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The Metabolism and Growth of Web Forums  [PDF]
Lingfei Wu,Jiang Zhang,Min Zhao
Computer Science , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102646
Abstract: We view web forums as virtual living organisms feeding on user's attention and investigate how these organisms grow at the expense of collective attention. We find that the "body mass" ($PV$) and "energy consumption" ($UV$) of the studied forums exhibits the allometric growth property, i.e., $PV_t \sim UV_t ^ \theta$. This implies that within a forum, the network transporting attention flow between threads has a structure invariant of time, despite of the continuously changing of the nodes (threads) and edges (clickstreams). The observed time-invariant topology allows us to explain the dynamics of networks by the behavior of threads. In particular, we describe the clickstream dissipation on threads using the function $D_i \sim T_i ^ \gamma$, in which $T_i$ is the clickstreams to node $i$ and $D_i$ is the clickstream dissipated from $i$. It turns out that $\gamma$, an indicator for dissipation efficiency, is negatively correlated with $\theta$ and $1/\gamma$ sets the lower boundary for $\theta$. Our findings have practical consequences. For example, $\theta$ can be used as a measure of the "stickiness" of forums, because it quantifies the stable ability of forums to convert $UV$ into $PV$, i.e., to remain users "lock-in" the forum. Meanwhile, the correlation between $\gamma$ and $\theta$ provides a convenient method to evaluate the `stickiness" of forums. Finally, we discuss an optimized "body mass" of forums at around $10^5$ that minimizes $\gamma$ and maximizes $\theta$.
The Twilight of Mankind: Global Warming Cannot Be Managed through the COP21
Jan-Erik Lane
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103311
As the process of global warming pushes ahead, the UNFCCC keeps holding its large scale reunions, producing declarations only. Economists call these meetings transaction costs, because most of the CO2 emissions are produced by a small set of huge countries that could take speedy counter-action, if they wanted so. However, the COP21 Agreement about decarbonisation in this century is far too optimistic and does not confront the major obstacles in state coordination and international governance. One may devise utopian solutions to the global warming problematic, which is basically an energy problem, speaking of sustainable development. But realities are different, as the countries of the world cannot afford refraining from the fossil fuels. Energy innovations are available, but only on a small scale. Global warming results from the gigantic employment of energy resources, i.e. fossil fuels and wood coal. They are deemed necessary for economic and social development. The management tasks behind the COP21 project are simply too daunting, both nationally and internationally.
Jan-Erik Lane
International Journal of Social Science and Economic Research , 2016,
Abstract: Today, it is no exaggeration to say that the global warming process is the most lethal threat to mankind today. Global warming is now proceeding at an almost constant pace: the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere keeps increasing: 399.6 (Jan 2015), 402.52 (Jan 2016) and 404.21 (March 2016) as well as 408 (April 2016). The COP21 idea is that this increase follows the anthropogenic GHG. Only the social sciences can analyse how the governments of the countries of the world may coordinate to decrease the CO2 emissions, before the methane emissions start augmenting, which would be fatal for mankind. The standard energy projections for 21rst century outline immense increases, but energy consumption results in GHG (greenhouse gases) emissions. This is the global contradiction between energy and emissions, stemming from the omnipresent demand for economic development or economic growth. The UNFCCC Parties will have to struggle with a huge set of implementation issues over the next decades, but failure is in no way to be excluded. When COP21 is said to promise completely carbon neutral energy for the world, then the implementation perspective is long in time indeed, or the entire century. However calamitous and profoundly sad the destruction of the Syrian nation may be, it cannot be compared when the full effects from global warming, if unstoppable or unhindered by implementation failure.
Provide Consumers with What They Want on Word of Mouth Forums  [PDF]
Yan Liu, Dahai Dong, Robert E. Burnkant
iBusiness (IB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2013.51A007

Internet word-of-mouth (WOM) has a powerful impact on the consumer information search process. However, richness in information causes information overload. Consumers are not able to efficiently find the information they need among numerous and often redundant WOM postings and forums. As consumers become knowledgeable about WOM outlets, they may lower their search cost as they learn what kind of information to expect on various WOM forums. This conceptual paper develops research propositions to explain: 1) types of information consumers expect to see on different types of WOM forums, and 2) how expectations relate to satisfaction with WOM information and forums.

Asynchronous Forums in EAP: Assessment Issues
Sara Kol,Miriam Schcolnik
Language Learning and Technology , 2008,
Abstract: This paper reports on a pilot and a subsequent study that focused on the assessment of student writing in asynchronous text-stimulated forum discussions. The study, which was conducted in advanced English for Academic Purposes (EAP) courses, aimed at determining suitable assessment criteria for written academic discussions. In addition, the study tapped student attitudes toward forums, checked the effect of forum participation on student writing, and characterized the text-stimulated forum discussions.Based on a content analysis of the pilot data, the constructs of reflection and interaction were selected as assessment criteria to be evaluated in the main study. These criteria were found to be usable but insufficient for student assessment in the EAP courses. A questionnaire showed that the student attitudes were positive and that most students felt that their writing improved, even though an analysis of language complexity showed no significant improvement. A qualitative analysis of the transcripts revealed deep student involvement with the content and with their peers as well as an academic register interspersed with conversational interactions.
