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Malformaciones congénitas en los hijos de madres diabéticas Congenital malformations in the offspring of diabetic mothers  [cached]
Julio Nazer H,Rodrigo Ramírez F
Revista médica de Chile , 2000,
Abstract: The offspring of diabetic mothers have a 10 times higher frequency of congenital malformations and 5 times higher frequency of spontaneous abortions. Since the discovery of insulin, the prognosis of pregnancies has improved, both for the mother and the offspring. However, the prevalence of congenital malformations at birth has not decreased significantly. The embriological process that leads to anomalies in the offspring of diabetic mothers probably occurs between 6 and 8 weeks of gestation. According to animal experiments, hyperglycemia, ketones and free radicals may be involved in the genesis of malfomations, but different strains of rats respond differently to these potential teratogenic agents. Possibly, a higher genetic susceptibility towards congenital malformations also plays a role in diabetic women. Therefore, although the intimate mechanism producing malformations in the offspring of diabetic women is not known, several strategies to decrease the prevalence of malformations in these women, such as the use of antioxidants, are being tested
Pictorial Essay: Infants of diabetic mothers  [cached]
Alorainy Ibrahim,Barlas Nauman,Al-Boukai Amer
Indian Journal of Radiology and Imaging , 2010,
Abstract: About 3 to 10% of pregnancies are complicated by glycemic control abnormalities. Maternal diabetes results in significantly greater risk for antenatal, perinatal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality, as well as congenital malformations. The number of diabetic mothers is expected to rise, as more and more of the obese pediatric female population in developed and some developing countries progresses to childbearing age. Radiologists, being part of the teams managing such pregnancies, should be well aware of the findings that may be encountered in infants of diabetic mothers. Timely, accurate, and proper radiological evaluation can reduce morbidity and mortality in these infants. The purpose of this essay is to illustrate the imaging findings in the various pathological conditions involving the major body systems in the offspring of women with diabetes
Cortical Evoked Potentials in Children of Diabetic Mothers  [PDF]
Mario Brinciotti,Angela Napoli,Antonio Mittica,Olimpia Bitterman,Maria Matricardi
Journal of Diabetes Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/640535
Abstract: Type 1 diabetic mothers' infants show a delay of visual evoked potential (VEP) significantly related to some parameters of poor metabolic control during pregnancy. In the present paper we analyzed the characteristics of VEPs and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) recorded in 16 three-year-old type 1 diabetic mothers' children (DMC). Compared with controls (23 nondiabetic mothers' healthy matched children), DMC showed significantly delayed mean latency of VEP (P2) and SEP (P22). In 3 cases (19%), we found pathological responses (+3 SD from the mean value of controls) of VEPs and SEPs. At the age of 3 years, the offspring of type 1 diabetic mothers showed delay of cortical evoked responses in both visual and somatosensory systems. 1. Introduction Evoked potentials are commonly used in clinical practice to study brain maturation and clinical disorders [1–3]. Diabetic patients frequently show abnormal evoked potentials, usually related to neuropathy, retinopathy, and poor metabolic control [4, 5]. Subclinical CNS dysfunctions have been reliably detected by evoked potentials in adult patients with uncomplicated diabetes and normal brain CT scan [6]. Moreover, evoked potentials are sensitive to drug administration effects and prenatal substance exposure [7, 8]. In previous studies [9, 10] on diabetic mothers’ infants, we found a delayed mean latency of the fourth (P2) component of VEPs compared to matched healthy infants. These results were significantly related to some parameters of poor metabolic control during pregnancy in type 1 diabetic mothers’ infants; on the contrary, in infants born from mothers with gestational diabetes VEPs did not show any significant relation with metabolic parameters during pregnancy, but latencies correlated with Apgar scores of perinatal distress. These features suggest that in the offspring of type 1 diabetic mothers VEP changes may be related to adverse effects due to exposure of the fetus to metabolic imbalance during intrauterine life. These observations raise two main points: (i) whether the VEP abnormalities recorded at the age of 2 months are transient and (ii) whether the abnormalities of evoked responses are restricted to the visual system or extended to other cortical structures. To investigate both these aspects, in the present study we analyzed the characteristics of VEPs and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) recorded in 3-year-old type 1 diabetic mothers’ children (DMC). 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Sample We studied VEPs and SEPs of 16 three-year-old children (11 females, 5 males, mean age years), whose
Findings in Infants of Diabetic Mothers
P Niknafs
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics , 1990,
Abstract: A prospective study was done on 60 infants of diabetic mothers admitted to the neonatal unit, university hospital, no.1 over a one and a half years period. Among their study group 58 infants (96.7%) were macrosomic. Hypoglycemia was the most common metabolic disorder and appeared in 40% of them. 50% of hypoglycemic infants were tremulous and 50% of them were lethargic. Among the hypoglycemic group, convulsion appeared in two infants due to hypoglycemia and one infant due to hypocalcemia. Neither hypocalcemia nor respiratory distress appeared in the study group
