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K. Munusamy,Rajesh S. Somani,Hari C. Bajaj
BioResources , 2011,
Abstract: Tamarind seeds carbon (TSC) from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds, an agro-byproduct and waste that is available abundantly in the southern states of India, was prepared by chemical activation with KOH. The influence of tamarind seeds char to KOH weight ratio (1:1 to 1:4) and activation temperature (400 to 800 °C) were investigated. TSC having micro-pore volume as high as 1.0 cm3/g with surface area 2673 m2/g was obtained. TSC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and FT-IR spectroscopy. The potential of TSC to be used as a methane storage material was tested and compared with a commercial activated carbon. The highest methane adsorption capacity obtained for TSC was ca. 32.5 cm3/g at 30 °C and 1 bar. The maximum methane storage capacity achieved was 180 cm3/g at 30 °C and 35 bars.
S. L. Pandharipande,Rohit P. Kalnake
International Journal of Engineering Sciences and Emerging Technologies , 2013,
Abstract: Waste water treatment has gained an importance over the years due to rise in concentration levels of toxins leaving the industrial effluents. There are number of heavy metallic ions discharged from processes & putting burden on waste water management. Adsorption is one of the effective methods in the removal of metallic ions present in waste water. The present work deals with the removal of Cr (VI) & Ni (II) ions by the adsorbent synthesized from the Tamarind fruit shell. The synthesis of adsorbent is carried out using thermal method. The specific surface area of the adsorbent is estimated to be 2.1274+ 0.0246 m/g as in BET method. The synthesized adsorbent is studied for the effect of ion concentration & adsorbent dosage on the removal of Cr (VI) and Ni (II) from aqueous solution. Based on the results & discussions, it can be concluded that the adsorbent prepared from tamarind fruit shell has a significant capacity for adsorption of Chromium (VI) & Nickel (II) ions from aqueous solution & can be employed effectively as a low cost adsorbent.
Suitability of Tamarind and Some Selected Crop Seeds for the Survival and Development of Sitophilus Linearis (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Cucurlionidae)  [cached]
Adebayo R.A.,J.N. Ayertey,M.A. Cobblah
International Journal of Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ijb.v3n3p83
Abstract: Sitophilus oryzae (L.), Sitophilus zeamais (Mots.) and Sitophilus granarius (L.) are major pests of stored grain, especially on cereals. Sitophilus linearis (Herbst) a congeneric of the afore-listed species was obtained from seeds of a wild plant, Tamarindus indica L. The development of S. linearis on some selected crop seeds as well as tamarind seeds was investigated in the laboratory at 25.3-30.3 °C and 75.0% ± 5.0 RH. One hundred grammes each of heat sterilized maize, rice, sorghum, millet, cowpea and tamarind seeds were infested with 100 unsexed adults of S. linearis and observed to determine the suitability of the different substrates for the development of the weevil. Sitophilus linearis bred and multiplied on the tamarind seeds but not on the selected crop seeds in the laboratory. Mean developmental period on the tamarind seeds was 32 days. The highest number (51) of adults that emerged on the first day of emergence was from cultures set up with one-week old adult insects. The highest mean weight (3.9mg) was also recorded on the cultures set up with one-week old insects. However, both mean number of emerged adults and mean adult weight were not significantly different (P>0.05). A significant difference was recorded in the mean percentage survival period of S. linearis on the different substrates (P<0.05) with the longest survival recorded on tamarind seeds. It can therefore be concluded that Sitophilus linearis, though a member of the family of grain weevils, could not reproduce on the cereal substrates or the cowpea seeds presented to it in the laboratory. If further studies confirm these findings, then Sitophilus linearis may pose no threat to cereal production due to its inability to survive and reproduce on them.
Biosorption of hexavalent chromium using tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruit shell-a comparative study
Rao Popuri,Srinivasa; Jammala,Ajithapriya; Naga Suresh Reddy,Kachireddy Venkata; Abburi,Krishnaiah;
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: the adsorption of chromium (vi) ions from aqueous solutions has been investigated on crude tamarind fruit shell, hcl treated and oxalic acid treated shells at room temperatures. the biosorbents are characterized by ft-ir, edxrf and porosimetry. the biosorption experiments are conducted through batch system. the influence of different experimental parameters such as ph, effect of initial metal ion concentration and effect of dosage of adsorbent on biosorption are evaluated. the adsorption followed first order kinetics. the data are fitted well to langmuir and freundlich isotherm models. a comparison is drawn on the extent of biosorption between untreated and treated forms of the tamarind shells. due to their outstanding adsorption capacities, tamarind shells are excellent sorbents for the removal of chromium ions
Tamarind Gum: A Pharmaceutical Overview  [cached]
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2008,
Abstract: Tamarind seeds or Kernel is a byproduct of Tamarind pulp industry. Tamarind gum is obtained from endosperm of seeds of the tamarind tree, which is a seed gum with potential industrial applications.Tamarind gum is having applications in paper, food, textile industry etc. Recent years research has been initiated on the use of tamarind gum in pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Tamarind kernel powder disperses and hydrates quickly in cold water but does not reach maximum viscosity unless it is heated for 20-30 mins. Chemically tamarind kernel powder is highly branched carbohydrate polymer. The solution exhibits typical nonnewtonian flow properties common to most other hydrocolloids. Tamarind kernel powder is evaluated for its suitability as a carrier to improve the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drug celecoxcib. Tamarind gum along with xanthan gum and hydroxypropyl cellulose (water soluble neutral polymer) used for nasal mucoadhesion studies in powder formulation. Tamarind gum was also evaluated in bioadhesive tablets. Polysaccharide present in tamarind kernel powder is called as tamarind seed polysaccharide. Tamarind seed polysaccharide is having molecular weight 52350 units and monomer of glucose, galactose and xylose in molar ratio of 3:1:2. It is used as potential polysaccharide having high drug holding capacity for sustained release of verapamil hydrochloride. It is also used as suitable polymer for sustained release formulations of low drug loading. Tamarind seed polysaccharide could be used for controlled release of both water-soluble and water insoluble drugs.
