oalib
Search Results: 1 - 10 of 100 matches for " "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item
Effects of different levels of compost application on amounts and distribution of organic nitrogen forms in soil particle size fractions subjected mainly to double cropping  [PDF]
Thu Ha Nguyen, Haruo Shindo
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/as.2011.23030
Abstract: Effects of different levels of compost application on the amounts and percentage distribution of organic N forms in whole soils and particle size fractions were investigated. Soil samples were collected from three plots: (a) F, only chemical fertilizers; (b) F+LC, chemical fertilizers plus low level of compost; (c) F+HC, chemical fertilizers plus high level of compost. Each soil sample was divided into five fractions: coarse sand-sized aggregate (CSA), medium sand-sized aggregate (MSA), fine sand-sized aggregate (FSA), silt-sized aggregate (SIA) and clay-sized aggregate (CLA) fractions. The sand fractions were subdivided into decayed plants (DP) and mineral particles (MP). The amounts of total N and different organic N forms in the whole soils as well as size fractions generally increased with increasing the amount of compost. In the whole soils, percentage distribution of non-hydrolysable-N and amino sugar-N increased by compost application while the distribution values of the hydrolysable ammonium- N and unidentified-N decreased. The application did not affect the distribution degree of amino acid-N. In the size fractions, the distribution values of most organic N forms increased in the CSA-DP, MSA-DP and FSA-DP fractions by compost application. In the CLA fractions, the amounts and percentage distribution of organic N forms were the highest, although the application caused decreases in their distribution values. These findings indicate that the CLA fraction merit close attention as an important reservoir of various organic N.
An Improvement of Yasothon Soil Fertility (Oxic Paleustults) Using Municipal Fermented Organic Compost and Panicum maximum TD 58 Grass
T. Chuasavathi,V. Trelo-ges
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: An investigation on the improvement of Yasothon soil (Oxic Paleustults) fertility by Khon Kaen`s municipal fermented waste was carried out at Khon Kaen University for the treatments with and without sowing Panicum maximum TD 58 grass. The results showed that Khon Kaen`s municipal waste had a tremendous effect in improving Yasothon soil fertility. Decomposition rate of organic compost in soil was most rapid due to high environmental temperature. The improvement of soil fertility was greater for treatments with the growth of Panicum maximum TD 58 grass than those without. An increase in the amount of organic compost added to the soil increased the percentages of soil nitrogen, soil available P and exchangeable K. Municipal organic compost increased soil pH, but a greater result was found for treatments with the growth of Panicum maximum TD 58 grass. Municipal waste contented the majority of plant materials and garbage and they should be sorted out daily and recycled as a fermented compost to improve soil fertility for better crop production and sustainable agriculture.
Use of quality compost on arboreus cultivation to improve soil fertility
Giovanni Fecondo,Grazia Guastadisegni,Mario D’Ercole,Maria Del Bianco
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2010.s2.31
Abstract: In the last years, thank to remarkable technical-scientific progresses, agricultural production has reached very high values with regard to quantitative and qualitative aspects. To reach these objectives, the collectivity must pay high prices, as reduction of fertility soils, greater risk of erosive process in the hill areas, pollution of surface and deep water and of air, because the use of agrotechnical means (fertilizers, pesticides, mechanical means) isn’t often appropriate. In two farms located in Scerni and Monteodorisio, we have carried out an experimental trial on a vineyard and on a olive grove, with the objective of using the quality compost obtained from the mixture of organic fraction of urban solid waste and the lignocellulosic residues, in order to recover organic refuses and to verify the possibility of improving the soil fertility. After two years of trials, we have found higher contents of organic matter and nutritive elements in the soil. The use of compost has not modified the quantity and the quality of products.
