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Microbial Contamination of Community Pond Water in Dibrugarh District of Assam  [cached]
Purnima Gogoi,Dhruba Sharma
Current World Environment , 2013, DOI: 0973-4929
Abstract: Our drinking water today, far from being pure, contains bacteria, viruses, inorganic minerals and a chemical cocktail that is unsuitable for human consumption. A study was undertaken with the objectives of evaluating the viable coliforms along with other water born bacteria in pond water environment. Water samples were collected from three community ponds of Dibrugarh district which are used mostly for bathing, watering livestock as well as drinking under water crises condition. Bacteria from collected pond samples were isolated by dilution plate technique. Coliform group in water was evaluated with the reference to EPA manual Microbiology Methods. The results showed that of the three ponds, pond 1 has highest number of bacterial counts (30x10 4 ) followed by pond 3 (24 x10 4 ) whereas pond 2 showed minimum colony count (12 x 10 3 ) per ml of water. The coliform bacteria count in the above pond water sample is far above the safety limit of WHO. Besides gram negative rod shaped coliform group, two groups of gram positive round shaped (with colony colour violet and orange) and gram positive rod shaped bacteria group were also found dominant.
The Seasonal Variation in Ionic Composition of Pond Water of Lumding, Assam, India  [cached]
Tapashi Gupta,Mrinal Paul
Current World Environment , 2013, DOI: 10.12944/cwe.8.1.12
Abstract: Ionic composition of water is an important parameter to determine the quality of water. The seasonal variations in TDS and conductivity are mainly due to the ionic composition of water. In the present study, the seasonal variations in TDS and conductivity of freshwater pond of Lumding were studied during the year 2010-2011. A positive correlation between TDS and conductivity was observed
Water Pollution with Special Reference to Pesticide Contamination in India  [PDF]
Anju Agrawal, Ravi S. Pandey, Bechan Sharma
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.25050
Abstract: The pesticides belong to a category of chemicals used worldwide as herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, ro-denticides, molluscicides, nematicides, and plant growth regulators in order to control weeds, pests and dis-eases in crops as well as for health care of humans and animals. The positive aspect of application of pesti-cides renders enhanced crop/food productivity and drastic reduction of vector-borne diseases. However, their unregulated and indiscriminate applications have raised serious concerns about the entire environment in general and the health of humans, birds and animals in particular. Despite ban on application of some of the environmentally persistent and least biodegradable pesticides (like organochlorines) in many countries, their use is ever on rise. Pesticides cause serious health hazards to living systems because of their rapid fat solu-bility and bioaccumulation in non-target organisms. Even at low concentration, pesticides may exert several adverse effects, which could be monitored at biochemical, molecular or behavioral levels. The factors af-fecting water pollution with pesticides and their residues include drainage, rainfall, microbial activity, soil temperature, treatment surface, application rate as well as the solubility, mobility and half life of pesticides. In India organochlorine insecticides such as DDT and HCH constitute more than 70% of the pesticides used at present. Reports from Delhi, Bhopal and other cities and some rural areas have indicated presence of sig-nificant level of pesticides in fresh water systems as well as bottled drinking mineral water samples. The ef-fects of pesticides pollution in riverine systems and drinking water in India has been discussed in this review.
Contamination of Industrial Waste Water in Central India  [PDF]
Ankit Yadav, Keshaw Prakash Rajhans, Shobhana Ramteke, Bharat Lal Sahu, Khageshwar Singh Patel, Borislav Blazhev
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.71007
Abstract: The most of iron, cement, paper and plastic related industries are running in Raipur area of the country. They use a large amount of water by discharging effluents into the streams and rivers by polluting nearby water resources. In this work, the physico-chemical characteristics of discharged waste water of 34 industries (i.e. iron, steel, power, paper and polymer) are described. The waste water is found to be acidic in nature with high contents of F- and other ions.
