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疏花毛萼香茶菜挥发油化学成分的研究  [PDF]
纳智
中国中药杂志 , 2005,
Abstract: 目的:研究疏花毛萼香茶菜挥发油的化学成分。方法:利用水蒸气蒸馏法提取疏花毛萼香茶菜挥发油,用GC-MS进行测定,结合计算机检索技术对分离的化合物进行鉴定,应用色谱峰面积归一化法计算各成分的相对含量。结果:分离出163个峰,确认了其中的105种成分,所鉴定的组分占总峰面积的85.68%。结论:105种挥发性成分均为首次从该植物中鉴定。
粮果油经菜菌生态立体种植模式的研究  [PDF]
刁家连,陈淑芬,于翠芳,温金祥,崔启智
中国生态农业学报 , 1997,
Abstract: 研究结果表明,粮果油经菜菌生态立体种植比传统禾谷类单一平作种植能创造更好的生态环境,光能利用率、植株体积、叶面积系数、植株干重均有不同程度的增长,且经济效益倍增。
苹果疏除幼果与成熟果果胶品质的比较
Comparison of quality of pectins extracted from thinned young apple and mature apple
 [PDF]

,,郭玉蓉,,,
- , 2015,
Abstract: 【目的】研究苹果疏除幼果与成熟果果胶品质的差异,为苹果资源的高效综合利用提供参考。【方法】以苹果疏果期的疏除幼果和成熟果榨汁后的果渣为原料,采用传统酸法提取苹果果胶,对2种果胶的得率、酯化度、纯度、总酚含量、褐变度、色值、特性黏度和黏均分子量进行测定,比较其差异并分析果胶的超微结构。【结果】苹果疏除幼果果胶的得率、酯化度、纯度、特性黏度及黏均分子量均小于成熟果果胶,但总酚含量和褐变度均大于成熟果果胶;成熟果果胶的色泽比苹果疏除幼果果胶好。苹果疏除幼果与成熟果果胶的表面结构存在明显差异。【结论】苹果疏除幼果果胶品质不如成熟果果胶。
【Objective】The differences in quality of pectins extracted from thinned young apple and mature apple were studied to provide references for efficient utilization of apple resources.【Method】Taking pomace of thinned young apple and mature apple as material,conventional acid method was adopted to extract apple pectins,and the yield,esterification degree,purity,color values,total polyphenol,browning degree,intrinsic viscosity and molecular weight were determined for comparing physic-chemical properties.【Result】The yield,esterification degree,purity,intrinsic viscosity and molecular weight of thinned young apple pectin were lower than those of mature apple pectin,while the total polyphenol content and browning degree were higher.Moreover,the color values of mature apple pectin were better.Significant differences in surface structures of pectin from thinned young apple and mature apple were observed.【Conclusion】Thinned young apple pectin was not as good as mature apple pectin
疏穗处理对‘赤霞珠’葡萄果粒大小及花色苷积累的影响
Effects of Cluster Thinning on Berry Size and Anthocyanins of Cabernet Sauvignon
 [PDF]

,,,,,,王云鹤,董新平,,,段长青,,
- , 2015, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1004-1389.2015.02.019
Abstract: 疏穗(花序或果穗)是调节产量和负载量的一项葡萄园田间管理措施,广泛应用于优质葡萄生产中,不同时期和程度的疏穗对果实产量和品质影响不同。本研究于2011年以新疆玛纳斯县广东地和园艺场2个地块2000年定植的‘赤霞珠’葡萄为材料,在果实第1个膨大期(花后约3周)分别进行1穗/新梢(CT1)、1.5穗/新梢(CT2)和2穗/新梢(CT3)3个程度的疏穗处理。在采收期对产量相关指标和花色苷进行测定。结果表明,在广东地,3种疏穗处理间平均果穗质量显著差异,CT1与CT2、CT3相比,产量分别下降48%和65%;在园艺场,3种疏穗处理间平均果穗质量亦显著差异,但CT3处理的平均果粒质量低于CT1和CT2。将采收期的果粒按质量分为5级,在广东地,果粒大小主要分布于≤0.84 g、0.85~1.14 g和1.15~1.44 g 3个质量级次中,在≤0.84 g质量级次中,CT1处理果粒所占百分数分别比CT2和CT3低12.4%和18%;在园艺场,果粒大小主要分布于0.85~1.14 g、1.15~1.44 g和1.45~1.74 g 3个质量级次中,在≤0.84 g质量级次中,CT3处理的果粒所占的百分数分别比CT2和CT1高18.3%和15.6%。说明疏穗处理后,果粒有增大的趋势。利用HPLC-MS检测各质量级次花色苷的质量分数和组成,发现不同大小的果粒以及经过不同程度疏穗处理的果粒中花色苷的质量分数间存在差异。随着果粒的增大,甲基化花色苷和酰化花色苷的质量分数及总花色苷的每果粒质量(以mg/kg果实鲜质量表示)逐渐降低。在广东地,随着疏穗程度的提高,总花色苷、甲基化花色苷和酰化花色苷的每果粒质量(以μg/果粒表示)和质量分数(以mg/kg果实鲜质量表示)逐渐增加。对不同疏穗处理下果粒各种花色苷的质量分数进行主成分分析显示,地块对果实中花色苷的积累影响较大。