Use of quality compost on arboreus cultivation to improve soil fertility  [cached]
Giovanni Fecondo,Grazia Guastadisegni,Mario D’Ercole,Maria Del Bianco
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2008, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2010.s2.31
Abstract: In the last years, thank to remarkable technical-scientific progresses, agricultural production has reached very high values with regard to quantitative and qualitative aspects. To reach these objectives, the collectivity must pay high prices, as reduction of fertility soils, greater risk of erosive process in the hill areas, pollution of surface and deep water and of air, because the use of agrotechnical means (fertilizers, pesticides, mechanical means) isn’t often appropriate. In two farms located in Scerni and Monteodorisio, we have carried out an experimental trial on a vineyard and on a olive grove, with the objective of using the quality compost obtained from the mixture of organic fraction of urban solid waste and the lignocellulosic residues, in order to recover organic refuses and to verify the possibility of improving the soil fertility. After two years of trials, we have found higher contents of organic matter and nutritive elements in the soil. The use of compost has not modified the quantity and the quality of products.
Quantitative and qualitative changes of humus in whole soils and their particle size fractions as influenced by different levels of compost application  [PDF]
Thu Ha Nguyen, Haruo Shindo
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/as.2011.21001
Abstract: Effect of long-term application (ca. 30 years) of compost at different levels on humus composi-tion of whole soils and their particle size frac-tions in a field subjected mainly to double cropping (barley and paddy rice) was investi-gated. Soil samples were collected from three plots of different types of management: (a) F plot, only chemical fertilizers containing N, P and K were applied; (b) F+LC plot, both chemi-cal fertilizers and a low level of compost were applied; (c) F+HC plot, both chemical fertilizers and a high level of compost were applied (the amount of compost applied in the F+HC plot was three times larger than that applied in the F+LC plot). Each soil sample was divided into coarse sand- (CSA), medium sand-(MSA) and fine sand-(FSA) sized aggregate, silt-sized ag-gregate (SIA) and clay-sized aggregate (CLA) fractions by wet-sieving and sedimentation. In addition, the CSA and MSA fractions were sub-divided into “mineral particles” (MP) and “de-cayed plants” (DP) by a density fractionation. Humus composition was influenced depending upon the level of compost applied. The applica-tion induced an increase in the amounts of total humus (TH), humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) in the whole soil and many size fractions, par-ticularly, SIA fraction. The increase was re-markable in the F+HC plot. In the CSA and MSA fractions, the amounts of TH, HA and FA were much larger in the CSA- and MSA-DP fractions than in the CSA- and MSA-MP fractions. The amounts of TH, HA and FA in the SIA fraction were larger than those in the CLA fraction for the F+HC and F+LC plots, and the reverse was true for the F plot. On the other hand, the de-grees of humification of humic acids in whole soils and many size fractions, particularly SIA fraction, decreased by compost application. The decrease was markedly in the F+HC plot. These findings suggest that the SIA fraction play an important role in the quantitative and qualitative changes of humus, including HA and FA, as in-fluenced by a long-term compost application.
Can biosolids compost improve, in the short term, native vegetation and soils fertility in burned Nothofagus pumilio forest in Patagonia, Argentina?
Varela,Santiago A; Gobbi,Miriam E; Laos,Francisca;
Bosque (Valdivia) , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-92002011000300008
Abstract: in the patagonian andean forests, wildfires principally have an anthropic origin and constitute one of the most important disturbances. they lead to severe losses of soil fertility and vegetation; particularly compromising the regeneration of native vegetation. organic amendments can facilitate the regeneration of vegetation, enhancing principally soil fertility conditions. our objective was to evaluate the effects of biosolids compost application as a tool for recovering soil fertility and regenerating vegetation in burnt areas of a nothofagus pumilio forest along two growing seasons. considering the national park status of the study area, low rates (2 kg m-2) of biosolids compost application were used to minimize the polluting effect of this amendment. we considered two types of microsites, with and without litter accumulation, in order to test whether biosolids application had a differential effect related to microsite type. soil properties, composition and cover vegetation were evaluated. we concluded that biosolids compost application improved some of the physical-chemical, chemical and biological soil properties but did not contribute, over a period of almost two growing seasons, to vegetation recovery. these results confirm that organic amendment application may be used as an initial restoration strategy at microsite level in burnt n. pumilio forests related principally to a beneficial effect on soil fertility. the creation of fertility islands can be a valid restoration strategy, but mechanisms to increase the reinstallation of native vegetation should be also applied.
