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Transcription Factor Sp1 Is Involved in Expressional Regulation of Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor in Cancer Cells
Sun-Ku Chung,Joo-Young Kim,Joong-Yeon Lim,Young Mi Park,Ha-Young Hwang,Jae-Hwan Nam,Sang Ick Park
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/636497
Abstract: Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) was first known as a virus receptor. Recently, it is also known to have tumor suppressive activity such as inhibition of cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. It is important to understand how CAR expression can be regulated in cancers. Based on an existence of putative Sp1 binding site within CAR promoter, we investigated whether indeed Sp1 is involved in the regulation of CAR expression. We observed that deletion or mutation of Sp1 binding motif (−503/−498) prominently impaired the Sp1 binding affinity and activity of CAR promoter. Histone deacetylase inhibitor (TSA) treatment enhanced recruitment of Sp1 to the CAR promoter in ChIP assay. Meanwhile, Sp1 binding inhibitor suppressed the recruitment. Exogenous expression of wild-type Sp1 increased CAR expression in CAR-negative cells; meanwhile, dominant negative Sp1 decreased the CAR expression in CAR-positive cells. These results indicate that Sp1 is involved in regulation of CAR expression.
Essential Role of the Coxsackie - and Adenovirus Receptor (CAR) in Development of the Lymphatic System in Mice  [PDF]
Momina Mirza, Mei-Fong Pang, Mohamad Amr Zaini, Paula Haiko, Tuomas Tammela, Kari Alitalo, Lennart Philipson, Jonas Fuxe, Kerstin Sollerbrant
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037523
Abstract: The coxsackie- and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a cell adhesion molecule predominantly associated with epithelial tight junctions in adult tissues. CAR is also expressed in cardiomyocytes and essential for heart development up to embryonic day 11.5, but not thereafter. CAR is not expressed in vascular endothelial cells but was recently detected in neonatal lymphatic vessels, suggesting that CAR could play a role in the development of the lymphatic system. To address this, we generated mice carrying a conditional deletion of the CAR gene (Cxadr) and knocked out CAR in the mouse embryo at different time points during post-cardiac development. Deletion of Cxadr from E12.5, but not from E13.5, resulted in subcutaneous edema, hemorrhage and embryonic death. Subcutaneous lymphatic vessels were dilated and structurally abnormal with gaps and holes present at lymphatic endothelial cell-cell junctions. Furthermore, lymphatic vessels were filled with erythrocytes showing a defect in the separation between the blood and lymphatic systems. Regionally, erythrocytes leaked out into the interstitium from leaky lymphatic vessels explaining the hemorrhage detected in CAR-deficient mouse embryos. The results show that CAR plays an essential role in development of the lymphatic vasculature in the mouse embryo by promoting appropriate formation of lymphatic endothelial cell-cell junctions.
Isoform-specific expression of the Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) in neuromuscular junction and cardiac intercalated discs
Christian A Shaw, Paul C Holland, Michael Sinnreich, Carol Allen, Kerstin Sollerbrant, George Karpati, Josephine Nalbantoglu
BMC Cell Biology , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2121-5-42
Abstract: Using antibodies directed against the extracellular and the cytoplasmic domains of CAR, we show CAR in normal human and mouse skeletal muscle to be a novel component of the neuromuscular junction. In cardiac muscle, CAR immunoreactivity is observed at the level of intercalated discs. We demonstrate a single isoform of CAR to be expressed exclusively at the human neuromuscular junction whereas both predominant CAR isoforms are expressed at the intercalated discs of non-diseased human heart.The localization of CAR to these important junctional complexes suggests that CAR may play both a structural and a regulatory role in skeletal and cardiac muscle, and that these complexes may serve as a point of entry for Coxsackie B virus.The Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) [1,2], a transmembrane protein of the immunoglobulin super-family, serves as a receptor for adenovirus (Ad) subgroups A, C, D, E and F [3] as well as Coxsackie B viruses (CVB) [4]. CAR is a highly conserved protein with two predominant isoforms, produced through differential splicing, and having cytoplasmic domains of either 107 residues (ending in SIV) or 94 residues (ending in TVV) [2,5]. The extracellular domain mediates homophilic cell adhesion [6-8] and ectopically-expressed CAR localizes to homotypic intercellular contacts [8]. The expression of CAR is regulated developmentally [6,9-12] as well as in a tissue-specific manner [2,5]. To date, most studies on CAR expression in the adult have resorted to analysis of transcript levels. These have revealed that the pattern of tissue-specific expression differs between humans and mice. In humans, a predominant transcript of ~6 – 6.5 kb is observed in heart, testis, prostate and pancreas while much less expression is detected in liver, brain, colon and small intestine. In the mouse on the other hand, the most abundant expression is in liver, kidney, lung and heart.Interest in CAR stems from its function as the primary high affinity receptor for Ad serotyp
The Logic of CMV-Algebras  [PDF]
Antonio Di Nola,Brunella Gerla,Ciro Russo
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: In this paper, once recalled some properties of CMV-algebras, we introduce an expansion of the one-variable fragment of Lukasiewicz propositional logic whose algebraic semantics is the variety of CMV-algebras.