Cluster thinning is regarded as a field management practice on vineyard to regulate crop level and crop load,which is widely used in premier grape production. Whereas,different levels and periods of cluster thinning influence yield and berry quality. In the present study,three different cluster thinning treatments were taken at the first period of growth (3 weeks after bloom) in two Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon vineyards in Manasi,including 1 cluster/shoot (CT1),1.5 clusters/shoot (CT2) and 2 clusters/shoot (CT3).Yield components and anthocyanins were detected at harvest. There was no significant difference of cluster mass between two sites,while the CT3 decreased berry mass in Yuanyi farm. When compared with CT2 and CT3 in Guangdong farm,yield was decreased by 48% and 65%,respectively,due to cluster thinning,and the same trend was found in Yuanyi farm. The berries at harvest were classified into five berry mass categories. The berries were mostly belonged to ≤0.84 g,0.85-1.14 g and 1.15-1.44 g in Guangdong farm,but that was most belonged to 0.85-1.14 g,1.15-1.44 g and 1.45-1.74 g in Yuanyi farm.The frequency distribution in the minimum category was higher in CT3 (39.5% in Guangdong farm,23.8% in Yuanyi farm),which indicated an increasing trend of berry mass through decreasing cluster per shoot. Anthocyanins were detected by HPLC-MS. The result showed that the content of methoxylated,acylated and total anthocyanins presented in ‘μg/berry’ were positively related to the berry size,whereas the concentrations of methoxylated,acylated and total anthocyanins presented in ‘mg/kg fresh berry mass ’ were declined with berry size in contrast. When it comes to the impact of treatments,we found an increasing trend in the content of methoxylated,acylated and total anthocyanins
热带雨林三种榕树隐头果昆虫群落结构与功能群生态特性  [PDF]
杨大荣?,彭艳琼?,王秋艳?,徐磊?,魏作东?
生态学报 , 2003,
Abstract: 鸡嗉果榕ficussemicordata、苹果榕ficusoligodon、对叶榕ficushispida是西双版纳热带雨林和次生林中最常见的树种,它们是热带雨林生态系统中的一类先锋种。在每一种榕树隐头果内外,形成了给榕树传粉功能群、寄生子房制造瘿花功能群、复寄生其它昆虫功能群、蛀食和取食隐头果功能群、捕食性天敌功能群、刺吸隐头果汁液功能群、取食熟果加速果实腐烂分解功能群等昆虫组成的群体。本工作在西双版纳勐仑国家自然保护区、植物园沟谷雨林、植物园榕树园等样地内对鸡嗉果榕、苹果榕、对叶榕3种榕树隐头果内外的昆虫种群结构和功能群生态学特性开展了研究。结果表明:样地内采集到141037号昆虫标本,隶属6个目,18个科,42属,61种。从种类上比较,捕食功能群、蛀食及取食功能群最丰富,占榕树隐头果昆虫总种数的57.4%。从个体数量上来看,传粉类群的数量最大,占总数的68.6%。每一种榕树与传粉功能群(榕小蜂)之间构成了种内专一的互惠共生关系,这种关系是由于榕树必须依赖榕小蜂的传粉而获得有性繁殖,而榕小蜂也必须依赖榕树隐头果内部分小花子房作为繁殖与生存场所才能正常繁衍后代形成的,它们相互之间在生物界中形成了最密切的协同进化关系。传粉昆虫功能群、捕食昆虫功能群对榕树隐头果的生长发育起着促进的作用,而其它功能群或多或少均对榕树隐头果的生长发育起着损害性作用,特别是制造瘿花的非传粉小蜂功能群坡坏性最大,次之是蛀食和取食功能群、刺吸果汁功能群、分解功能群对隐头果也起到危险作用,而复寄生昆虫功能群则对传粉功能群造成种群下降,从而致使传粉功能降低,对榕树隐头果起着间接的负作用。
苹果疏除幼果多糖TYAP-2的分离纯化及其特性研究
Purification and characteristics of polysaccharide TYAP-2 from thinned young apples
 [PDF]

,,郭玉蓉,,,
- , 2016,
