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Physiological mechanisms of soybean and rice in responses to aluminum stress
大豆和水稻对铝胁迫响应的生理机制

LIU Ni-ge,MO Bing-bo,YAN Xiao-long,SHEN Hong,
刘尼歌
,莫丙波,严小龙,沈宏

应用生态学报 , 2007,
Abstract: A hydroponic study was conducted on the root growth, nutrient uptake, and root extracts and exudates of soybean and rice under aluminum (Al) stress. The results showed that low Al (10 micromol x L(-1)) stimulated the seed germination and root growth of soybean, but had no obvious promotion effects on rice. Al stress increased the P uptake, but decreased the K, Ca and Mg uptake by both soybean and rice. Rice accumulated less Al and more P than soybean. When exposed to Al stress, the soluble protein content in soybean and rice roots increased, soluble phenol decreased, while soluble sugar increased first and decreased then. The citrate content in soybean roots decreased obviously under Al stress. Compared with soybean, rice accumulated more soluble protein and phenol and less citrate, but no difference was observed in soluble sugar content. Al increased the exudation of citrate and soluble protein, phenol and sugar from soybean roots. Under Al stress, soybean roots possessed a higher cation exchange capacity than rice roots. It was suggested that soybean and rice had different physiological responses to Al stress. The Al tolerance of rice was probably associated with its higher P uptake and lower cation exchange capacity than soybean, while root exudates had no significant correlation with its Al tolerance.
Study on the Citrate Secretion of Soybean Seedling under Aluminum Stress
铝胁迫下大豆根系柠檬酸的分泌研究

