Abstract:
We propose a saturated binary mixture model for debris flows of the Coulomb-mixture type over temporally varying topography, where the effects of erosion and deposition are considered. Due to the deposition or erosion processes, the interface between the moving material and the stagnant base is a non-material singular surface. The motion of this singular surface is determined by the mass exchange between the flowing layer and the ground. The ratio of the relative velocity between the two constituents to the velocity of the solid phase is assumed to be small, so that the governing equations can be reduced to a system of the quasi-single-phase type. A shock-capturing numerical scheme is implemented to solve the derived equation system. The deposition shapes of a finite mass sliding down an inclined planary chute are investigated for a range of mixture ratios. The geometric evolution of the deposition is presented, which allows the possibility of mimicking the development of levee deposition.

Abstract:
We construct the solution of the Riemann problem for the shallow water equations with discontinuous topography. The system under consideration is non-strictly hyperbolic and does not admit a fully conservative form, and we establish the existence of two-parameter wave sets, rather than wave curves. The selection of admissible waves is particularly challenging. Our construction is fully explicit, and leads to formulas that can be implemented numerically for the approximation of the general initial-value problem.

Abstract:
The effects of topography on baroclinic wave flows are studied experimentally in a thermally driven rotating annulus of fluid. Fourier analysis and complex principal component (CPC) analysis of the experimental data show that, due to topographic forcing, the flow is bimodal rather than a single mode. Under suitable imposed experimental parameters, near thermal Rossby numberR OT =0.1 and Taylor numberT a = 2.2 × 107, the large-scale topography produces low-frequency oscillation in the flow and rather long-lived flow pattern resembling blocking in the atmospheric cir-culation. The ‘blocking’ phenomenon is caused by the resonance of travelling waves and the quasi-stationary waves forced by topography. The large-scale topography transforms wavenumber-homogeneous flows into wavenumber-dispersed flows, and the dispersed flows possess lower wavenumbers. This research was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation Grants ATM-8709410 and ATM-8714674.

Abstract:
Lie symmetry analysis is applied to study the nonlinear rotating shallow water equations. The 9-dimensional Lie algebra of point symmetries admitted by the model is found. It is shown that the rotating shallow water equations are related with the classical shallow water model with the change of variables. The derived symmetries are used to generate new exact solutions of the rotating shallow equations. In particular, a new class of time-periodic solutions with quasi-closed particle trajectories is constructed and studied. The symmetry reduction method is also used to obtain some invariant solutions of the model. Examples of these solutions are presented with a brief physical interpretation.

Abstract:
We show that rotating shallow water dynamics possesses an approximate (adiabatic-type) positive quadratic invariant, which exists not only at mid-latitudes (where its analogue in the quasigeostrophic equation has been previously investigated), but near the equator as well (where the quasigeostrophic equation is inapplicable). Deriving the extra invariant, we find "small denominators" of two kinds: (1) due to the triad resonances (as in the case of the quasigeostrophic equation) and (2) due to the equatorial limit, when the Rossby radius of deformation becomes infinite. We show that the "small denominators" of both kinds can be canceled. The presence of the extra invariant can lead to the generation of zonal jets. We find that this tendency should be especially pronounced near the equator. Similar invariant occurs in magnetically confined fusion plasmas and can lead to the emergence of zonal flows.

Abstract:
In this paper, we compare components of the horizontal flow below the solar surface in and around regions consisting of rotating and non-rotating sunspots. Our analysis suggests that there is a significant variation in both components of the horizontal flow at the beginning of sunspot rotation as compared to the non-rotating sunspot. In most cases, the flows in surrounding areas are relatively small. However, there is a significant influence of the motion on flows in an area closest to the sunspot rotation.

Abstract:
We present a parametric space study of the decay of turbulence in rotating flows combining direct numerical simulations, large eddy simulations, and phenomenological theory. Several cases are considered: (1) the effect of varying the characteristic scale of the initial conditions when compared with the size of the box, to mimic "bounded" and "unbounded" flows; (2) the effect of helicity (correlation between the velocity and vorticity); (3) the effect of Rossby and Reynolds numbers; and (4) the effect of anisotropy in the initial conditions. Initial conditions include the Taylor-Green vortex, the Arn'old-Beltrami-Childress flow, and random flows with large-scale energy spectrum proportional to $k^4$. The decay laws obtained in the simulations for the energy, helicity, and enstrophy in each case can be explained with phenomenological arguments that separate the decay of two-dimensional from three-dimensional modes, and that take into account the role of helicity and rotation in slowing down the energy decay. The time evolution of the energy spectrum and development of anisotropies in the simulations are also discussed. Finally, the effect of rotation and helicity in the skewness and kurtosis of the flow is considered.

Abstract:
In commonly used formulations of the Boussinesq approximation centrifugal buoyancy effects related to differential rotation, as well as strong vortices in the flow, are neglected. However, these may play an important role in rapidly rotating flows, such as in astrophysical and geophysical applications, and also in turbulent convection. We here provide a straightforward approach resulting in a Boussinesq-type approximation that consistently accounts for centrifugal effects. Its application to the accretion-disk problem is discussed. We numerically compare the new approach to the typical one in fluid flows confined between two differentially heated and rotating cylinders. The results justify the need of using the proposed approximation in rapidly rotating flows.

Abstract:
We consider the Cacuhy problem for a viscous compressible rotating shallow water system with a third-order surface-tension term involved, derived recently in the modelling of motions for shallow water with free surface in a rotating sub-domain. The global existence of the solution in the space of Besov type is shown for initial data close to a constant equilibrium state away from the vacuum. Unlike the previous analysis about the compressible fluid model without coriolis forces, the rotating effect causes a coupling between two parts of Hodge's decomposition of the velocity vector field, additional regularity is required in order to carry out the Friedrichs' regularization and compactness arguments.

Abstract:
Flow instability and turbulent transition can be well explained using a new proposed theory--Energy gradient theory [1]. In this theory, the stability of a flow depends on the relative magnitude of energy gradient in streamwise direction and that in transverse direction, if there is no work input. In this note, it is shown based on the energy gradient theory that inviscid non-uniform flow is unstable if the energy in transverse direction is not constant. This new finding breaks the classical linear theory from Rayleigh that inviscid flow is unstable if the velocity profile has an inflection point in parallel flows and inviscid flow is stable if the velocity profile has no inflection point in parallel flow. Then, stability of rotating viscous and inviscid flows is studied, and two examples of rotating flows (rotating rigid body motion and free vortex motion) are shown, respectively.