New low cost sorbents for Cr(VI) – batch and column experiments  [cached]
?illerová H.,Komárek M.
E3S Web of Conferences , 2013, DOI: 10.1051/e3sconf/20130125006
Abstract: The use of agricultural byproducts and industrial biowaste materials has been shown to be an attractive technique for removing Cr(VI) from contaminated waste waters. In this study, used brewers draff, peat moss, sawdust, grape stalks and husks were investigated as novel biosorbents for Cr(VI). The material was tested in two different modifications. The material was dried, cut and sieved and part of it was subjected to acid (2 M H2SO4) and alkali (0.5 M NaOH) pre-treatments to remove starch, proteins and sugars. Fourier transform infrared rays analysis on solid phase (FTIR-ATR) was used to determine the main functional groups that might control the metal uptake. Batch experiments were performed at different pH values (3, 4.5, 6) and at various initial concentration of Cr(VI) (25–2012;250 mg L 1). Two equilibrium empirical models, Langmuir and Freundlich, were used to describe Cr(VI) adsorption. In order to identify possible reduction processes, ion exchange separation on the AG1-X8 resin was used to separate the anionic Cr(VI) and the reduced cationic Cr(III) from the aqueous phase after biosorption. As expected, Cr(VI) removal was pH-dependent and fitted well both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The ion exchange separation showed that Cr(VI) reduction had occurred in the solution during biosorption. The efficiency of draff as a biosorbent was comparable (or even higher) to highly organic materials (e.g., composted peat) showing its potential application for Cr(VI) decontamination.
Contrasting the UV and X-ray O VI Column Density Inferred for the Outflow in NGC 5548  [PDF]
Nahum Arav,Jelle Kaastra,Katrien Steenbrugge,Bert Brinkman,Rick Edelson,Kirk T. Korista,Martijn de Kool
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/374920
Abstract: We compare X-ray and UV spectroscopic observations of NGC 5548. Both data sets show O VI absorption troughs associated with the AGN outflow from this galaxy. We find that the robust lower limit on the column density of the O VI X-ray trough is seven times larger than the column density found in a study of the O VI UV troughs. This discrepancy suggests that column densities inferred for UV troughs of Seyfert outflows are often severely underestimated. We identify the physical limitations of the UV Gaussian modeling as the probable explanation of the O VI column density discrepancy. Specifically, Gaussian modeling cannot account for a velocity dependent covering fraction, and it is a poor representation for absorption associated with a dynamical outflow. Analysis techniques that use a single covering fraction value for each absorption component suffer from similar limitations. We conclude by suggesting ways to improve the UV analysis.
Investigations of the influence of component characteristics of a coat on the germination ability of coated seeds
Korpal W.
International Agrophysics , 1999,
Abstract: This work reports the influence of the hygroscopic characteristics of a coat composed of various ingredients, its relative mass in proportion to the seed and the base moisture on the germination ability of the Jawa carrot coated seeds. It is shown that all the parameters strongly affect the quality of the coated seeds and that proper coating can significantly improve their germination capability.
Biradar Sanjivkumar,Gavani Usha,Malipatil Mallikarjun,K Sreenivasa Rao
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: The present study was undertaken to isolate phytoconstituets of aqueous extract pf Aesculus hippocastanum seeds. One compound was isolated from Aesculus hippocastanum by column chromatography method. The spectral analysis revealed the isolated compound as 12, 13-dihydro-20, 20-dihydro lupeol and is belongs to saponins.
Tamarind Seed Extract Enhances Epidermal Wound Healing  [cached]
Mohd Yusof bin Mohamad,Haris B Akram,Dinie Najwa Bero,Mohammad Tariqur Rahman
International Journal of Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ijb.v4n1p81
Abstract: Traditional healing power of tamarind fruits and the established antioxidant activity of the seeds drive the present study. Wound healing efficiency of tamarind seed was evaluated. Different solvents: phosphate buffer saline (PBS), water, methanol and ethanol were used to prepare the extract. Circular wound was inflicted on the nape. 10 μl of 5 μg/ml of extract was applied topically twice daily. Wound area was measured using Adobe Photoshop C3 Extended version and the percentage of wound reduction was calculated. PBS extract treatment induced complete wound healing in shortest period (10 days) while water extract, methanol extract and Solcoseryl ointment treatment induced complete wound healing in 11 days and control groups without any treatment took 14 days to heal. Phytochemical screening and Bradford method for protein quantification reveals the presence of alkaloid, saponin and tannin in all samples except PBS extract which tested negative to tannin. Flavonoid tested positive in methanol and ethanol extracts.
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