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Content Analysis of Work Limitation, Stanford Presenteeism, and Work Instability Questionnaires Using International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health and Item Perspective Framework  [PDF]
Vanitha Arumugam,Joy C. MacDermid,Ruby Grewal
Rehabilitation Research and Practice , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/614825
Abstract: Background. Presenteeism refers to reduced performance or productivity while at work due to health reasons. WLQ-26, SPS-6, and RA-WIS are the commonly used self-report presenteeism questionnaires. These questionnaires have acceptable psychometric properties but have not been subject to structured content analysis that would define their conceptual basis. Objective. To describe the conceptual basis of the three questionnaires using ICF and IPF and then compare the distribution and content of codes to those on the vocational rehabilitation core set. Methods. Two researchers independently linked the items of the WLQ-26, SPS-6, and RA-WIS to the ICF and IPF following the established linking rules. The percentage agreement on coding was calculated between the researchers. Results. WLQ-26 was linked to 62 ICF codes, SPS-6 was linked to 17 ICF codes, and RA-WIS was linked to 74 ICF codes. Most of these codes belonged to the activity and participation domains. All the concepts were classified by the IPF, and the most were rational appraisals within the social domain. Only 12% of codes of the core set for vocational rehabilitation were used in this study to code these questionnaires. Conclusion. The specific nature of work disability that was included in these three questionnaires was difficult to explain using ICF since many aspects of content were not confined. The core set for vocational rehabilitation covered very limited content of the WLQ-26, SPS-6, and RA-WIS. 1. Introduction Rehabilitation is based on an understanding that health and function extend beyond the presence or absence of disease to include the ability to participate in life activities and roles. Similarly, we now recognize that work functioning extends beyond the presence or absence of being at work to include the ability to engage in work activities and roles. Presenteeism refers to reduced performance or productivity while at work due to health reasons [1]. In a study conducted in Sweden where one-third of the surveyed labor force reported going to work two or more times in the past year in spite of their health being so bad that they should have taken leave [2]. Presenteeism is a complex issue that is affected by individual, work, workplace factors, health, and health behaviours. Previous studies have tried to identify determinants of presenteeism and have identified factors like low monthly income, psychological stress, initial health, time pressure, and finding a replacement, amongst others [1–8]. During rehabilitation, ability to return to work is often a major concern. Vocational
The 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II): a nonparametric item response analysis
Juan V Luciano, José L Ayuso-Mateos, Jaume Aguado, Ana Fernandez, Antoni Serrano-Blanco, Miquel Roca, Josep M Haro
BMC Medical Research Methodology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-10-45
Abstract: The participants were 3615 adult general practice patients from 17 regions of Spain, with a first diagnosed major depressive episode. The 12-item WHO-DAS II was administered by the general practitioners during the consultation. We used a non-parametric item response method (Kernel-Smoothing) implemented with the TestGraf software to examine the effectiveness of each item (item characteristic curves) and their options (option characteristic curves) in discriminating between changes in the underliying disability level. We examined composite DIF to know whether women had a higher probability than men of endorsing each item.Item response analyses indicated that the twelve items forming the WHO-DAS II perform very well. All items were determined to provide good discrimination across varying standardized levels of the trait. The items also had option characteristic curves that showed good discrimination, given that each increasing option became more likely than the previous as a function of increasing trait level. No gender-related DIF was found on any of the items.All WHO-DAS II items were very good at assessing overall disability. Our results supported the appropriateness of the weights assigned to response option categories and showed an absence of gender differences in item functioning.The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II) was developed by the WHO's Assessment, Classification and Epidemiology Group within the framework of the WHO/NIH Joint Project on Assessment and Classification of Disablements [1]. It is a 36-item instrument designed to measure disability irrespective of health-related etiology in six domains: understanding and communicating, getting around, self-care, getting along with people, life activities, and participation in society. These domains reflect two dimensions of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) model [2]: activity limitations (understanding and communicating; gettin
Item focussed Trees for the Identification of Items in Differential Item Functioning  [PDF]
Gerhard Tutz,Moritz Berger
Statistics , 2015,
Abstract: A new method for the identification of differential item functioning (DIF) by using recursive partitioning techniques is proposed. We assume an extension of the Rasch model that allows for DIF being induced by an arbitrary number of covariates for each item. Recursive partitioning on the item level results in one tree for each item and leads to simultaneous selection of items and variables that induce DIF. For each item it is possible to detect groups of subjects with different item difficulties, defined by combinations of characteristics that are not pre-specified. An algorithm is proposed that is based on permutation tests. Various simulation studies, including the comparison with traditional approaches to identify items with DIF, show the applicability and the competitive performance of the method. Two applications illustrate the usefulness and the advantages of the new method.
