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Die mittelalterliche Kunst des Pyren enraums und die Selbstfindung Kataloniens [Medieval art in the Pyrenean area and Catalonia discovering its identity]
Borng?sser, Barbara
Zeitschrift für Katalanistik , 2004,
Abstract: The medieval art in the Pyrenean area sets an essential grounding for the identitat catalana. Its opening up and scientific processing was conjugated with romantic transfiguration, ideological monopolisation and tourist marketing. Elies Rogent’s restoration campaigns, the scientist and politician Josep Puig i Cadafalch’s research and publications as well as the destiny of frescos from numerous village churches prove the various periods of a continuous process. Almost 30 years after Franco’s death the Catalan nation rightly claims other, more recent autochthonous achievements. However, the Pyrenees’ cultural role within a Europe that is in the process of redefining itself remains to be written.
Constructing Catalonia  [PDF]
Bill Phillips
Coolabah , 2009,
Abstract: Catalonia, in common with other nations, has long been concerned with thequestion of identity and difference. Its problematic relationship with Spain has led to anemphasis on differentiating itself from its larger neighbour (if we are to accept, as mostSpaniards do not, that Catalonia is not Spain), a situation complicated by the loss of theSpanish colonies of Cuba and The Philippines in 1898, and the Spanish Civil War andsubsequent dictatorship from 1936 to 1976. Beginning in the late nineteenth century, theconstruction of a Catalan identity followed a similar route to that taken by otherEuropean nations such as England, Ireland and, indeed, Spain, including an emphasis onrural values, activities and the countryside, and the conversion of specifically localtraditions into national past times. It is only in the last ten years or so that this model ofCatalan identity has been recognised for what it is – a model constructed andencouraged for and by specific nationalist political interests. Ironically, Catalonia’sidentity abroad has also been constructed and manipulated for political purposes, butfrom quite a different perspective. Orwell’s /Homage to Catalonia/ (1938) narrates anextremely blinkered version of the Spanish Civil War which has achieved iconic statusas a result of cold war politics. Subsequent portrayals of the Spanish Civil War –Valentine Cunningham’s /The Penguin Book of Spanish Civil War Verse/ (ed.),Penguin, 1980, or Ken Loach’s 1995 film /Land and Freedom/ base their argumentsunquestioningly on /Homage to Catalonia/, perpetuating a view of the nation’s recenthistory that is both reductive and inaccurate.
Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad
Cheryl Lans, Tisha Harper, Karla Georges, Elmo Bridgewater
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-1-10
Abstract: Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID).Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.The aim of this paper is to evaluate the ethnoveterinary remedies used by certain hunters in Trinidad. Plants are used to treat snakebites and scorpion stings and for hunting success. During the research some hunters claimed that their dogs either started hunting or hunted better after they had treated them in various ways with medicinal plants. This study has evolved out of an interest in a non-experimental evaluation of Trinidad and Tobago's ethnopharmacopoeia. This evaluation establishes whether the plant use is based on empirically verifiable principles or whether symbolic aspects of healing are more important [1]. Hunters are principally interested in the following game animals: agouti (Dasyprocta agouti), matte (Tupinambis neg
The Mechanical Engineering Industry in Catalonia  [cached]
Santiago Riera-Tuèbols
Catalan Historical Review , 2008,
Abstract: After an introduction in which he gives a broad outline of industrialization in Catalonia and the Valencian Country, the author focuses on the manufacture of heavy machinery in Catalonia. This enables him to present the major factories which brought prestige to Catalonia, including Nuevo Vulcano, Alexander y Hermanos, and La Maquinista Terrestre y Marítima. The account he gives of the locomotives made by La Maquinista (Spain’s largest locomotive manufacturer)provides an opportunity to define the modest scale of industrialization in Catalonia in comparison with other parts ofEurope. The author considers that the obstacles that hindered the country’s modernization were largely associated with excessive variety of output, brought about by deficient and relatively scarce demand, all of which accounts for the continual calls for protectionism made by Catalan industrialists.Even so, the author concludes that the only parts of Spain where it is possible to refer to industrialization in the 19th and early 20th centuries are Catalonia and the Basque Country.
