases, the inhibitors, which can inhibit the activity of PKC and the interaction of cytokine with receptor, and interfere signal transduction pathway, may be candidates of therapeutic drugs. Therefore, intense efforts have been made to develop specific protein kinase inhibitors as biological tools and therapeutic agents. This article reviews the recent development of some of PKC inhibitors based on their interaction with different conserved domains and different inhibition mechanisms.
Identification of Ser/Thr kinase and Forkhead Associated Domains in Mycobacterium ulcerans: Characterization of Novel Association between Protein Kinase Q and MupFHA  [PDF]
Gunjan Arora equal contributor,Andaleeb Sajid equal contributor,Anshika Singhal,Jayadev Joshi,Richa Virmani,Meetu Gupta,Nupur Verma,Abhijit Maji,Richa Misra,Grégory Baronian,Amit K. Pandey,Virginie Molle ,Yogendra Singh
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003315
Abstract: Background Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer in humans, is unique among the members of Mycobacterium genus due to the presence of the virulence determinant megaplasmid pMUM001. This plasmid encodes multiple virulence-associated genes, including mup011, which is an uncharacterized Ser/Thr protein kinase (STPK) PknQ. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we have characterized PknQ and explored its interaction with MupFHA (Mup018c), a FHA domain containing protein also encoded by pMUM001. MupFHA was found to interact with PknQ and suppress its autophosphorylation. Subsequent protein-protein docking and molecular dynamic simulation analyses showed that this interaction involves the FHA domain of MupFHA and PknQ activation loop residues Ser170 and Thr174. FHA domains are known to recognize phosphothreonine residues, and therefore, MupFHA may be acting as one of the few unusual FHA-domain having overlapping specificity. Additionally, we elucidated the PknQ-dependent regulation of MupDivIVA (Mup012c), which is a DivIVA domain containing protein encoded by pMUM001. MupDivIVA interacts with MupFHA and this interaction may also involve phospho-threonine/serine residues of MupDivIVA. Conclusions/Significance Together, these results describe novel signaling mechanisms in M. ulcerans and show a three-way regulation of PknQ, MupFHA, and MupDivIVA. FHA domains have been considered to be only pThr specific and our results indicate a novel mechanism of pSer as well as pThr interaction exhibited by MupFHA. These results signify the need of further re-evaluating the FHA domain –pThr/pSer interaction model. MupFHA may serve as the ideal candidate for structural studies on this unique class of modular enzymes.
Acetate Kinase Isozymes Confer Robustness in Acetate Metabolism  [PDF]
Siu Hung Joshua Chan, Lasse N?rregaard, Christian Solem, Peter Ruhdal Jensen
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092256
Abstract: Acetate kinase (ACK) (EC no: 2.7.2.1) interconverts acetyl-phosphate and acetate to either catabolize or synthesize acetyl-CoA dependent on the metabolic requirement. Among all ACK entries available in UniProt, we found that around 45% are multiple ACKs in some organisms including more than 300 species but surprisingly, little work has been done to clarify whether this has any significance. In an attempt to gain further insight we have studied the two ACKs (AckA1, AckA2) encoded by two neighboring genes conserved in Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) by analyzing protein sequences, characterizing transcription structure, determining enzyme characteristics and effect on growth physiology. The results show that the two ACKs are most likely individually transcribed. AckA1 has a much higher turnover number and AckA2 has a much higher affinity for acetate in vitro. Consistently, growth experiments of mutant strains reveal that AckA1 has a higher capacity for acetate production which allows faster growth in an environment with high acetate concentration. Meanwhile, AckA2 is important for fast acetate-dependent growth at low concentration of acetate. The results demonstrate that the two ACKs have complementary physiological roles in L. lactis to maintain a robust acetate metabolism for fast growth at different extracellular acetate concentrations. The existence of ACK isozymes may reflect a common evolutionary strategy in bacteria in an environment with varying concentrations of acetate.
The PDZ-Ligand and Src-Homology Type 3 Domains of Epidemic Avian Influenza Virus NS1 Protein Modulate Human Src Kinase Activity during Viral Infection  [PDF]
Laura Bavagnoli, William G. Dundon, Anna Garbelli, Bianca Zecchin, Adelaide Milani, Geetha Parakkal, Fausto Baldanti, Stefania Paolucci, Romain Volmer, Yizeng Tu, Chuanyue Wu, Ilaria Capua, Giovanni Maga
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027789
Abstract: The Non-structural 1 (NS1) protein of avian influenza (AI) viruses is important for pathogenicity. Here, we identify a previously unrecognized tandem PDZ-ligand (TPL) domain in the extreme carboxy terminus of NS1 proteins from a subset of globally circulating AI viruses. By using protein arrays we have identified several human PDZ-cellular ligands of this novel domain, one of which is the RIL protein, a known regulator of the cellular tyrosine kinase Src. We found that the AI NS1 proteins bind and stimulate human Src tyrosine kinase, through their carboxy terminal Src homology type 3-binding (SHB) domain. The physical interaction between NS1 and Src and the ability of AI viruses to modulate the phosphorylation status of Src during the infection, were found to be influenced by the TPL arrangement. These results indicate the potential for novel host-pathogen interactions mediated by the TPL and SHB domains of AI NS1 protein.
Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase PKR of fishes and amphibians: Varying the number of double-stranded RNA binding domains and lineage-specific duplications
Stefan Rothenburg, Nikolaus Deigendesch, Madhusudan Dey, Thomas E Dever, Loubna Tazi
BMC Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7007-6-12
Abstract: Here we report the cloning and identification of 13 PKR genes from 8 teleost fish and amphibian species, including zebrafish, demonstrating the coexistence of PKR and PKZ in this latter species. Analyses of their genomic organization revealed up to three tandemly arrayed PKR genes, which are arranged in head-to-tail orientation. At least five duplications occurred independently in fish and amphibian lineages. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that the kinase domains of fish PKR genes are more closely related to those of fish PKZ than to the PKR kinase domains of other vertebrate species. The duplication leading to fish PKR and PKZ genes occurred early during teleost fish evolution after the divergence of the tetrapod lineage. While two dsRBDs are found in mammalian and amphibian PKR, one, two or three dsRBDs are present in fish PKR. In zebrafish, both PKR and PKZ were strongly upregulated after immunostimulation with some tissue-specific expression differences. Using genetic and biochemical assays we demonstrate that both zebrafish PKR and PKZ can phosphorylate eIF2α in yeast.Considering the important role for PKR in host defense against viruses, the independent duplication and fixation of PKR genes in different lineages probably provided selective advantages by leading to the recognition of an extended spectrum of viral nucleic acid structures, including both dsRNA and Z-DNA/RNA, and perhaps by altering sensitivity to viral PKR inhibitors. Further implications of our findings for the evolution of the PKR family and for studying PKR/PKZ interactions with viral gene products and their roles in viral infections are discussed.The double-stranded (ds) RNA-activated protein kinase PKR (eIF2aK2) is an integral component of the innate immune response (reviewed in [1-3]). In mammals PKR, which contains two N-terminal dsRNA-binding domains (dsRBDs) [4], is constitutively expressed at moderate levels in most cells types and can be transcriptionally induced approximately five-fold
Crystal Structure of Human AKT1 with an Allosteric Inhibitor Reveals a New Mode of Kinase Inhibition  [PDF]
Wen-I Wu,Walter C. Voegtli,Hillary L. Sturgis,Faith P. Dizon,Guy P. A. Vigers,Barbara J. Brandhuber
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012913
Abstract: AKT1 (NP_005154.2) is a member of the serine/threonine AGC protein kinase family involved in cellular metabolism, growth, proliferation and survival. The three human AKT isozymes are highly homologous multi-domain proteins with both overlapping and distinct cellular functions. Dysregulation of the AKT pathway has been identified in multiple human cancers. Several clinical trials are in progress to test the efficacy of AKT pathway inhibitors in treating cancer. Recently, a series of AKT isozyme-selective allosteric inhibitors have been reported. They require the presence of both the pleckstrin-homology (PH) and kinase domains of AKT, but their binding mode has not yet been elucidated. We present here a 2.7 ? resolution co-crystal structure of human AKT1 containing both the PH and kinase domains with a selective allosteric inhibitor bound in the interface. The structure reveals the interactions between the PH and kinase domains, as well as the critical amino residues that mediate binding of the inhibitor to AKT1. Our work also reveals an intricate balance in the enzymatic regulation of AKT, where the PH domain appears to lock the kinase in an inactive conformation and the kinase domain disrupts the phospholipid binding site of the PH domain. This information advances our knowledge in AKT1 structure and regulation, thereby providing a structural foundation for interpreting the effects of different classes of AKT inhibitors and designing selective ones.
The mechanism of phospholipase Cγ1 activation
Pawe? Krawczyk,Janusz Matuszyk
Post?py Higieny i Medycyny Do?wiadczalnej , 2011,
Abstract: Phospholipase C is an enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) into second messengers inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). These messengers then promote the activation of protein kinase C and release of Ca2 from intracellular stores, initiating numerous cellular events including proliferation, differentiation, signal transduction, endocytosis, cytoskeletal reorganization or activation of ion channels. There have been identified 14 isozymes of PLC among which PLCγ1 and PLCγ2 are of particular interest. PLC contains catalytic region XY and a few regulatory domains: PH, EF and C2. The most unique features of these two enzymes are the Src homology domains (SH2, SH3) and split PH domain within the catalytic barrel. PLC 1 and PLCγ2 have an identical domain structure, but they differ in their function and occurrence. Phospholipase Cγ1 is expressed ubiquitously, especially in the brain, thymus and lungs.PLCγ1 can be activated by receptor tyrosine kinases (i.e.: PDGFR, EGFR, FGFR, Trk), as well as non-receptor protein kinases (Src, Syk, Tec) or phosphatidic acid, tau protein and its analogue.The molecular mechanism of PLCγ1 activation includes membrane recruitment, phosphorylation, rearrangements and activation in the presence of growth factors.In reference to PLCγ1 regulation, a number of positive and negative modulators have been considered. The most important positive modulator is phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P2). Protein kinase A and C, tyrosine phosphatases (SHP-1, PTP-1B) and Cbl, Grb2, Jak2/PTP-1B complex proteins have been described as negative regulators of PLCγ1 activation.
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