Isoform-Specific Regulation and Localization of the Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor in Human Airway Epithelia  [PDF]
Katherine J. D. A. Excoffon,Nicholas D. Gansemer,Matthew E. Mobily,Philip H. Karp,Kalpaj R. Parekh,Joseph Zabner
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009909
Abstract: Adenovirus is an important respiratory pathogen. Adenovirus fiber from most serotypes co-opts the Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptor (CAR) to bind and enter cells. However, CAR is a cell adhesion molecule localized on the basolateral membrane of polarized epithelia. Separation from the lumen of the airways by tight junctions renders airway epithelia resistant to inhaled adenovirus infection. Although a role for CAR in viral spread and egress has been established, the mechanism of initial respiratory infection remains controversial. CAR exists in several protein isoforms including two transmembrane isoforms that differ only at the carboxy-terminus (CAREx7 and CAREx8). We found low-level expression of the CAREx8 isoform in well-differentiated human airway epithelia. Surprisingly, in contrast to CAREx7, CAREx8 localizes to the apical membrane of epithelia where it augments adenovirus infection. Interestingly, despite sharing a similar class of PDZ-binding domain with CAREx7, CAREx8 differentially interacts with PICK1, PSD-95, and MAGI-1b. MAGI-1b appears to stoichiometrically regulate the degradation of CAREx8 providing a potential mechanism for the apical localization of CAREx8 in airway epithelial. In summary, apical localization of CAREx8 may be responsible for initiation of respiratory adenoviral infections and this localization appears to be regulated by interactions with PDZ-domain containing proteins.
CMV matrices: Five years after  [PDF]
Barry Simon
Mathematics , 2006,
Abstract: CMV matrices are the unitary analog of Jacobi matrices; we review their general theory.
Legal Aspects of Surgical Castration  [cached]
Karen Harrison
Sexual Offender Treatment , 2010,
Abstract: The use of surgical castration, whilst still legal in some European countries is now being practised only on a very small scale. This is largely due to the fact that many people have objections to the practice of surgically castrating offenders, especially if it is done against the offender's will. Even if consent is given there may be problems regarding whether this consent is truly free and informed (see below). Many regard the practice as barbaric and thus in contravention of a number of Articles contained within the European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR), including Article 3, Article 8 and Article 12. These issues will be addressed below.
THE THREE MEANS TO NEGATE CASTRATION  [PDF]
Francisco Ramos de Farias
Psicanálise e Barroco em Revista , 2010,
Abstract: When crossing from the natural state to the cultural state, the human breed, in response to the absence captured in the body of the woman, disposes of three means to negate castration. They are three defensive means used by the subject to avoid being totally reduced to the condition of a simple object of desire of the Other. In dealing with repression, we have the psychic inscription “there is no penis” in the body of the woman substituted by “I do not know”, which drives the subject to glide through culture in search of objects directed to a type of knowledge imprinted by paternal anteriority. Concerning disavowal, we simultaneously have the negation and the affirmation of the existence of a penis in the body of a woman by means of the two coexisting psychical chains that do not contradict each other and hold the fetish as the paradigm. Finally, in foreclosure, the absence in the body of a woman is not captured, placing the subject in the position of being the phallus of the mother.
Analysis of possible reasons for dissolution of stallion after castration  [PDF]
Stevan?evi? Milenko,Toholj Bojan,Iveti? Vojin,Potkonjak Aleksandar
Veterinarski Glasnik , 2008, DOI: 10.2298/vetgl0804241s
Abstract: Within the practical training of students of the fifth year of studies of veterinary medicine, a demonstration was performed of stallion castration. The owner of the horse decided to take this step because of the unpredictable temperament of the stallion. The castration was carried out under general anaesthesia. The stallion was laid down and immobilized for castration in keeping with the so-called in-the-field conditions. The castration pro-ceeded without any complications, and the postoperative course was in order. Three days after castration, the horse died with symptoms of colic. The autopsy showed obturation of the ileum and ileocecal valve by Parascaris equorum parasites.
On Scattering for CMV Matrices  [PDF]
A. Kheifets,F. Peherstorfer,P. Yuditskii
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: Adamjan-Arov (Lax--Phillips) model space is considered as a scattering representation space for a CMV matrix in context of an extended Marchenko--Faddeev scattering theory. That is, there exists a basis in which the multiplication by independent variable is a CMV matrix. This basis as well as Verblunski coefficients are computed explicitly in terms of Nehari interpolation. Asymptotically the Verblynski coefficients go to zero. Moreover, relations between the basis and wandering subspaces are established. Transformation from scattering representation to spectral representation is given.
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