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Evaluación psicológica del maltrato en la infancia Psychological assessment of child maltreatment  [cached]
R. Antequera Jurado
Cuadernos de Medicina Forense , 2006,
Abstract: En este trabajo se ofrece una visión genérica de las características y los principales objetivos de la evaluación psicológica en el ámbito del maltrato en la infancia. Concretamente se examinan las técnicas utilizadas para la evaluación de los distintos tipos de maltrato, de las figuras parentales y las relaciones que se establecen entre padres e hijos, la evaluación del ni o (analizando las técnicas destinadas a la evaluación de la sugestionabilidad y la veracidad del testimonio) y de los aspectos ambientales y sociales. In this paper, we offer a generic approach of the characteristics and the main goals of the psychological assessment in the field of child abuse. Specifically, we examine the techniques used for the evaluation of the different child abuse types, the parental figures and the relationship established between parents and children, child evaluation (analyzing the techniques addressed to the evaluation of suggestion capacity and the truthfulness of testimony) and the environmental and social aspects.
Child maltreatment: Abuse and neglect  [PDF]
Bengü Pala,Murat ünalacak,?lhami ünlüo?lu
Dicle Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Each year, millions of children around the world are the victims and witnesses of physical, sexual and emotional violence. Child maltreatment is a major global problem with a serious impact on the victims’ physical and mental health, well-being and development throughout their lives and, by extension, on society in general. Family physicians who are involved in the care of children are likely to encounter child abuse and should be able to recognize its common presentations. There is sufficient evidence that child maltreatment can be prevented. The ultimate goal is to stop child maltreatment before it starts.In this paper, the characteristics of the perpetrators and victims of child maltreatment, maltreatment types, risk factors, differential diagnosis and discuss about strategies for preventing were summarized.
Reliability of Routinely Collected Hospital Data for Child Maltreatment Surveillance
Kirsten McKenzie, Debbie A Scott, Garry S Waller, Margaret Campbell
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-8
Abstract: A retrospective medical record review and recoding methodology was used to assess the reliability of coding of child maltreatment. A stratified sample of hospitals across Queensland was selected for this study, and a stratified random sample of cases was selected from within those hospitals.In 3.6% of cases the coders disagreed on whether any maltreatment code could be assigned (definite or possible) versus no maltreatment being assigned (unintentional injury), giving a sensitivity of 0.982 and specificity of 0.948. The review of these cases where discrepancies existed revealed that all cases had some indications of risk documented in the records. 15.5% of cases originally assigned a definite or possible maltreatment code, were recoded to a more or less definite strata. In terms of the number and type of maltreatment codes assigned, the auditor assigned a greater number of maltreatment types based on the medical documentation than the original coder assigned (22% of the auditor coded cases had more than one maltreatment type assigned compared to only 6% of the original coded data). The maltreatment types which were the most 'under-coded' by the original coder were psychological abuse and neglect. Cases coded with a sexual abuse code showed the highest level of reliability.Given the increasing international attention being given to improving the uniformity of reporting of child-maltreatment related injuries and the emphasis on the better utilisation of routinely collected health data, this study provides an estimate of the reliability of maltreatment-specific ICD-10-AM codes assigned in an inpatient setting.Child maltreatment is a major public health problem worldwide. A 2005 report estimated the prevalence of child maltreatment in Australia as affecting 10-20% of children [1]. Research has been hampered by poorly validated statistics with the World Health Organization (WHO) stating that a lack of data is a hindrance to understanding the magnitude and consequences of
Negative Life Events Vary by Neighborhood and Mediate the Relation between Neighborhood Context and Psychological Well-Being  [PDF]
Katherine King, Christin Ogle
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093539
Abstract: Researchers have speculated that negative life events are more common in troubled neighborhoods, amplifying adverse effects on health. Using a clustered representative sample of Chicago residents (2001–03; n = 3,105) from the Chicago Community Adult Health Survey, we provide the first documentation that negative life events are highly geographically clustered compared to health outcomes. Associations between neighborhood context and negative life events were also found to vary by event type. We then demonstrate the power of a contextualized approach by testing path models in which life events mediate the relation between neighborhood characteristics and health outcomes, including self-rated health, anxiety, and depression. The indirect paths between neighborhood conditions and health through negative life event exposure are highly significant and large compared to the direct paths from neighborhood conditions to health. Our results indicate that neighborhood conditions can have acute as well as chronic effects on health, and that negative life events are a powerful mechanism by which context may influence health.