Soil Fertility Status under Different Tree Cropping System in a Southwestern Zone of Nigeria  [cached]
Clement O. OGUNKUNLE,Olusegun O. AWOTOYE
Notulae Scientia Biologicae , 2011,
Abstract: Tree cropping has been known to bring about changes in edaphic component among other components of the ecosystem through their interactions with the soil and soil faunas. Premised on this, this study assessed the effects of sole cropping of teak and intercropping of cocoa and kola on the soil fertility status. The study was carried out using stratified-randomed sampling technique for the study plots in all the sampling sites. Three sampling sites consisting of four (4)-4oo m2 sampling plots each were established in which vegetation and some soil parameters were assessed. Results analysis showed that the synergistic interaction of leaves decomposition of cocoa and kola improved the organic matter content of the soil under the cocoa/kola site. Considerable improvement in soil fertility was enjoyed in the cocoa/kola site due to the large girth sizes and basal area of trees present in the cocoa/kola site while soil under the sole cropping of teak was impoverished. The degradation effects was due to the high rate of nutrient uptake of the teak, organic matter content was high in the forest site (9.12%) and cocoa/kola site (7.34) while the least was in the teak site (3.04%). A very strong correlation existed between organic matter content and some vegetation parameters.
Effect of Application of Vermicompost and Conventional Compost Derived from Different Residues on Pea Crop Production and Soil Faunal Diversity in Agricultural System in Garhwal Himalayas India  [PDF]
Tunira Bhadauria, Pradeep Kumar, Rakesh Maikhuri, Krishan Gopal Saxena
Natural Science (NS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2014.66042
Abstract:

Sedentary crop-livestock mixed farming is the predominant agricultural land use in Central Himalaya upland and largely rainfed; agrochemicals are not used at all. Farmers focus on increasing yields with poor soil fertility management practices resulted in sharp decline in production of pea crop in the study site. Therefore in present study options are being looked into devising some conservation strategies that increase yields of pea while reducing harm to soil biodiversity at a local scale here. The present study explores the efficiency of P. excavatus as endemic earthworm species for vermicomposting, the potential utilization of Conventional oak based farmyard manure (FM-O); Conventional pine based farmyard manure(FM-P); Earthworm fed ? Cow dung + oak leaves based vermicompost (VC-O); Earthworm fed ? Cow dung + pine leaves based vermicompost (VC-P); freshly fallen leaf litter (LM) on pea crop productivity and soil faunal diversity in agricultural system, and if the changed soil faunal biodiversity scenario in any way affected the crop production. The higher uptake of nitrogen, higher germination percentage enhanced seedling growth, early emergence flower, increase number of pods, seed, husk , and root biomass was significantly higher in plants which received VC-O followed by VC-P as manure input treatments. The change in the diversity of soil micro arthropods in relation to quality change in organic residues input in experimental plots and expressed as the Simpsons diversity index showed that the diversity of soil fauna is related to improvements in soil conditions resulting from nutrient manipulations through vermicompost and conventional compost treatments. This response of soil biota to increased production most likely represents an increase in the availability of resources through addition of vermicompost when compared to other compost treatments. Alternatively, an increase in predators and therefore predation, could, increase the diversity of its prey, thereby decreasing dominant competitors and reducing the possibility of competitive exclusion, but this needs further studies. Chronosequence study during cropping season indicated that the composition and abundance of soil fauna in agricultural fields changed considerably with time under cultivation. This technology has now been adopted by the farmers in the area once again for growing the pea crop.