On the Selection of Cluster Heads in MANETs
Dang Nguyen,Pascale Minet,Thomas Kunz,Louise Lamont
International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2011,
Abstract: Clustering schemes offer a practical way of providing scalability when dealing with large and dense Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs). The feasibility of a clustering method can be primarily determined by the complexity of the cluster head selection. Optimizing the cluster head selection allows for the network to be more efficient by minimizing the signaling overhead while ensuring that the network connectivity is maintained despite topology changes. In this paper, we investigate the problems of cluster head selection for large and dense MANETs. Two variants of the cluster head selection are examined: (1) the distance-constrained selection where every node in the network must be located within a certain distance to the nearest cluster head; and (2) the size-constrained selection where each cluster is only allowed to have a limited number of members. We show that the problem of minimizing the set of cluster heads is NP-hard for both variants. We propose two distributed selection algorithms, each having logarithmic approximation ratio, for these variants. We also discuss, using simulations, the resulting cluster size distribution and cluster head density, which impact the efficient operation of the network.
Revenge of the Bell Heads: How the Net Heads Lost Control of the Internet  [PDF]
Rob Frieden
Computer Science , 2001,
Abstract: A dichotomy in regulatory treatment and corporate cultures exists between Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and telecommunication carriers. Telephone company executives (Bell Heads) may resent regulation, but they accept their fate and work creatively to exploit anomalies and opportunities to secure a regulation-conferred competitive advantage. Most ISP executives (Net Heads) appear to embrace a libertarian attitude, strongly opposing any government involvement. Despite the clash of cultures, the telecommunications and Internet worlds have merged. Such convergence jeopardizes the ability of Net Heads to avoid some degree of regulation, particularly when they offer services functionally equivalent to what their Bell Head counterparts offer. This paper will assess the regulatory consequences when telecommunication and Internet services converge in the marketplace and in terms of operating technologies. The paper identifies commercial developments in the Internet to support the view that the Internet has become more hierarchical and more like telecommunication networks. The paper concludes that telecommunication carriers will display superior skill in working the regulatory process to their advantage. The paper suggests that Bell Heads will outmaneuver Net Heads particularly when the revenue siphoning effect of Internet-mediated services offsets the revenues generated from ISP leases of telecommunication transmission capacity.
Boric Acid Disturbs Cell Wall Synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  [PDF]
Martin Schmidt,Jaron Z. Schaumberg,Courtney M. Steen,Michael P. Boyer
International Journal of Microbiology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/930465
Abstract: Boric acid (BA) has broad antimicrobial activity that makes it a popular treatment for yeast vaginitis in complementary and alternative medicine. In the model yeast S. cerevisiae, BA disturbs the cytoskeleton at the bud neck and impairs the assembly of the septation apparatus. BA treatment causes cells to form irregular septa and leads to the synthesis of irregular cell wall protuberances that extend far into the cytoplasm. The thick, chitin-rich septa that are formed during BA exposure prevent separation of cells after abscission and cause the formation of cell chains and clumps. As a response to the BA insult, cells signal cell wall stress through the Slt2p pathway and increase chitin synthesis, presumably to repair cell wall damage.
Growing Trees in Internet News Groups and Forums  [PDF]
Bernard Kujawski,Janusz A. Holyst,Geoff J. Rodgers
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.76.036103
Abstract: We present an empirical study of the networks created by users within internet news groups and forums and show that they organise themselves into scale-free trees. The structure of these trees depends on the topic under discussion; specialist topics have trees with a short shallow structure whereas more universal topics are discussed widely and have a deeper tree structure. For news groups we find that the distribution of the time intervals between when a message is posted and when it receives a response exhibits a composite power-law behaviour. From our statistics we can see if the news group or forum is free or is overseen by a moderator. The correlation function of activity, the number of messages posted in a given time, shows long range correlations connected with the users' daily routines. The distribution of distances between each message and its root is exponential for most news groups and power-law for the forums. For both formats we find that the relation between the supremacy (the total number of nodes that are \emph{under} the node $i$, including node $i$) and the degree is linear $s(k)\sim k$, in contrast to the analytical relation for Barab\'{a}si-Albert network.
The Relationship between Academic Discipline and Dialogic Behavior in Open University Course Forums
Paul Gorsky,Avner Caspi,Avishai Antonovsky,Ina Blau
International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning , 2010,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between disciplinary difference (exact and natural sciences versus humanities) and the dialogic behavior that occurred in Open University course forums. Dialogic behavior was measured in terms of students’ and instructors’ active participation in the forum (posting a message) as well as amounts and proportions of “teaching presence,” “cognitive presence,” and “social presence.” We found that active participation in the science forums was much higher than in the humanities forums. We also found a ratio among the three presences that was constant across different academic disciplines,as well as across different group sizes and course types.
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