CHEN Guang,YANG Zhen-ming,SUN Yang,PANG Jin-duo,
陈光
,杨振明,孙旸,逄锦多

吉林农业大学学报 , 2010,
Abstract: Aluminum toxicity is one of the most significant factors inhibiting plant growth and crop production in acid soils.The root growth is hurt by Al stress and absorbability of water and nutrient decreased,so the growth and development of plant are inhibited.In the present study,with solution culture,Jilin 70 was selected as the Al-tolerant cultivars for the research of effect of Al on the citrate secretion of soybean seedling.The results were as follows: Exclusion of citrate acid from soybean roots could be us...
Proteome analysis of soybean leaves, hypocotyls and roots under salt stress
Hamid Sobhanian, Roya Razavizadeh, Yohei Nanjo, Ali Ehsanpour, Ferdous Jazii, Nasrin Motamed, Setsuko Komatsu
Proteome Science , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1477-5956-8-19
Abstract: Soybean plants were exposed to 0, 20, 40, or 80 mM NaCl for one week. The effect of treatment at 20 mM NaCl on plant growth was not severe, at 80 mM NaCl was lethal, and at 40 mM NaCl was significant but not lethal. Based on these results, proteins were extracted from the leaves, hypocotyls and roots of soybean treated with 40 mM NaCl. Nineteen, 22 and 14 proteins out of 340, 330 and 235 proteins in the leaves, hypocotyls and roots, respectively, were up- and down-regulated by NaCl treatment. In leaves, hypocotyls and roots, metabolism related proteins were mainly down-regulated with NaCl treatment. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was down-regulated in the leaf/hypocotyls, and fructokinase 2 was down-regulated in the hypocotyls/root with NaCl treatment. Stem 31 kDa glycoprotein precursor was up-regulated in all three organs with NaCl treatment. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was specifically down-regulated at the RNA and protein levels by salt stress.These results suggest that metabolism related proteins play a role in each organ in the adaptation to saline conditions.Soybean is an important dicot crop due to the high content of oil and protein in its seeds [1]. However, soybean is subject to abiotic stresses that reduce its yield like many crops. Salinity is one of the most widespread agricultural problems in arid and semi-arid regions that makes fields unproductive, and soil salinization is a serious problem in the entire world [2]. Salt stress severely inhibits plant growth for two reasons: first by an osmotic or water-deficit effect of salinity and second by a salt-specific or ion-excess effect of NaCl. However, plants suffer from composite stresses caused by salinity, including water deficit and ion imbalance [3]. Adaptation to salt stress requires alterations in gene expression and subsequently the protein profile of the plant and is very complicated at the whole plant and cellular levels [4,5].Some salt-inducible genes have been investigate
Identification of wild soybean miRNAs and their target genes responsive to aluminum stress
Qiao-Ying Zeng, Cun-Yi Yang, Qi-Bin Ma, Xiu-Ping Li, Wen-Wen Dong, Hai Nian
BMC Plant Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-12-182
Abstract: Two small RNA libraries and two degradome libraries were constructed from the roots of Al-treated and Al-free G. soja seedlings. For miRNA identification, a total of 7,287,655 and 7,035,914 clean reads in Al-treated and Al-free small RNAs libraries, respectively, were generated, and 97 known miRNAs and 31 novel miRNAs were identified. In addition, 49 p3 or p5 strands of known miRNAs were found. Among all the identified miRNAs, the expressions of 30 miRNAs were responsive to Al stress. Through degradome sequencing, 86 genes were identified as targets of the known miRNAs and five genes were found to be the targets of the novel miRNAs obtained in this study. Gene ontology (GO) annotations of target transcripts indicated that 52 target genes cleaved by conserved miRNA families might play roles in the regulation of transcription. Additionally, some genes, such as those for the auxin response factor (ARF), domain-containing disease resistance protein (NB-ARC), leucine-rich repeat and toll/interleukin-1 receptor-like protein (LRR-TIR) domain protein, cation transporting ATPase, Myb transcription factors, and the no apical meristem (NAM) protein, that are known to be responsive to stress, were found to be cleaved under Al stress conditions.A number of miRNAs and their targets were detected in wild soybean. Some of them that were responsive to biotic and abiotic stresses were regulated by Al stress. These findings provide valuable information to understand the function of miRNAs in Al tolerance.Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most widely grown crop species in the world. Current evidence indicates that the cultivated soybean was domesticated from its annual wild relative, wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.), over 5,000 years ago in China [1]. Compared to cultivated soybean, wild soybean possesses much higher adaptability to natural environmental stresses such as drought, alkaline and salt stress, which demonstrates the potential usefulness of the wild soybean to i
Transcriptome responses to aluminum stress in roots of aspen (Populus tremula)
Nadine Grisel, Stefan Zoller, Marzanna Künzli-Gontarczyk, Thomas Lampart, Martin Münsterk?tter, Ivano Brunner, Lucien Bovet, Jean-Pierre Métraux, Christoph Sperisen
BMC Plant Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-10-185
Abstract: Treatment of the aspen roots with 500 μM Al induced a strong inhibition of root growth within 6 h of exposure time. The root growth subsequently recovered, reaching growth rates comparable to that of control plants. Changes in gene expression were determined after 6 h, 2 d, and 10 d of Al exposure. Replicated transcriptome analyses using the Affymetrix poplar genome array revealed a total of 175 significantly up-regulated and 69 down-regulated genes, of which 70% could be annotated based on Arabidopsis genome resources. Between 6 h and 2 d, the number of responsive genes strongly decreased from 202 to 26, and then the number of changes remained low. The responses after 6 h were characterized by genes involved in cell wall modification, ion transport, and oxidative stress. Two genes with prolonged induction were closely related to the Arabidopsis Al tolerance genes ALS3 (for Al sensitive 3) and MATE (for multidrug and toxin efflux protein, mediating citrate efflux). Patterns of expression in different plant organs and in response to Al indicated that the two aspen genes are homologs of the Arabidopsis ALS3 and MATE.Exposure of aspen roots to Al results in a rapid inhibition of root growth and a large change in root gene expression. The subsequent root growth recovery and the concomitant reduction in the number of responsive genes presumably reflect the success of the roots in activating Al tolerance mechanisms. The aspen genes ALS3 and MATE may be important components of these mechanisms.Acid soils are prevalent in many regions of the world and present a range of stresses to plants. One of the major stresses caused by these soils is aluminum (Al), which is solubilized by the acidity into the soil solution. Soluble Al exists in its most toxic form as Al3+, which can inhibit root growth in many plant species at micromolar concentrations. The resulting reduced and damaged root system limits the capacity of plants to uptake water and nutrients, and increases their suscep
Effects of aluminum stress on photosynthetic characters of soybean
铝胁迫对大豆叶片光合特性的影响