Effect of Tree Prunings on Soil Fertility and Crop Yield in Alley Cropping System
M. A. Haque,M. I. Ali,M. K. Khan
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: The study was conducted to find the impact of incorporation of green prunings from Samanea saman and Dalbergia sissoo in alley cropping system on soil fertility and subsequently yields of rice and wheat. Three treatments used were, 100 kg N ha -1 from 15N ammonium sulphate, 80 kg N ha -1 provided through prunings either from D. sissoo or S. saman plus 20 kg N ha -1 from 15N ammonium sulphate. Grain and straw yields of rice were increased by 23.8 and 32.1%. %15N atom excess (a. e.) and percent nitrogen derived from fertilizer were higher in treatment receiving 100% chemical fertilizer compared to those with tree prunings. Nitrogen contribution of tree prunings to rice yield was 51.3% in D. sissoo and 54.1% in S. saman. The positive effect of pruning was observed in P and K uptake by rice grain and straw. Residual effect of added prunings in succeeding wheat crop was also noticed for both in D. sissoo prunings (11.7%) and S. saman prunings (11.3%). In wheat crop , %15N (a. e.) and %Ndff were higher in 100% chemical fertilizer treatment compared to the residues of those with tree prunings. Nitrogen availability from the residues of tree prunings for wheat crop was 17.72 to 22.54%. P and K uptake in wheat were also more in previously tree pruning treated plots, as compared to the untreated ones. Improvement of soil fertility were observed due to application of tree prunings. Total N, available P, K and organic C were increased, resulting in good soil health, due to prunings.
Relationships among Contrasting Measurements of Microbial Dynamics in Pasture and Organic Farm Soils  [PDF]
S. L. Edenborn,A. J. Sexstone,Y. Sutanto,J. A. Chapman
Applied and Environmental Soil Science , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/537459
Abstract: Soil bacteria exhibit short-term variations in community structure, providing an indication of anthropogenic disturbances. In this study, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), potentially mineralizable nitrogen (PMN), community level physiological profiling (CLPP), and culture-dependent DGGE (CD DGGE) fingerprinting of the 16S rRNA gene were used to compare microbial communities in organic farm and pasture soils subjected to differing agronomic treatments. Correlation analyses revealed significant relationships between MBC, PMN, and data derived from microbial community analyses. All measures separated soil types but varied in their ability to distinguish among treatments within a soil type. Overall, MBC, PMN, and CLPP were most responsive to compost and manure amendments, while CD DGGE resolved differences in legume cropping and inorganic fertilization. The results support the hypothesis that culturable soil bacteria are a responsive fraction of the total microbial community, sensitive to agronomic perturbations and amenable to further studies aimed at linking community structure with soil functions. 1. Introduction Microorganisms play essential roles in organic matter decomposition, nutrient cycling, and plant productivity [1, 2]. Parameters that integrate diverse microbial populations into a single measure, such as microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and potentially mineralizable nitrogen (PMN), historically have proven to be useful and are widely employed measures of soil quality [3, 4]. Microbial biomass C encompasses a small labile fraction of total soil organic carbon that responds actively to changes in soil fertility, supports soil aggregation, and can be related to environmental factors such as climate, soil moisture, texture, and organic matter quality [5]. Potentially mineralizable nitrogen provides an index of a soil’s nitrogen-supplying capacity and has been positively correlated with other chemical and physical indicators of soil quality [4]. Various measures of functional and structural diversity in microbial communities have been proposed as appropriate indicators of changing soil quality [3, 6]. Community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) measures soil functional diversity by characterizing the relative utilization of a suite of carbon substrates. Community-level physiological profiling is a culture-based enrichment method that primarily characterizes and selects for fast-growing organisms that may be distinct from dominant bacteria in soil inocula [7, 8]; therefore, the ecological significance of CLPP data sometimes is questioned [9, 10].
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.