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Strategic Approach to the Globalization of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
Myeong Soo Lee
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nep202
Abstract: The workshop on “Strategic Approach to the Globalization of Sasang Constitutional Medicine (SCM)” was held in the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine (KIOM) on September 18, 2009. This workshop was designed to discuss and brainstorm the strategic approach to the globalization of SCM, one of the unique systems in Korean Traditional Medicine, with three topics and an extensive panel discussion. Professor Edwin Cooper, Editor-in-Chief of eCAM, gave a commemorative lecture for publication of the second supplement of eCAM entitled “Sasang Constitutional Medicine as a Holistic Tailored Medicine”. The other two presenters suggested some practical methods for globalization of SCM on the basis of their experiences. After the three main presentations, there was a panel discussion session for further development of workshop topics, extended by five other external experts. They discussed the benefits, limitations and essentials for globalization of Korean Traditional Medicine, specifically SCM, from bench to bedside.
Sasang Constitutional Medicine as a Holistic Tailored Medicine  [PDF]
Jong Yeol Kim,Duong Duc Pham
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nep100
Abstract: Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) is a unique traditional Korean therapeutic alternative form of medicine. Based on the Yin and Yang theory and on Confucianism, humans are classified into four constitutions. These differ in terms of (i) sensitivity to certain groups of herbs and medicines, (ii) equilibrium among internal organic functions, (iii) physical features and (iv) psychological characteristics. We propose that two main axes in the physiopathology of SCM (food intake/waste discharge and consuming/storing Qi and body fluids) are equivalent to the process of internal–external exchange and catabolism/anabolism in modern physiology, respectively. We then used this hypothesis to discuss the physiological and pathological principles of SCM. Constitution-based medicine is based on the theory that some medicinal herbs and remedies are only appropriate for certain constitutions and can cause adverse effects in others. The constitutional approach of SCM share the same vision as tailored medicine; an individualized therapy that can minimize the risk of adverse reaction while increasing the efficacy and an individualized self-regulation that can help prevent specific susceptible chronic disease and live healthily. There is still a long way to this goal for both SCM and tailored medicine, but we may benefit from systems approaches such as systems biology. We suggest that constitutional perspective of SCM and our hypothesis of two main processes may provide a novel insight for further studies.
Perspective of the Human Body in Sasang Constitutional Medicine  [PDF]
Junhee Lee,Yongjae Jung,Junghee Yoo,Euiju Lee,Byunghee Koh
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nep086
Abstract: The Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM), a medical tradition originating from Korea, is distinguished from the traditional Chinese medicine in its philosophical background, theoretical development and especially, the fundamental rationale that analyzes the structure and function of the human body within a quadrifocal scheme. In SCM, the structure of the body is comprehended within the Sasang quadrifocal scheme, and the function of the body is understood within the context of the energy-fluid metabolism and the water-food metabolism controlled by the four main organs (lung, spleen, liver and kidney). Also, the concept of Seong-Jeong is used to explain the structural and functional variations between different constitutional types that arise from the constitutional variations in organ system scheme, which are in turn caused by deviations in the constitutional Seong-Jeong. Therefore, understanding the SCM perspective of the human body is essential in order to fully appreciate the advantages of the constitutional typological system (which focuses on individual idiosyncrasies) found in SCM.
Sasang Constitutional Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview
Junghee Yoo,Euiju Lee,Chungmi Kim,Junhee Lee,Lao Lixing
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/980807
Abstract: Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) is a holistic typological constitution medicine which balances psychological, social, and physical aspects of an individual to achieve wellness and increase longevity. SCM has the qualities of preventative medicine, as it emphasizes daily health management based on constitutionally differentiated regimens and self-cultivation of the mind and body. This review's goal is to establish a fundamental understanding of SCM and to provide a foundation for further study. It compares the similarities and differences of philosophical origins, perspectives on the mind (heart), typological systems, pathology, and therapeutics between SCM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). TCM is based on the Taoist view of the universe and humanity. The health and longevity of an individual depends on a harmonious relationship with the universe. On the other hand, SCM is based on the Confucian view of the universe and humanity. SCM focuses on the influence of human affairs on the psyche, physiology, and pathology.
Comparison of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine and Ayurveda
Jong Yeol Kim,Duong Duc Pham,Byung Hee Koh
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/neq052
Abstract: Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM), traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda are three different forms of Asian traditional medicine. Although these traditions share a lot in common as holistic medicines, the different philosophical foundations found in each confer distinguishing attributes and unique qualities. SCM is based on a constitution-based approach, and is in this way relatively more similar to the Ayurvedic tradition than to the TCM, although many of the basic SCM theories were originally derived from TCM, a syndrome-based medicine. SCM and TCM use the same botanical materials that are distributed mainly in the East Asian region, but the basic principles of usage and the underlying rationale are completely different from each other. Meanwhile, the principles of the Ayurvedic use of botanical resources are very similar to those seen in SCM, but the medicinal herbs used in Ayurveda generally originate from the West Asian region which displays a different spectrum of flora.
Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome according to Sasang Constitutional Medicine in Korean Subjects
Kwang Hoon Song,Sung-Gon Yu,Jong Yeol Kim
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/646794
Abstract: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a complex disorder defined by a cluster of abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension; the condition is recognized as a risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This study assessed the effects of the Sasang constitution group (SCG) on the risk of MS in Korean subjects. We have analyzed 1,617 outpatients of Korean oriental medicine hospitals who were classified into three SCGs, So-Yang, So-Eum, and Tae-Eum. Significant differences were noted in the prevalence of MS and the frequencies of all MS risk factors among the three SCGs. The odds ratios for MS as determined via multiple logistic regression analysis were 2.004 for So-Yang and 4.521 for Tae-Eum compared with So-Eum. These results indicate that SCG may function as a significant risk factor of MS; comprehensive knowledge of Sasang constitutional medicine may prove helpful in predicting susceptibility and developing preventive care techniques for MS.
Could there Be a Synthesis between Western and Oriental Medicine, and with Sasang Constitutional Medicine in Particular?  [PDF]
Denis Noble
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nep101
Abstract: Attitudes towards oriental medicine are changing for two major reasons. The first is that many patients, even in the West, are choosing to use its practitioners and methods. The second is that the rise of Systems Biology may offer a better basis for dialogue, and even for synthesis, between the oriental and Western traditions. However, a lot of work is needed to clear the way for such dialogue and synthesis. Much of this work should be devoted to clarifying the meanings of the terms used, and the framework of theory and practice within which oriental methods operate. But it is also necessary for Systems Biology itself to mature as a discipline, particularly at the higher levels of biological organization since it is at these levels that oriental medicine derives its ideas and practice. Higher level Systems Biology could be a basis for interpretation of the Korean version of oriental medicine: Sasang constitutional medicine since it seeks patient specific analysis and treatment, and the mathematical methods of systems biology could be used to analyze the central concept of balance in Sasang.
Association between Genetic Polymorphism of Multidrug Resistance 1 Gene and Sasang Constitutions  [PDF]
Hyun-Ju Kim,Seung Yeon Hwang,Ju-Ho Kim,Hye-Jung Park,Sang-Gyu Lee,Si-Woo Lee,Jong-Cheon Joo,Yun-Kyung Kim
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nep118
Abstract: Multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) is a gene that expresses P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a drug transporter protein. Genetic polymorphisms of MDR1 can be associated with Sasang constitutions because Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) prescribes different drugs according to different constitutions. A Questionnaire for Sasang Constitution Classification II (QSCC II) was used to diagnose Sasang constitutions. Two hundred and seven healthy people whose Sasang constitutions had been identified were tested. Genotype analyses, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and pyrosequencing were used in MDR1 C1236T, and in MDR1 G2677T/A and C3435T, respectively. Significant differences in MDR1 C1236T genotypes were found between So-yangin and So-eumin. MDR1 G2677T/A genotype also showed significant differences in allele distribution between So-yangin and Tae-eumin. So-yangin and So-eumin showed significant differences in the distribution of both 1236C-2677G-3435C and 1236T-2677G-3435T, haplotypes of MDR1. The genetic polymorphism of the MDR1 gene was thus shown to be an indicator that could distinguish So-yangin from other constitutions.
Contributions of Sasang Constitutional Medicine  [PDF]
Edwin L. Cooper
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nep129
A Study on the Reliability of Sasang Constitutional Body Trunk Measurement
Eunsu Jang,Jong Yeol Kim,Haejung Lee,Honggie Kim,Younghwa Baek,Siwoo Lee
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/604842
Abstract: Objective. Body trunk measurement for human plays an important diagnostic role not only in conventional medicine but also in Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM). The Sasang constitutional body trunk measurement (SCBTM) consists of the 5-widths and the 8-circumferences which are standard locations currently employed in the SCM society. This study suggests to what extent a comprehensive training can improve the reliability of the SCBTM. Methods. We recruited 10 male subjects and 5 male observers with no experience of anthropometric measurement. We conducted measurements twice before and after a comprehensive training. Relative technical error of measurement (%TEMs) was produced to assess intra and inter observer reliabilities. Results. Post-training intra-observer %TEMs of the SCBTM were 0.27% to 1.85% reduced from 0.27% to 6.26% in pre-training, respectively. Post-training inter-observer %TEMs of those were 0.56% to 1.66% reduced from 1.00% to 9.60% in pre-training, respectively. Post-training % total TEMs which represent the whole reliability were 0.68% to 2.18% reduced from maximum value of 10.18%. Conclusion. A comprehensive training makes the SCBTM more reliable, hence giving a sufficiently confident diagnostic tool. It is strongly recommended to give a comprehensive training in advance to take the SCBTM.
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