YING Xiaofang,LIU Peng,
应小芳

应用生态学报 , 2005,
Abstract: With three soybean (Glycine max) varieties Zhechun No. 2, Zhechun No. 3 and 9703 as test materials, this paper studied the effects of different aluminum (Al) concentration on their photosynthetic characters. The results showed that the leaf chlorophyll content decreased by 5%-35% when Al concentration increased. Al also affected various physiological functions, e. g., stomatal resistance increased by 10%-35%, stomatal conductance decreased by 10%-40%, photosynthetic and transpiration rate decreased by 5%-40% and 20%-50%, respectively, and water utilization efficiency decreased by 15%-50%. Al stress could inhibit the photosynthesis of soybean leaves, and the inhibition was more serious in vegetative than in reproductive growth period. In addition, three test soybean varieties had definite genetic difference in response to Al toxicity.
Comparative proteomic analysis of early salt stress-responsive proteins in roots of SnRK2 transgenic rice
Myung Hee Nam, Sun Mi Huh, Kyung Mi Kim, Woong June Park, Jong Bok Seo, Kun Cho, Dool Yi Kim, Beom Gi Kim, In Sun Yoon
Proteome Science , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1477-5956-10-25
Abstract: Proteomes were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis and protein spots were identified by LC-MS/MS from wild type and OSRK1 transgenic rice roots exposed to 150 mM NaCl for either 3 h or 7 h. Fifty two early salt -responsive protein spots were identified from wild type rice roots. The major up-regulated proteins were enzymes related to energy regulation, amino acid metabolism, methylglyoxal detoxification, redox regulation and protein turnover. It is noted that enzymes known to be involved in GA-induced root growth such as fructose bisphosphate aldolase and methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase were clearly down-regulated. In contrast to wild type rice roots, only a few proteins were changed by salt stress in OSRK1 transgenic rice roots. A comparative quantitative analysis of the proteome level indicated that forty three early salt-responsive proteins were magnified in transgenic rice roots at unstressed condition. These proteins contain single or multiple potential SnRK2 recognition motives. In vitro kinase assay revealed that one of the identified proteome, calreticulin is a good substrate of OSRK1.Our present data implicate that rice roots rapidly changed broad spectrum of energy metabolism upon challenging salt stress, and suppression of GA signaling by salt stress may be responsible for the rapid arrest of root growth and development. The broad spectrum of functional categories of proteins affected by over-expression of OSRK1 indicates that OSRK1 is an upstream regulator of stress signaling in rice roots. Enzymes involved in glycolysis, branched amino acid catabolism, dnaK-type molecular chaperone, calcium binding protein, Sal T and glyoxalase are potential targets of OSRK1 in rice roots under salt stress that need to be further investigated.Salinity is a major constraint to crop productivity. Plant salt tolerance involves diverse mechanisms such as osmolyte accumulation, ion homeostasis, cellular protection from damage by reactive oxygen species, gro
Comparative proteomic study and functional analysis of translationally controlled tumor protein in rice roots under Hg2+ stress
Feijuan Wang,Yongshen Shang,Ling Yang,Cheng Zhu,
Feijuan Wang
,Yongshen Shang,Ling Yang,Cheng Zhu