Revisiting Differential Item Functioning: Implications for Fairness Investigation  [cached]
Jinyan Huang,Turgay Han
International Journal of Education , 2012, DOI: 10.5296/ije.v4i2.1654
Abstract: Fairness has been the priority in educational assessments during the past few decades. Differential item functioning (DIF) becomes an important statistical procedure in the investigation of assessment fairness. For any given large-scale assessment, DIF evaluation is suggested as a standard procedure by American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and National Council on Measurement in Education. This procedure often affords opportunities to check for group differences in test performance and investigate whether or not these differences indicate bias. However, current DIF research has received several criticisms. Revisiting DIF, this paper critically reviews current DIF research and proposes new directions for DIF research in the investigation of assessment fairness.
Differential Item Functioning: Implications for Test Validation
Mohammad Salehi,Alireza Tayebi
Journal of Language Teaching and Research , 2012, DOI: 10.4304/jltr.3.1.84-92
Abstract: This paper attempts to recapitulate the concept of validity, namely construct validity (i.e., its definition and its approaches and role in language testing and assessment). Validation process is then elaborated on and proved to be integral enterprise in the process of making tests, namely English language proficiency tests. Then come the related concept of test fairness and test bias and its sources (e.g., gender, field of study, age, nationality and L1, background knowledge, etc) and contributions and threads to the validity of tests in general and in high-stakes tests of English language proficiency in particular. Moreover, in the present study, different approaches to investigate the validity of tests will be reviewed. Differential Item Functioning (DIF), among the other methods to investigate the validity of tests is also explained along with the description and explanation of its different detection methods and approaches mentioning their advantages and disadvantages to conclude that logistic regression (LR) is among the best methods till now.
Differential Item Functioning in Online Learning Instrument (EPFun)  [PDF]
Juhaida Abdul Aziz, Maslawati Mohamad, Parilah Mohd Shah, Rosseni Din
Creative Education (CE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2016.71018
Abstract: Providing young learners with high-quality digital primary education and literacy skills are necessary for them to excel academically. The development of the online Fun Learning Instrument known as English Primary Fun (EPFun) is based on the Piaget Constructivism Development theory. This theory could be applied to young learners as it includes cognitive, behaviourist and second-language acquisition theory as well. The purpose of this study is to detect Differential Item Functioning (DIF) in performances between genders among Malaysian young learners in rural primary schools. The data were obtained from the randomly selected respondents of 106 male and 144 female young learners from the target group. The EPFun instrument consists of four constructs: a) Usefulness (USFN), b) Ease of Use (EOU), c) Ease of Learning (EOL) and d) Satisfaction (SAT). To analyse the responses to the instruments, 40 items overall were made up using 5 levels of coded smileys from the 4 constructs. The data were analysed using SPSS and Winsteps version 3.68.2, a Rasch-based item analysis programme. The findings indicate there is no significant difference in DIF performance between male and female young learners. This conclusion is derived from the t-test for Equality of Means, which revealed the results of the Sig. (2 tailed) for every construct (USFN; Sig = 0.558; EOU; Sig = 0.638; EOL; Sig = 0.628 and SAT; Sig = 0.500) larger than 0.5. The findings also revealed that there were only 7 items detected as DIF. However, there is no significant DIF based on the size range of the logits scales. Female young learners excel in one construct-Satisfaction (SAT). However, male young leaners are on a par with female young learners with regard to other constructs. Thus, this instrument is free from DIF and could be used as an indicator to gauge young learners’ literacy skills, especially in using hypermedia reading materials in English.
New international classification of functioning, disability and health  [PDF]
Stucki Gerold,Maksimovi? Milo?,Davidovi? Dragana,Jorga Jagoda
Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo , 2007, DOI: 10.2298/sarh0706371s
Abstract: The WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) provides a coherent view of health from a biological, individual and social perspective. This view may be defined both as multi- and interdisciplinary management of one’s functioning and health. This new classification is currently being assessed in multiple centers in 32 countries, on 12 health conditions. The Institute of Hygiene and Medical Ecology, School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, is one of them, serving as the centre where the classification is being tested in obese population. The objective of this paper is to provide information needed for further development and practical application of this classification in various health conditions. The new language of ICF is an exciting landmark event for preventive medicine and rehabilitation. It may lead to a stronger position of rehabilitation within the medical community, change multiprofessional communication and improve communication between patients and health professionals. .