Contamination of Water, Dust, Soil, Rock and Urine with Fluoride in Central India  [PDF]
Khageshwar Singh Patel, Dhananjay Sahu, Nohar Singh Dahariya, Bharat Lal Sahu, Shobhana Ramteke, Borislav Blazhev, Laurent Matini, Eduardo Yubero, Jan Hoinkis
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.612117
Abstract: At least 15% of 0.1 million people residing in 117 villages of Tamnar block (Chhattisgarh, central India) are suffering from fluorosis diseases. In this work, the contamination of F- in the environment (i.e. water, soil, rock and urine) of the Tamnar block is described. The concentration variations of F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Al, Mn, Fe and Zn in the groundwater are reported. The F- content in the water was ranged from 1.7 - 17 mg/L with mean value of 9.0 ± 3.7 mg/L. Fluoride was enriched up to 3-, 54-, 69- and 244-folds in the urine, soil, dust and rock, respectively. The cluster and factor analysis models were used to apportion sources of F- and other elements in the water.
Sustainable Urban Habitats and Urban Water Supply: Accounting for Unaccounted for Water in Bangalore City, India  [PDF]
Krishna Raj
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2013.14017
Abstract: The demand for urban water supply service is increasing rapidly as globalisation accelerates economic development and brings improvements in living standards in India with the interactive effects of demographic growth and influx of migrants into cities due to push and pull factors. Provision of reliable and safe water supply to urban habitat is an essential input for overall economic and social advancement. However, urban local bodies mandated to perform this task in India have been experiencing constant budgetary bottlenecks in mobilizing resources to meet the water consumption targets of the present as well as future population. Urban water supply sector in India and particularly the study area Bangalore is facing a number of challenges and constraints in meeting one of the important components of the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), i.e., to ensure supply of adequate potable water to half the number of people who are currently living without access to sustainable, safe drinking water sources by 2015. These problems and constraints include increasing scarcity of water, low pricing, high subsidy, poor cost recovery, high transmission and distribution (T & D) losses, due to poor maintenance, rising unaccounted-for (UFW) and non-revenue water outgo (NRW). Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board (BWSSB) is experiencing poor cost recovery and has been unable to generate enough revenue to meet the investment requirements of the growing water needs of the city. BWSSB is also facing serious performance gaps such as reliability, financial sustainability, environmental sustainability and affordability due to deterioration of infrastructure.
High arsenic contamination in drinking water hand-pumps in Khap Tola, West Champaran, Bihar, India  [PDF]
Siddharth Bhatia,Guru Balamurugan,Annu Baranwal
Frontiers in Environmental Science , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fenvs.2014.00049
Abstract: This study tests the drinking water supply of a marginalized village community of Khap Tola in the state of Bihar, a state in Northern India. Based on hand pump drinking water sample testing and analysis, we found that there was high levels of arsenic (maximum value being 397 ppb), in excess of the WHO limits of 10ppb. Analysis showed 57% of the samples from private hand-pumps in the shallow aquifer zone of 15–35 m have arsenic greater than 200 ppb. Using GIS overlay analysis technique it was calculated that 25% of the residential area in the village is under high risk of arsenic contamination. Further using USEPA guidelines, it was calculated that children age group 5–10 years are under high risk of getting cancer. The Hazard Quotient calculated for 21 children taken for study, indicated that children may have adverse non-carcinogenic health impacts, in the future, with continued exposure. Since the area adds a new arsenic contaminated place in India, further geochemical analysis and health assessment needs to be done in this district of West Champaran in, Bihar.