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2012,
Abstract: So far, very little is known about mercury stress-induced intercellular metabolic changes in rice roots at the proteome level. To investigate the response of rice roots to mercury stress, changes in protein expression in rice roots were analyzed using a comparative proteomics approach. Six-leaf stage rice seedlings were treated with 50 μmol/L HgCl2 for 3 hr; 29 protein spots showed a significant changes in abundance under stress when compared with the Hg2+-tolerant rice mutant and wild type (Zhonghua 11). Furthermore, all these protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry to match 27 diverse protein species. The identified proteins were involved in several processes, including stress response, redox homeostasis, signal transduction, regulation and metabolism; some were found to be cellular structure proteins and a few were unknown. Among the up-regulated proteins, OsTCTP (translationally controlled tumor protein) was chosen to perform hetereologous expression in yeast which was presumed to participate in the Hg2+ tolerance of rice, providing evidence for its role in alleviating Hg2+ damage. Among the many tests, we found that OsTCTP-overexpressed yeast strains were more resistant to Hg2+ than wild-type yeast. Thus, we propose that OsTCTP contributes to Hg2+ resistance. Here we present, for the first time, the functional characterization of OsTCTP in connection with Hg2+ stress in plants.
Expression pattern of drought stress marker genes in soybean roots under two water deficit systems
Neves-Borges, Anna Cristina;Guimar?es-Dias, Fábia;Cruz, Fernanda;Mesquita, Rosilene Oliveira;Nepomuceno, Alexandre Lima;Romano, Eduardo;Loureiro, Marcelo Ehlers;Grossi-de-Sá, Maria de Fátima;Alves-Ferreira, Márcio;
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572012000200003
Abstract: the study of tolerance mechanisms for drought stress in soybean is fundamental to the understanding and development of tolerant varieties. using in silico analysis, four marker genes involved in the classical aba-dependent and aba-independent pathways of drought response were identified in the glycine max genome in the present work. the expression profiles of the marker genes erd1-like, gmaxrd20a-like, gmaxrd22-like and gmaxrd29b-like were investigated by qpcr in root samples of drought sensitive and tolerant soybean cultivars (br 16 and embrapa 48, respectively), submitted to water deficit conditions in hydroponic and pot-based systems. among the four putative soybean homologs to arabidopsis genes investigated herein, only gmaxrd29b-like was not regulated by water deficit stress. distinct expression profiles and different induction levels were observed among the genes, as well as between the two drought-inducing systems. our results showed contrasting gene expression responses for the gmaxrd20a-like and gmaxrd22-like genes. gmaxrd20a-like was highly induced by continuous drought acclimating conditions, whereas gmaxrd22-like responses decreased after abrupt water deprivation. gmaxerd1-like showed a different expression profile for the cultivars in each system. conversely, gmaxrd20a-like and gmaxrd22-like genes exhibited similar expression levels in tolerant plants in both systems.
Physiological characteristics of rice seedlings roots under aluminum stress
铝胁迫下水稻幼苗根系的生理特性

XIE Guo-sheng,SHI Rui-hong,PANG Zhen-wu,CAI Ke-tong,
谢国生
,师瑞红,庞贞武,蔡克桐

应用生态学报 , 2009,
Abstract: A hydroponic experiment was conducted with the four-leaf stage seedlings of aluminum (Al)-susceptible rice variety IR24 and Al-tolerant rice varieties Jingyou 725 and Liangyoupeijiu to study the physiological characteristics of the seedlings roots under effects of 0, 0.5 mmol·L-1, and 7.5 mmol·L-1 of Al. Under the stress of 7.5 mmol Al·L-1, Al-tolerant varieties had a far lesser decrement of root vigor than Al-susceptible variety, while the Al-susceptible variety had a higher root mitochondria H2O2 content than Al-tolerant varieties. Al stress induced a lesser increment of CAT activity in the root mitochondria of all tested varieties. With the increasing Al concentration, the root mitochondria POD activity of IR24 and Jingyou 725 decreased after an initial increase while that of Liangyoupeijiu was increasing, and the root mitochondria APX activity of IR24 decreased after an initial increase while that of Jingyou 725 and Liangyoupeijiu was increasing. The root glutamic acid content of all tested varieties showed an increase-decline trend, and their citric acid content decreased while PEP content increased. The ratio of cyanide-resistant respiration rate to total respiration rate of Al-tolerant Jingyou 725 and Liangyoupeijiu increased obviously, compared with that of Al-susceptible IR24.
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