Cardiomyopathy in offspring of diabetic rats is associated with activation of the MAPK and apoptotic pathways
Benjamin E Reinking, Elesa W Wedemeyer, Robert M Weiss, Jeffrey L Segar, Thomas D Scholz
Cardiovascular Diabetology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-8-43
Abstract: To evaluate the effects of moderate and severe maternal hyperglycemia, pregnant rats were made diabetic with an injection of 50 mg/kg of streptozotocin. Moderately well controlled maternal diabetes was achieved with twice daily glucose checks and insulin injections. No insulin was given to severely diabetic dams. Offspring of moderate and severe diabetic mothers (OMDM and MSDM, respectively) were studied on postnatal days 1 (NB1) and 21 (NB21). Echocardiograms were performed to evaluate left ventricular (LV) dimensions and function. Myocardial MAPK and apoptotic protein levels were measured by Western blot.OMDM had increased cardiac mass at NB1 compared to controls that normalized at NB21. OSDM demonstrated microsomia with relative sparing of cardiac mass and a dilated cardiomyopathy at NB1. In both models, there was a persistent increase in the HW:BW and significant activation of MAPK and apoptotic pathways at NB21.The degree of maternal hyperglycemia determines the type of cardiomyopathy seen in the offspring, while resolution of both the hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathies is associated with activation of MAPK signaling and apoptotic pathways.Infants of diabetic mothers (IDM) represent a high-risk group of patients with an increased incidence of perinatal morbidity and mortality [1]. Even with good maternal serum glucose control, the offspring are at increased risk for complex multisystem medical problems including macrosomia, hypoglycemia, hypocalcaemia, and respiratory distress syndrome [2]. Although not commonly seen in current medical practice, very poorly controlled gestational diabetes results in small for gestational age infants with relative sparing of internal organs such as the heart and significant multisystem medical problems [3].The cardiomyopathy seen in very poorly controlled gestational diabetes is likely different from the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) found in better controlled IDM [2,4-6]. The HCM seen in infants of well controlled di
Stereological Evaluation of Renal Glomeruli in Offspring of Diabetic Female Rats  [PDF]
Abdolrahman Dezfoolian,Marzieh Panahi,Farideh feizi
Cell Journal , 2009,
Abstract: Objective: Although in vitro studies have shown that high concentrations of glucosecan induce dysmorphogenesis of the embryonic kidney, the possible adverse effectsof exposure to intrauterine hyperglycemia on kidney development, especially in regardto nephrogenesis, has not been evaluated.The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of maternal diabetes on glomerulistructures of the offspring, focusing on the following parameters: glomeruli volumeand number, mesangium volume, mesangial cell number and glomerular capillaryvolume.Materials and Methods: Before mating, fifteen female Sprague Dawley rats, dividedinto three groups, were diabetes induced by a single intraperitoneal dose of 65 mg/kg streptozotocyn (STZ). After 30 days of breast feeding, ten offsprings from eachgroup (two per mother) were randomly selected for kidney removal. The kidneyswere weighed and their tissues were processed for light microscopy. Glomerular featureswere evaluated quantitatively using dissection as well as the Cavalieri methodand were then compared with sham and control groups.Results: At birth, the mean body weight of diabetic mothers’ offspring (DO) was significantlylower than that of the control group’s offspring (CO) and sham group’s offspring(SO) (p=0.001), however, the mean body weight of the 30 day-old DO was notlower than that of CO and SO (p>0.05). The total renal volumes, cortical volumes,glomerular mean and total volumes, total mesangeal volumes, total capillary volumesand total glomerular numbers were significantly lower in the DO than in CO and SO(p<0.05). The numerical density of glomeruli and mesangial cells per glomeruli weresignificantly greater in DO than in CO and SO (p<0.05).Conclusion: We concluded that intrauterine hyperglycemia is accompanied by anephron deficit which may not be compensated within the first 30 days after birth.
Intuitive physics and intuitive psychology (“theory of mind”) in offspring of mothers with psychoses  [PDF]
Rebeka Marothi,Szabolcs Keri
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.248v1
Abstract: Offspring of individuals with psychoses sometimes display an abnormal development of cognition, language, motor performance, social adaptation, and emotional functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of children of mothers with schizophrenia (n=28) and bipolar disorder (n=23) to understand mental states of others using the Eyes Test (folk psychology or “theory of mind”) and physical causal interactions of inanimate objects (folk psychics). Compared with healthy controls (n=29), the children of mothers with schizophrenia displayed significantly impaired performances on the Eyes Test but not on the folk physics test. The children of mothers with bipolar disorder did not differ from the controls and outperformed the children of mothers with schizophrenia on the folk physics test. These results suggest that the attribution of mental states, but not the interpretation of causal interaction of objects, is impaired in offspring of individuals with schizophrenia, which may contribute to social dysfunctions.
