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从负债应偿到破产免责:破产债务清偿责任衍进的中国法律史叙事  [PDF]
蔡晓荣
法学家 , 2013,
Abstract: 中国固有法对于债务清偿不能之法律调整,主要有以下二端其一,以刑逼债,或对债务人科以刑事责任;其二,由债务人成年家属承担连带偿还责任。逊清之季,受华洋破产债务诉讼之促动,遂有《大清破产律》之制订。该律一度确立了破产免责原则,但旋被废止。民初大理院涉及破产之判决例和解释例,虽部分继受《大清破产律》之精神,但仍秉承中国传统之债务清偿习惯,固守破产不免责主义。迨至南京国民政府时期1935年之《破产法》,最终在法律文本层面再次确立了破产免责原则。回溯中国法律史上破产债务清偿责任衍进之脉络,可以发现,固有法中负债应偿的债务清偿理念,与域外继受而来的破产免责制度,在近代中国一直处于一种胶合对峙状态。
金丝矮陀陀植物中甾体生物的碱的分离与化学结构有机化学  [PDF]
邱明平,聂瑞麟,李忠荣,周俊
有机化学 , 1990,
Abstract: 本文报导了云南产的金丝矮陀陀植物中的甾体生物碱的化学结构,从中得到22个甾体生物碱。
?横轴改?  [PDF]
程滋民
地质与勘探 , 1957,
Abstract: 103?利用500m?机?横?改?成300m??用横?,解决了备件缺乏??。其方法是将500m?横轴的键槽用雷焊填补,再车成300m转机横轴的设计尺寸,即可使用.
陀弄蝶属Thoressa二新种记述(鳞翅目:弄蝶科)  [PDF]
昆虫分类学报 , 2003,
Abstract: 记述弄蝶科陀弄蝶属Thoressa2新种;无突陀弄蝶T.abprojectaYuanetWang,sp.nov.;短突陀弄蝶T.breviprojectaYuanetWang,sp.nov.,绘制了新种的雄性外生殖器图,编制了中国已知种分种检索,模式标本均保存在西北农林科技大学昆虫博物馆。
多种形式实施儿童计划免疫保偿制度  [PDF]
周柱新
中国公共卫生 , 1990,
Abstract: ?计划免疫保偿制度是巩固基层预防保健网,发展预防保健事业的重要措施.1988年以来,我市实施了多种形式的保偿制度,现介绍如下.
On MEMS Reliability and Failure Mechanisms  [PDF]
Daniel J. Fonseca,Miguel Sequera
International Journal of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/820243
Abstract: Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are a fast-growing field in microelectronics. MEMS are commonly used as actuators and sensors with a wide variety of applications in health care, automotives, and the military. The MEMS production cycle can be classified as three basic steps: (1) design process, (2) manufacturing process, and (3) operating cycle. Several studies have been conducted for steps (1) and (2); however, information regarding operational failure modes in MEMS is lacking. This paper discusses reliability in the context of MEMS functionality. It also presents a brief review of the most relevant failure mechanisms for MEMS.