Abstract: 【目的】对苹果疏除幼果多糖进行分离与纯化,并对所得多糖组分TYAP-2进行结构表征及抗氧化活性分析。【方法】采用热水浸提法从苹果疏除幼果中提取水溶性粗多糖TYAP,并经DEAE-52纤维素柱层析和Sephadex G-150凝胶柱层析分离纯化,获得一种新的多糖组分TYAP-2。通过高效液相色谱(HPLC)、紫外光谱(UV)、傅里叶变换红外光谱(FT-IR)和环境电镜扫描(ESEM)等方法研究了TYAP-2组成及分子结构,并对其体外抗氧化活性进行了初步探讨。【结果】HPLC分析表明,TYAP-2是分子质量约为479 ku的均一多糖,阿拉伯糖、半乳糖和葡萄糖是组成TYAP-2的主要单糖,而鼠李糖、半乳糖醛酸、葡萄糖醛酸和木糖的含量较少;FT-IR分析表明,TYAP-2中存在D-吡喃葡萄糖环结构;ESEM检测表明,TYAP-2呈长杆状和片层状2种结构;抗氧化分析表明,当质量浓度为5.0 mg/mL时,TYAP-2对DPPH·的清除能力为65.08%,总还原力(OD值)为0.603。【结论】TYAP-2是一种可以作为天然植物抗氧化剂的多糖组分。
【Objective】This study purified TYAP-2 from thinned young apples and analyzed its characteristics and antioxidant activities.【Method】The crude polysaccharides TYAP was extracted from thinned-young apples by hot water method and further fractionated by DEAE-52 cellulose and sephadex G-150 to obtain a new polysaccharide component named TYAP-2.Then,the structural characteristics of TYAP-1 were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC),ultraviolet spectrum (UV),Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and environment scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) methods.In addition,the antioxidant activities of TYAP-2 in vitro were evaluated.【Result】HPLC analysis indicated that TYAP-2 was a homogeneous polysaccharide with an average molecular weight of 479 ku.TYAP-2 mainly consisted of glucose,galactose and arabinose,while rhamnose,galacturonic acid,glucuronic acid and xylose presented in trace amounts.IR spectral analysis suggested the presence of pyranose ring in TYAP-2.Moreover,the flake and rods morphologies of TYAP-2 were detected by ESEM method.The scavenge ability of TYAP-2 with concentration of 5.0 mg/mL against DPPH· was 65.08% and the OD was 0.603.【Conclusion】TYAP-2 is a polysaccharide that can be used as a natural plant antioxidant
北方新型温室循环农业模式种植效益与发展对策研究*--以徐水县"菜/果菌"连体温室模式为例  [PDF]
周 颖,邱建军,尹昌斌,李贵春,祖君鸣,杜艳芹,雷冬侠
中国生态农业学报 , 2014,
Abstract: 本文开展了"菜/果菌"循环农业模式的经济效益及发展对策研究,目的是摸清菇房蔬菜温室连体温室大棚生产全过程的成本投入及经济效益情况,定量比较连体温室与普通温室大棚种植模式生产效益,并提出建设性的对策和建议。研究采用规范分析与实证分析相结合的方法:通过实地调研和农户访谈,了解菇房温室连体大棚的设计结构及栽培措施,分析产业链条结构及模式基本特征;通过跟踪监测与问卷调查,比较分析连体温室与普通温室种植模式的成本投入与经济效益。结果表明:基于连体温室大棚的"菜/果菌"循环农业模式比普通温室大棚经济效益高;以单一种植茄子、青椒、西红柿和丝瓜4种蔬菜的生产模式效益做比较,连体温室大棚的年均净收益分别是传统大棚净收益的6.3倍、3.5倍、2.3倍和1.1倍,较大幅度提高了劳动生产率;基于连体温室设计的种植模式是值得在我国北方推广的一种新型模式。
坏数据的追踪辨识  [PDF]
倪明高晓萍单渊达
电力系统自动化 , 1994,
Abstract: 针对目前我国地区电网的特点,提出一种利用时间序列方法建立多个模型进行追踪辨识的坏数据处理方法。由于该方法与网络结构无太大关系,因而不仅适用于环网,也适用于开式网。另外,本方法对量测系统的冗余度要求不高,并且能给出坏数据的替代值,从而保证了系统的可观测性。已用于一实际地区电网,试验结果证明了本方法的有效性。
荔枝柔性疏花器设计与试验研究  [PDF]
李君,陆华忠,杨洲,郑顺源
华南农业大学学报 , 2013, DOI: 10.7671/j.issn.1001-411X.2013.03.029
Abstract: 为实现荔枝机械疏花的高效作业,设计了1种机械柔性疏花器.通过开展不同处理方式的试验研究,发现胶条转速和胶条间距对疏花时间、疏花率有显著影响,而对坐果数、单果质量以及果实大小没有影响.胶条转速越大、胶条间距越小,疏花时间越短,疏花率越高.不同机械疏花处理后的单果质量、果实大小均比对照显著增加,果实大小、果形指数比较一致,而对照的果实大小差异较大.平均果质量与单穗坐果数之间呈负相关.
代码坏味的处理顺序  [PDF]
高原?,刘辉?,樊孝忠?,牛振东?,邵维忠?
软件学报 , 2012, DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1001.2012.04152
Abstract: 选取了10种具有代表性的代码坏味进行研究.从每种代码坏味的产生原因、症状、对软件的影响以及相应的处理这4个方面进行分析,提出了一个代码坏味处理顺序的优先级.通过问卷调查和两个实验,对代码坏味处理顺序优先级进行了初步验证.
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