Nutritional Status of Diabetic Mothers and Health of Newborns in Western Algeria  [PDF]
Refka Ouramdane, Karima Bereksi-Reguig, Fadl Allah Abou-Bakr, Slimane Belbraouet
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2015.610089
Abstract: The aim of our work is the study of nutrition diabetic women, and the study of the health status of their newborns in West of Algeria. Our study was performed on 165 diabetic mothers aged 20 to 45 years and 161 newborns admitted to the hospital specialized in obstetrics and gynecology of Sidi Bel Abbes. A food survey and anthropometric study were achieved in our population, clinical and socioeconomic data were recorded in an identification card. Our results show that the average age of women with diabetes is 33.26 ± 5.15 ans. The socio-economic survey shows that 47.32% of women have an average monthly income; their education level is low with only 8.06% having a higher level. Anthropometric parameters show that 48.08% of elderly diabetic women aged 30 to 40 years are overweight BMI > 25. Dietary survey indicates that women experienced iron, calcium and vitamin B9 deficiency. The results of clinical data have shown the existence of gestational diabetes with a rate of 50.90%; macrosomia is dominant in their newborns with a rate of 22.26%. We noted the presence of hypoglycemia in 18.01% and inutero death in 12.42%.
IgG transmitted from allergic mothers decreases allergic sensitization in breastfed offspring
Adam P Matson, Roger S Thrall, Ektor Rafti, Elizabeth G Lingenheld, Lynn Puddington
Clinical and Molecular Allergy , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1476-7961-8-9
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of offspring neonatal Fc receptor for IgG uptake by intestinal epithelial cells (FcRn) in this breast milk transferred protection from allergy.Allergic airway disease was induced during pregnancy in C57BL/6 female mice. These allergic mothers foster nursed naive FcRn+/- or FcRn-/- progeny born to FcRn+/- females that were mated to C57BL/6J-FcRn-/- male mice. In offspring deficient in FcRn, we expected reduced levels of systemic allergen-specific IgG1, a consequence of decreased absorption of maternal IgG from the lumen of the neonatal gastrointestinal tract. Using this model, we were able to investigate how breast milk IgG affected offspring responses to allergic sensitization.Levels of maternal antibodies absorbed from the breast milk of allergic foster mothers were determined in weanling FcRn-sufficient or -deficient mice. Maternal transmission of allergen-specific IgG1 to breastfed FcRn-/- offspring was at levels 103-104 lower than observed in FcRn+/- or FcRn+/+ mice. Five weeks after weaning, when offspring were 8 wk old, mice were sensitized and challenged to evaluate their susceptibility to develop allergic airway disease. Protection, indicated by reduced parameters of disease (allergen-specific IgE in serum, eosinophilic inflammation in the airways and lung) were evident in FcRn-sufficient mice nursed as neonates by allergic mothers. In contrast, FcRn-deficient mice breastfed by the same mothers acquired limited, if any, protection from development of allergen-specific IgE and associated pathology.FcRn expression was a major factor in determining how breastfed offspring of allergic mothers acquired levels of systemic allergen-specific IgG1 sufficient to inhibit allergic sensitization in this model.The beneficial effects of breastfeeding on infant health have been recognized for thousands of years across diverse civilizations [1]. As breast milk is the main source of passive immunity during the early months aft
Intuitive physics and intuitive psychology (“theory of mind”) in offspring of mothers with psychoses  [PDF]
Rebeka Maróthi,Szabolcs Kéri
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7717/peerj.330
Abstract: Offspring of individuals with psychoses sometimes display an abnormal development of cognition, language, motor performance, social adaptation, and emotional functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of children of mothers with schizophrenia (n = 28) and bipolar disorder (n = 23) to understand mental states of others using the Eyes Test (folk psychology or “theory of mind”) and physical causal interactions of inanimate objects (folk physics). Compared with healthy controls (n = 29), the children of mothers with schizophrenia displayed significantly impaired performances on the Eyes Test but not on the folk physics test when corrected for IQ. The children of mothers with bipolar disorder did not differ from the controls. The folk physics test showed a significant covariance with IQ, whereas the Eyes Test did not exhibit such covariance. These results suggest that the attribution of mental states, but not the interpretation of causal interaction of objects, is impaired in offspring of individuals with schizophrenia, which may contribute to social dysfunctions.
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