Plate kinematics in the Cantabrian domain of the Pyrenean orogen
S. Tavani
Solid Earth (SE) & Discussions (SED) , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/se-3-265-2012
Abstract: The Cantabrian domain represents the western portion of the Pyrenean orogen, in the area where the Iberian continental lithosphere was subducted toward the north underneath the transitional to oceanic lithosphere of the Bay of Biscay. There, the about 100 km of orogenic convergence have been mostly accommodated in the northern portion of the orogen (i.e. the retro wedge) developed in the Bay of Biscay abyssal plain, while only crustal-scale folding with limited internal deformation occurred in the Cantabrian southern wedge (pro-wedge). Integrated meso- and macrostructural analyses and a reappraisal of available information from the transitional area between the Pyrenean and Cantabrian domains are presented in this work, allowing to set geometric and kinematic constraints on the entire Meso-Cenozoic history of the northern portion of the Iberian Plate, including subduction initiation and evolution in the western portion of the Pyrenean orogen. The structural record of the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous deformation stage, which was associated with rifting and seafloor spreading in the Bay of Biscay, indicates a ridge perpendicular (NNE-SSW oriented) extension, with no evidence of relevant strike-slip components during rifting. A Cenozoic NNW-SSE oriented shortening stage followed, related to the limited (about 100 km) north-directed subduction of the Iberian continental lithosphere underneath the transitional to oceanic lithosphere of the Bay of Biscay. Subduction led to the formation of the poorly-developed Cantabrian pro-wedge, which is laterally juxtaposed to the well-developed Pyrenean pro-wedge to the east. During this convergence stage, the structural framework in the Cantabrian pro-wedge, and particularly along its transition with the Pyrenean wedge to the east, was severely complicated by the reactivation of Paleozoic and Mesozoic inherited structures. Data presented in this work fully support the development of the Cantabrian Mountains as related to indentation and consequent thickening of the Bay of Biscay transitional lower crust during north-directed subduction of Iberian continental lithosphere. In essence, the Cantabrian pro-wedge is a lithospheric south-verging fault-propagation anticline developing above the subduction plane. The structural record in the area indicates that a lithospheric fault-propagation folding stage was predated, during the very early stages of orogenic shortening, by the development of a lithospheric-scale open syncline overlying the nucleation point of lithosphere sinking. Such a syncline is today partially preserved and represents one of the few natural examples of subduction initiation.
Ethnoveterinary uses of Medicinal Plants by the Aboriginals of Purulia District, West Bengal, India
Abhijit Dey,J.N. De
International Journal of Botany , 2010,
Abstract: The westernmost district of West Bengal, Purulia is inhabited by a large number of tribals. A study on the ethnoveterinary practices of medicinal plants was carried out in this area. Through questionnaire, personal interviews and conversation, a total number of 25 plant species used by the aboriginals were enumerated. The major ethnic groups present in the studied area include Santhali, Bhumijs, Mundas, Oraon, Birhor, Mal Pahariya, Kharia and Ho. During the investigation, a well developed system of ethnoveterinary practices was found among these tribals.