A Dynamic Simulation-Optimization Model for Adaptive Management of Urban Water Distribution System Contamination Threats  [PDF]
Amin Rasekh,Kelly Brumbelow
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Urban water distribution systems hold a critical and strategic position in preserving public health and industrial growth. Despite the ubiquity of these urban systems, aging infrastructure, and increased risk of terrorism, decision support models for a timely and adaptive contamination emergency response still remain at an undeveloped stage. Emergency response is characterized as a progressive, interactive, and adaptive process that involves parallel activities of processing streaming information and executing response actions. This study develops a dynamic decision support model that adaptively simulates the time-varying emergency environment and tracks changing best health protection response measures at every stage of an emergency in real-time. Feedback mechanisms between the contaminated network, emergency managers, and consumers are incorporated in a dynamic simulation model to capture time-varying characteristics of an emergency environment. An evolutionary-computation-based dynamic optimization model is developed to adaptively identify time-dependant optimal health protection measures during an emergency. This dynamic simulation-optimization model treats perceived contaminant source attributes as time-varying parameters to account for perceived contamination source updates as more data stream in over time. Performance of the developed dynamic decision support model is analyzed and demonstrated using a mid-size virtual city that resembles the dynamics and complexity of real-world urban systems. This adaptive emergency response optimization model is intended to be a major component of an all-inclusive cyberinfrastructure for efficient contamination threat management, which is currently under development.
Impact of Urban Land Transformation on Water Bodies in Srinagar City, India  [PDF]
Shahab Fazal, Arshad Amin
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.22016
Abstract: Human actions rather than natural forces are the source of most contemporary changes in the state and flows of the biosphere. Understanding these actions and the social forces that drive them is crucial to understanding, modelling and predicting local, regional as well as global environmental change and also for managing and responding to such change. The present study investigates the patterns of urban land transformation in Srinagar City, which lies in fragile hill eco-system of Kashmir valley. The results points towards unplanned and haphazard urban expansion and transformation. These transformations have severely destroyed the water bodies both in terms of area as well as its quality.
Contamination of fresh water fish “Schizothorax niger” with chlorpyrifos from “Dal Lake” basins, India  [PDF]
Banday Muddasir,Dhar J K,Aslam Shafiqa,Qureshi Sabia
International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research , 2012,
Abstract: Dal Lake a Sub-Himalyan urban Lake is one of the most beautiful lakes of India and second largest in Jammu & Kashmir. Intensive farming practiced in the surrounding area of Dal Lake and its floating gardensleads to an enhanced vulnerability of crops to pests and indiscriminate use of pesticides. Possible transfer of these hazardous molecules from vegetable fields to the aquatic environment of the Lake, poses a potential threat to the aquatic species and human health as well. In the present investigation conducted from 2008 to 2010, 135 samples of fish including 81 samples of schizothorax niger ( Algaad / Kasheer Gaad) and 54 samples of Cyprinus carpii (Punjab Gaad) were collected from three basins of Dal Lake namely Hazratbal, Nigeen and Cheshmashahi basin. The samples were analyzed for seven commonly used pesticides viz. Butachlor, γHCH,Chlorpyrifos, Hexaconazole, Endosulfan 1, Endosulfan 2 and Dichlorvas. Detection and quantification of pesticide residues was performed by GC-MS/MS (Thermofinnigan Polaris Q type) equipped with Ni ECD. It was found that 73 samples (54.07%) out of 135 were contaminated with chlorpyrifos an organophosphate pesticide with mean concentration of (0.0009 ± 0.0010ng/kg) with concentration ranging from undetected to 0.003ng/kg. The highest concentration was found in Hazratbal basin in 2009 (0.002 ± 0.001ng/kg). The results also reveal that level of pesticide was higher in pesticide use season than non use season except in 2009 when levels were same. With respect to basins the results show that mean concentration of chlorpyrifos level was higher in pesticide application season than non application season except in Nigeen basin in 2008 and 2009 where levels were same (0.001±0.001ng/kg) and in Hazratbal basin in 2010 where levels were same (0.001±0.001ng/kg). The results indicate a sub acute exposure of chlorpyrifos in a locally consumed Schizothorax niger and not in Cyprinus carpii. These findings suggest that low dose exposure to pesticides through food chain like fish can be a major contributor for presence of pesticide residual levels in human blood.
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