Interprofessional Collaboration in the Detection of and Early Intervention in Child Maltreatment: Employees' Experiences  [PDF]
Jaana Inkil?,Aune Flinck,Tiina Luukkaala,P?ivi ?stedt-Kurki,Eija Paavilainen
Nursing Research and Practice , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/186414
Abstract: Child maltreatment is a global problem and a multidimensional phenomenon occurring in all social classes. This study depicts interprofessional collaboration associated with the detection of and early intervention in child maltreatment taking place in the family. The data were collected in a large Finnish city, Tampere (207 866 citizens). A survey was administered to employees in day care, basic education, social and health services, and police ( ). The results indicate that interprofessional collaboration associated with the detection of and intervention in child maltreatment was best accomplished by social service employees and police personnel. Employees in day care, basic education, health services, and police had little knowledge of the methods used in other units. The most support for collaboration was reported by employees in social services and day care. The results provide basic knowledge of interprofessional collaboration associated with child maltreatment between the agencies involved in the study. The research evidence can also be utilized in an international context when developing collaboration between different fields. 1. Introduction The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child [1] emphasizes the best interests of the child and his or her right to special protection. The convention is an effort to secure the child’s right to parents and family, but on the other hand, emphasis is laid on society’s obligation to offer the child protection and care if the child is being maltreated. Following the age definition laid out in the convention, the present study defined all human beings under the age of 18 as children. In this study, child maltreatment refers to physical and psychological abuse, sexual abuse and neglect occurring in the family, and living in the atmosphere of domestic violence. Different forms of maltreatment may appear either in isolation or in various combinations, and it is often difficult to make a distinction between the different forms of abuse [2–5]. Child maltreatment may vary in severity: it can involve any activity or lack of activity associated with a child or a child’s life circumstances resulting in a deterioration of the child’s life situation [2–4]. Child maltreatment is present in all societies, but due to different methods of recording statistics and differences in the detection of the phenomenon, there are no reliable and comparable figures on the incidence of child maltreatment. National assessments and comparisons in Western countries have been made, however [4]. In addition, comparison is made
Measuring health-related quality of life for child maltreatment: a systematic literature review
Lisa A Prosser, Phaedra S Corso
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-5-42
Abstract: We reviewed the current literature to identify current approaches to valuing child maltreatment outcomes for economic evaluations. We also reviewed available preference-based generic QOL instruments (EQ-5D, HUI, QWB, SF-6D) for appropriateness in measuring change in quality of life due to child maltreatment.We did not identify any studies that directly evaluated quality-of-life in maltreated children. We identified 4 studies that evaluated quality of life for adult survivors of child maltreatment and 8 studies that measured quality-of-life for pediatric injury not related to child maltreatment. No study reported quality-of-life values for children younger than age 3.Currently available preference-based QOL instruments (EQ-5D, HUI, QWB, SF-6D) have been developed primarily for adults with the exception of the Health Utilities Index. These instruments do not include many of the domains identified as being important in capturing changes in quality of life for child maltreatment, such as potential for growth and development or psychological sequelae specific to maltreatment.Recommendations for valuing preference-based quality-of-life for child maltreatment will vary by developmental level and type of maltreatment. In the short-term, available multi-attribute utility instruments should be considered in the context of the type of child maltreatment being measured. However, if relevant domains are not included in existing instruments or if valuing health for children less than 6 years of age, direct valuation with a proxy respondent is recommended. The choice of a proxy respondent is not clear in the case of child maltreatment since the parent may not be a suitable proxy. Adult survivors should be considered as appropriate proxies. Longer-term research should focus on identifying the key domains for measuring child health and the development of preference-based quality-of-life instruments that are appropriate for valuing child maltreatment outcomes.Child maltreatment, typi
Preventing child maltreatment: An evidence-based update  [cached]
Gonzalez A,MacMillan H
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 2008,
Abstract: Child maltreatment is a significant public health problem associated with a broad range of negative outcomes in children and adolescents that can extend into adulthood. This review summarizes information about programs aimed at the prevention of child maltreatment evaluated by controlled trials, with a focus on home visitation programs. It does not include programs aimed at prevention of child sexual abuse, the subject of a separate review in this series. We discuss those programs that include one or more measures of child maltreatment and related outcomes (reports of abuse and neglect, injuries, hospitalizations and emergency room visits). Most programs targeting at-risk families have not shown evidence of effectiveness in preventing abuse or neglect. An important exception is the Nurse Family Partnership (NFP), a program provided by nurses to first-time socially disadvantaged mothers beginning prenatally that has undergone rigorous evaluation in three randomized controlled trials. It has shown consistent effects in reducing reports of maltreatment and associated outcomes as well as additional benefits in maternal and child health in high-risk families. A second exception is the promising Early Start program provided by nurses and social workers to at-risk families beginning postnatally. One randomized controlled trial of the program has shown reduced rates of parental reports of severe abuse and hospital attendance for injuries and poisonings, based on records. The characteristics of the NFP and Early Start programs are discussed with special emphasis on ways in which they differ from other home visitation programs.