Ethnoveterinary plant remedies used by Nu people in NW Yunnan of China
Shicai Shen, Jie Qian, Jian Ren
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-6-24
Abstract: This study was carried out in three Nu villages of Gongshan County between July 2009 and February 2010. Data was obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires, field observation and PRA tools. A total of 60 Nu respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided information on animal ailments and ethnoveterinary plant medicines used for Nu livestock production. Information on traditional ethnoveterinary medicine knowledge and choice of treatment providers was also obtained.Thirty-five animal conditions were identified in the surveyed area. The major and most common animal diseases among livestock were skin conditions, diarrhea, heat, fevers, colds, and parasites. Most ailments occurred between June and August. The ethnoveterinary medicinal use of 45 plant species was documented. Most medicinal species (86.7%) were collected from the wild. The most frequently used plant parts were whole plants (35.6%), followed by roots (22.2%). The most important medicinal plant species were Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipech. (UV = 0.67), Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don (UV = 0.67), Plantago depressa Willd. (UV = 0.63), Rubus corchorifolius L. f. (UV = 0.62), Bupleurum yunnanense Franch. (UV = 0.60), and Polygonum paleaceum Wall. (UV = 0.60). Animal diseases treated with the highest number of ethnoveterinary plant remedies were diarrhea (16 plant species), heat, fever, colds (11 plant species), retained afterbirth (11 plant species), and skin conditions and sores (11 plant species). Many Nu villagers (52%) considered traditional remedies their first choice of animal disease treatment. Traditional ethnoveterinary knowledge was related to the local social-cultural characteristics of Nu people and communities.Animal production plays an important role in Nu culture and livelihoods, and the Nu ethnic group has abundant traditional knowledge about animal production and ethnoveterinary plant remedies. This traditional knowledge faces the risk of disappearing due to increasing modern v
Documentation of ethnoveterinary practices used in family poultry in Botswana  [cached]
John Cassius Moreki
Veterinary World , 2013, DOI: 10.5455/vetworld.2013.18-21
Abstract: Aim: To document the use of indigenous plants used by family poultry rearers to treat and control diseases and parasites in 15 villages of Botswana. Materials and Methods: A total of 1000 family poultry rearers in 15 villages were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data were also collected through direct observation, village walks, interview of passers-by, group interviews, and meetings with key informants (i.e., traditional leaders, extension agents and chairpersons of village development committees). Results: The ethnoveterinary practices in 15 villages of Botswana were identified and documented. Nineteen plant species representing 15 families were used by family poultry rearers to treat and control poultry diseases and parasites. Most frequently used plants were from Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Liliaceae. Both human and veterinary medications (e.g., vicks, disprin and Compral tablets, blue stones, potassium permanganate, veterinary drugs and vaccines) were used in health management. Sixty-six percent of the respondents said they used traditional remedies to control and treat diseases, 19% did not use vaccines or remedies, 2% used vaccines while 13% used drugs to control and treat diseases. Conclusions: Ethnoveterinary medicine predominates in family poultry healthcare. Scientific investigations should be carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of identified plant species used in health management of family poultry. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000): 18-21]
Industrial colonies in Catalonia  [PDF]
Rosa Serra
Catalan Historical Review , 2011,
Abstract: Industrial colonies, meaning industrial population nuclei located in rural areas, are one of the most characteristic phenomena of the industrialisation process in Catalonia, both because of the industrial, business and social model they developed and because they became one of the most singular features of the landscapes in the Ter and Llobregat river basins. Thanks to these colonies, the counties where they were located ceased being rural and instead became industrialised and urbanised.
Ethnoveterinary knowledge of the inhabitants of Marajó Island, Eastern Amazonia, Brazil
Monteiro, Maria Vivina Barros;Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal;Palha, Maria das Dores Correia;Braga, Roberta Rocha;Schwanke, Katiane;Rodrigues, Silvane Tavares;Lameira, Osmar Alves;
Acta Amazonica , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0044-59672011000200007
Abstract: there have been ethnoveterinary reports from around the world investigating plant usage in therapeutic protocols; however, there is no information regarding the ethnoveterinary practices in brazilian amazonia. the objective of this work was to register and document the ethnoveterinary knowledge of the inhabitants of the island of marajó, eastern amazonia, brazil. in the study, interviews were conducted with 50 individuals, with the application of semi-structured questionnaires that were quantitatively analyzed using descriptive statistic methods of frequency distribution. use-value was calculated to determine the most important species. samples of plants that were reported to have medicinal value were collected and identified by botanical classification. fifty plants, distributed among 48 genera and 34 families, were indicated for 21 different medicinal uses. the family asteraceae had the largest number of reported species; carapa guianensis aubl., copaifera martii hayne, crescentia cujete l., caesalpinia ferrea mart., chenopodium ambrosioides l., jatropha curcas l. and momordica charantia l. were species with highest use- value. the plant parts that were more commonly utilized for the preparation of ethnoveterinary medicines were the leaves (56%), bark (18%), roots (14%), seeds (14%) and fruit (8%). with regard to usage, tea was reported as a usage method by 56% of the informants; most preparations (90.9%) utilized only a single plant. in addition to medicinal plants, informants reported using products of animal and mineral origin. the present study contributed to the construction of an inventory of marajó island's ethnoveterinary plants, which might be the basis for future scientific validation studies.
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