Differential item functioning in the figure classification test  [cached]
E. van Zyl,D. Visser
South African Journal of Industrial Psychology , 1998, DOI: 10.4102/sajip.v24i2.650
Abstract: The elimination of unfair discrimination and cultural bias of any kind, is a contentious workplace issue in contemporary South Africa. To ensure fairness in testing, psychometric instruments are subjected to empirical investigations for the detection of possible bias that could lead to selection decisions constituting unfair discrimination. This study was conducted to explore the possible existence of differential item functioning (DIF), or potential bias, in the Figure Classification Test (A121) by means of the Mantel-Haenszel chi-square technique. The sample consisted of 498 men at a production company in the Western Cape. Although statistical analysis revealed significant differences between the mean test scores of three racial groups on the test, very few items were identified as having statistically significant DIF. The possibility is discussed that, despite the presence of some DIF, the differences between the means may not be due to the measuring instrument itself being biased/ but rather to extraneous sources of variation, such as the unequal education and socio-economic backgrounds of the racial groups. It was concluded that there is very little evidence of item bias in the test. Opsomming Die uitskakeling van onregverdige diskriminasie en kultuursydigheid van enige aard, is tans 'n omstrede kwessie in die werkpiek in Suid-Afrika. Ten einde regverdigheid in toetsing te verseker, word psigomefrriese toetse onderwerp aan empiriese ondersoeke na die moontlikheid van sydigheid wat kan lei tot keuringsbesluite wat onregverdige diskriminasie meebring. Hierdie ondersoek is ondemeem om die moontlikheid van differensiele itemfunksionering (DIF), of potensi le sydigheid, in die Figuurindelingtoets (A121), met behulp van die Mantel-Haenszel chikwadraattegniek, te ondersoek. Die steekproef het bestaan uit 498 mans by 'n produksiemaatskappy in die Wes-Kaap. Alhoewel statistiese ontleding beduidende verskille in gemiddelde toetstellings van drie rassegroepe op die toets aangedui het, is bate min items aangedui wat statistics beduidende DIF bevat. Die moontlikheid word bespreek dat, hoewel sommige DIF in die toets teenwoordig is, die verskille tussen die gemiddeldes nie die gevolg is van 'n sydige meetinstrument per se nie, maar eerder die gevolg van eksteme bronne van variasie, soos byvoorbeeld die ongelyke opvoedkundige- en sosio-ekonomiese agtergronde van die rassegroepe. Die gevolgtrekking was dat daar bate min getuienis van itemsydigheid in die toets is.
Use of differential item functioning (DIF) analysis for bias analysis in test construction  [cached]
Marié De Beer
South African Journal of Industrial Psychology , 2004, DOI: 10.4102/sajip.v30i4.175
Abstract: When differential item functioning (DIF) item analysis procedures based on item response theory (IRT) are used during test construction, it is possible to draw item characteristic curves for the same item for different subgroups. These curves indicate how each item functions at various ability levels for different subgroups. DIF is indicated by the area between the curves. In the construction of the Learning Potential Computerised Adaptive Test (LPCAT), this method was used to identify items that indicated bias in terms of gender, culture, language or level of education. Items that exceeded a predetermined amount of DIF were discarded from the final item bank, irrespective of which subgroup was being advantaged or disadvantaged. The process and results of the DIF analysis are discussed. Opsomming Waar differensi le itemfunksioneringsprosedures (DIF-prosedures) vir itemontleding gebaseer op itemresponsteorie (IRT) tydens toetskonstruksie gebruik word, is dit moontlik om itemkarakteristiekekrommes vir dieselfde item vir verskillende subgroepe voor te stel. Hierdie krommes dui aan hoe elke item vir die verskillende subgroepe op verskillende vermo nsvlakke te funksioneer. DIF word aangetoon deur die area tussen die krommes. DIF is in die konstruksie van die 'Learning Potential Computerised Adaptive test (LPCAT)' gebruik om die items te identifiseer wat sydigheid ten opsigte van geslag, kultuur, taal of opleidingspeil geopenbaar het. Items wat ’n voorafbepaalde vlak van DIF oorskry het, is uit die finale itembank weggelaat, ongeag die subgroep wat bevoordeel of benadeel is. Die proses en resultate van die DIF-ontleding word bespreek.
Differential item functioning of the UWES-17 in South Africa  [cached]
Leanne Goliath-Yarde,Gert Roodt
South African Journal of Industrial Psychology , 2011, DOI: 10.4102/sajip.v37i1.897
Abstract: Orientation: South Africa’s unique cultural diversity provides a constant challenge about the fair and unbiased use of psychological measures in respect of their cross-cultural application. Research purpose: This study assesses the Differential Item Functioning (DIF) of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-17) for different South African cultural groups in a South African company. Motivation for the study: Organisations are using the UWES-17 more and more in South Africa to assess work engagement. Therefore, research evidence from psychologists or assessment practitioners on its DIF across different cultural groups is necessary. Research design, approach and method: The researchers conducted a Secondary Data Analysis (SDA) on the UWES-17 sample (n = 2429) that they obtained from a cross-sectional survey undertaken in a South African Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector company (n = 24 134). Quantitative item data on the UWES-17 scale enabled the authors to address the research question. Main findings: The researchers found uniform and/or non-uniform DIF on five of the vigour items, four of the dedication items and two of the absorption items. This also showed possible Differential Test Functioning (DTF) on the vigour and dedication dimensions. Practical/managerial implications: Based on the DIF, the researchers suggested that organisations should not use the UWES-17 comparatively for different cultural groups or employment decisions in South Africa. Contribution/value add: The study provides evidence on DIF and possible DTF for the UWES-17. However, it also raises questions about possible interaction effects that need further investigation. How to cite this article: Goliath-Yarde, L., & Roodt, G. (2011). Differential item functioning of the UWES-17 in South Africa. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology/SA Tydskrif vir Bedryfsielkunde, 37(1), Art. #897, 11 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102.sajip.v37i1.897
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