Using Routinely Collected Hospital Data for Child Maltreatment Surveillance: Issues, Methods and Patterns
Kirsten McKenzie, Debbie A Scott
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-7
Abstract: A comprehensive review of the ICD-10-AM classification system was undertaken, including review of index terms, a free text search of tabular volumes, and a review of coding standards pertaining to child maltreatment coding. Identified codes were further categorised into maltreatment types including physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional or psychological abuse, and neglect. Using these code groupings, one year of Australian hospitalisation data for children under 18 years of age was examined to quantify the proportion of patients identified and to explore the characteristics of cases assigned maltreatment-related codes.Less than 0.5% of children hospitalised in Australia between 2005 and 2006 had a maltreatment code assigned, almost 4% of children with a principal diagnosis of a mental and behavioural disorder and over 1% of children with an injury or poisoning as the principal diagnosis had a maltreatment code assigned. The patterns of children assigned with definitive T74 codes varied by sex and age group. For males selected as having a maltreatment-related presentation, physical abuse was most commonly coded (62.6% of maltreatment cases) while for females selected as having a maltreatment-related presentation, sexual abuse was the most commonly assigned form of maltreatment (52.9% of maltreatment cases).This study has demonstrated that hospital data could provide valuable information for routine monitoring and surveillance of child maltreatment, even in the absence of population-based linked data sources. With national and international calls for a public health response to child maltreatment, better understanding of, investment in and utilisation of our core national routinely collected data sources will enhance the evidence-base needed to support an appropriate response to children at risk.In Australia and many other countries, data on child maltreatment are largely derived from child protection agencies, predominantly reporting on events reported for investiga
Comparison Study on Prevalence of Psychological Maltreatment and Its Relationship with Psychological Stress and Self-Esteem among School Students in Tanzania and China  [PDF]
Adela A. Mwakanyamale, Mathew D. Ndomondo
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2019.97055
Abstract: Background: Childhood psychological maltreatment in the country paralyses children personal career integration, national development and achievement of plans laid in a given country. In most of the time, psychological maltreatment is masked within other form of child abuse and neglect when they co exit. Knowing the prevalence of childhood psychological maltreatment and the impact associated with trauma of psychological maltreatment synergize the existing evidence-based interventions that are applied to prevent psychological maltreatment. If it is left unattended childhood psychological maltreatment might lead to mental and psychological problems. This study investigates psychological maltreatment: prevalence and its relationship with psychological stress and self-esteem among school students in Tanzania and China. Methods: Participants were selected by multistage cluster sampling respectively in China and Tanzania. In China, participants were recruited randomly from four middle schools in two cities, Xiaogan and Ezhou. In Tanzania, participants were recruited randomly from seven secondary schools in five regions, Kilimanjaro, Tanga, Iringa, Mtwara and Dar es Salaam. Adverse Childhood Experience questionnaire (ACE), Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and Kessler psychological distress scale (K10) were used to gather data. Results: The sample consisted of 555 (55.5%) female and 445 (45.5%) male (N = 1000) of Tanzanian school students, On the other hand in China the sample size was 3193. Female students were 1650 (51.7%) as compared to male 1543 (48.3%). The average self-esteem score of student in Tanzania was (26.14% ± 7.45 std deviation) and in China was (22.12 ± 4.734 std deviation), in Tanzania male have higher 392 (55.3%) self-esteem scores as compared female 317 (44.7), while in China results showed that female have higher self-esteem 1223 (50.2%) than male 1211 (49.8%). There was a strong positive correlation between psychological maltreatment and self-esteem (r = 0.55, p < 0.001), whereas the correlation between psychological maltreatment and psychological distress was significantly but weak (r = 0.086, p = 0.007). Conclusion: Psychological maltreatment is prevalent in our setting and statistically significant positively affected self-esteem among Tanzanian and China adolescents and is associated with high levels of psychological distress during adolescence. Moreover, exposure to psychological maltreatment during childhood was
Prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment among high school students in Southern China: A large scale school based survey  [cached]
Leung Phil WS,Wong William CW,Chen WQ,Tang Catherine SK
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1753-2000-2-27
Abstract: Background Child maltreatment can cause significant physical and psychological problems. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment in Guangzhou, China, where such issues are often considered a taboo subject. Methods A school-based survey was conducted in southern China in 2005. 24 high schools were selected using stratified random sampling strategy based on their districts and bandings. The self-administered validated Chinese version of parent-child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC) was used as the main assessment tool to measure the abusive experiences encountered by students in the previous six months. Results The response rate of this survey was 99.7%. Among the 6592 responding students, the mean age was 14.68. Prevalence of parental psychological aggression, corporal punishment, severe and very serve physical maltreatment in the past 6 months were 78.3%, 23.2%, 15.1% and 2.8% respectively. The prevalence of sexual abuse is 0.6%. The most commonly cited reasons for maltreatment included 'disobedience to parents', 'poor academic performance', and 'quarrelling between parents'. Age, parental education, places of origins and types of housing were found to be associated with physical maltreatments whereas gender and fathers' education level were associated with sexual abuse. Conclusion Though largely unspoken, child maltreatment is a common problem in China. Identification of significant determinants in this study can provide valuable information for teachers and health professionals so as to pay special attention to those at-risk children.
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