破产债权受偿顺序的整体主义解释  [PDF]
冯辉
法学家 , 2013,
Abstract: 法律及其体系存在固有的功能及局限,应对“大规模侵权”等非常态问题不能倚赖债权受偿顺序上的制度更迭。担保物权优先受偿并非绝对、更非完美,而是基于风险分配在制度变迁中形成的相对有效平衡。侵权之债与合同之债、人身侵权之债与财产侵权之债的区分更多具有理论意义,于实践中的制度化则缺乏合理空间。破产债权受偿顺序的确定与变更事关理念、规范和技术三个维度,应当基于整体主义的思想及方法寻求合理的制度设计,在保障担保物权优先受偿的基础上,整合企业、政府和社会的力量建立赔偿基金并予专业管理和监管,从而在大规模侵权导致责任企业破产时尽力增加对受害人的赔偿。
Education in MEMS
Jain V
IETE Technical Review , 2007,
Abstract: The next revolution in silicon technology is presently due to the development of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). The power of the chips will not be limited simply to store and process the information. Incorporation of new type of functionality on the chip is making the structures to sense, act, and communicate as well. To fabricate MEMS devices, existing facilities for ICs fabrication is not sufficient, some more facilities have to be added, like bulk and surface micromachining, dry etching, integration of electronic, new type of packaging facilities and many others. Several devices are now produced and sold in very large quantities, for example, silicon accelerometers and pressure sensors for automotive. Due to the rapid growth of this technology, the demand has increased for qualified engineers having expertise in this technology. It is clear that there will be a huge demand in the next few years. For this reason, companies are taking qualified employees from other fields like mechanical, electrical and precision engineering to meet their demand for research and development. These engineers have to be trained on the job with regard to micro systems technology (MST) specific needs. The translation of MST from development into application and then to mass production requires not only engineers, but also skilled workers with a specific practical training. The educational institutions need to set up appropriate infrastructure, have trained teachers, fully equipped laboratories as well as training and teaching materials has to be made available. The teaching of MEMS must be moved to many education centers on a wide interdisciplinary basis which requires the extension of the basic knowledge of scientists of micro technologies, material science developed by physicists, chemists, biologists, and engineering sciences.
安徽省大别山陀尖山区植物区系的研究  [PDF]
刘宾
植物科学学报 , 1991,
Abstract: ?陀尖山区有维管束植物119种,隶属于552属,151科,是大别山植物区系最丰富,最具有代表性的地区之一。作者认为大别山南北坡植物不存在明显差异,大别山植物区系作为一个整体属于华东植物区系。陀尖山区植物区系与庐山、神农架和黄山的植物区系关系最为密切,相似程度三者不相上下;陀尖山区乃至整个大别山区构成了华东区与华中区联系的纽带。
On MEMS Reliability and Failure Mechanisms  [PDF]
Daniel J. Fonseca,Miguel Sequera
Journal of Quality and Reliability Engineering , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/820243
Abstract: Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are a fast-growing field in microelectronics. MEMS are commonly used as actuators and sensors with a wide variety of applications in health care, automotives, and the military. The MEMS production cycle can be classified as three basic steps: (1) design process, (2) manufacturing process, and (3) operating cycle. Several studies have been conducted for steps (1) and (2); however, information regarding operational failure modes in MEMS is lacking. This paper discusses reliability in the context of MEMS functionality. It also presents a brief review of the most relevant failure mechanisms for MEMS. 1. Introduction Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are a relatively new and fast-growing field in microelectronics. MEMS are commonly used as actuators, sensors, and radio frequency and microfluidic components, as well as biocomposites, with a wide variety of applications in health care, automotive, and military industries. It is expected that the market for MEMS will grow to over $30B by 2050 [1]. The MEMS lifecycle can be divided into three basic steps: (1) the design process, (2) the manufacturing process, and (3) the operating cycle. Several research studies have been conducted for the design and manufacturing of MEMS; however, information regarding failure analysis for MEMS can still be considered in its infancy stage [2]. There is a need to develop new tools and methodologies to understand the behavior of MEMS devices for distinct applications and operation conditions. MEMS are extremely diverse and their failure modes can be unique under different conditions [3]. MEMS represent a technology that can be defined as miniaturized mechanical and electromechanical elements (i.e., devices and structures) that are made using the techniques of microfabrication. Dimensions of MEMS devices can vary from well below one micron on the lower end of the dimensional spectrum, all the way to several millimeters [4]. Likewise, the types of MEMS devices can vary from relatively simple structures having no moving elements, to extremely complex electromechanical systems with multiple moving elements under the control of integrated microelectronics. A main criterion of MEMS is that there are at least some elements having some sort of mechanical functionality, whether or not these elements can move [4]. MEMS are manufactured using batch fabrication techniques similar to those used for integrated circuits. Unprecedented levels of functionality, reliability, and sophistication can be placed on a small silicon chip at a relatively low cost
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