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Qualitative Analysis of Indoor and Outdoor Airborne Fungi in Cowshed  [PDF]
R. Pavan,K. Manjunath
Journal of Mycology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/985921
Abstract: Air pollution is one of the most serious problems to human health. Fungi are the causal agents for different diseases in animals, plants, and human beings. Otomycosis, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, allergy, and systemic mycosis are among the fungal diseases caused. The present study was conducted to analyze the monthly incidence of airborne fungi, seasonal variation, and influence of meteorological parameters in indoor and outdoor fungi of cowshed at Hesaraghatta village, Bangalore. An aeromycological survey of indoor and outdoor area of cowshed at Hesaraghatta village in Bangalore city was carried out using the Andersen two-stage sampler onto a petri dish containing malt extract agar from January 2011 to December 2011. Altogether, 29 species belonging to 13 genera from indoor and 26 species belonging to 12 genera were recorded from outdoor environment of the cowshed; the dominant fungal species identified were Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus sp., and Alternaria alternata. Seasonal occurrence of fungal spores in both indoor and outdoor of the cowshed revealed that maximum spores were recorded in summer season followed by winter and rainy season. 1. Introduction Airborne particles are present throughout the environment. Despite the fact that atmospheric air does not favour growth of microorganisms due to lack of nutrients, the microorganisms are present in aerosol form, suspended in the air. The basic sources of microbes are soil, water, animals, and humans and they originate in many different forms and affect visibility, climate, human health, and the quality of life [1]. Airborne microbial quantity and quality vary with time of day, year, and location [2]. Fungi are common in indoor and outdoor environment. Nearly 10% of people worldwide have fungal allergy [3]. Numerous studies have shown that exposure to fungi may be associated with acute toxic effects, allergies, and asthma [4]. Researchers believe that more than 80 genera of fungi are associated with symptoms of respiratory tract allergies [5]. Over 100 species of fungi are involved with serious human and animal infections, whereas many other species cause serious plant diseases [6]. Many fungal spores are involved in respiratory allergies and different kinds of infections [7]. Fungal aerosols produced in animal rearing houses may threaten caretakers and external environment. Respiratory infection or damage may occur in caretakers as well as in animal rearing houses with prolonged exposure to the environment at high microorganism levels [8]. Microbial aerosols of high levels are also
Airborne fungi in Isfahan and evaluation of allergenic responses of their extracts in animal model  [PDF]
Mostafa Chadeganipour,Shahla Shadzi,Shahi Nilipour,Gholamreza Ahmadi
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology , 2010,
Abstract: Introduction and objective: Detection of the common allergen airborne fungi in any region is critical for prevention and treatment of allergic fungal diseases. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the most common airborne fungal species of Isfahan, investigate their allergic reactions in animal and obtain local fungal strains for use as antigens in allergy tests to be used.Materials and methods: An open plate method was used to scan airborne fungal contents over 12 months in Isfahan. On the same days every week, triplicate samples were collected at three different locations in the morning, at noon and in the evening. The fungal culture media were incubated at 25oC until growth appeared and then the airborne fungi were identified by routine mycological laboratory methods. The extracts of the most common airborne fungi isolated, were examined with skin prick test for allergic reactions in laboratory animals. Results: During this study, the most abundant airborne fungi identified in Isfahan were species of yeasts, yeast like (Candida spp., Geotrichum spp., and Trichosporon spp.), and mold (Cladosporium spp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp., and Alternaria). Positive skin reactions were observed with Cladosporium spp.(40%), and Aspergillus spp. (21%), Alternaria spp. (17%), Penicillum spp. (15%) and Geotrichum spp. (7%). Conclusion: It is concluded that fungi have a significant role in infecting immunocompromised hosts, information obtained in the present study contribute toward a better understanding of the pattern of occurrence of airborne fungi, and may assist allergists, clinicians and epidemiologists to treat the diseases.
Airborne fungi in the region of Cubat?o, S?o Paulo State, Brazil
Schoenlein-Crusius, Iracema H.;Trufem, Sandra F.B.;Grandi, Rosely A.P.;Milanez, Adauto I.;Pires-Zottarelli, Carmen L.A.;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822001000100014
Abstract: from march/1993 to march/1995, airborne fungi were isolated from the "vale do rio moji" (highly affected by the air pollution caused by fertilizer industries, steel works, cement factories and chemical products industries, among others) and from the "vale do rio pil?es" (less affected by the air pollution), both in the municipality of cubat?o, s?o paulo state, brazil, by exposing petri dishes with potato dextrose agar medium, placed one meter from the ground, during 5 min. after 5 days of incubation at 20oc, the colonies of the fungi were purified and identified, resulting in the identification of 39 taxa, three unidentified strains of fusarium and non-sporulating cultures. a total of 28 taxa, one unidentified strain of fusarium and non-sporulating fungi (71 records) were isolated in the "vale do rio moji" and 29 taxa, two unidentified strains of fusarium and non-sporulating fungi (72 records) in the "vale do rio pil?es. the airborne mycota of the higher polluted site presented 17 common, 12 rare and only one constant fungal species. in the other site, the airborne mycota was composed by 19 common, 10 rare and two constant fungal species. among the obtained fungi, at least 12 taxa were reported as opportunistic fungi, 26 have been mentioned related to plant diseases and eight have been associated to allergy problems. the similarity index of s?rensen between the mycotas, corresponding to 58%, may be considered low, and is probably justified by the air pollution, that mainly distinguish the two studied areas.
Airborne fungi in the region of Cubat o, S o Paulo State, Brazil  [cached]
Schoenlein-Crusius Iracema H.,Trufem Sandra F.B.,Grandi Rosely A.P.,Milanez Adauto I.
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2001,
Abstract: From March/1993 to March/1995, airborne fungi were isolated from the "Vale do Rio Moji" (highly affected by the air pollution caused by fertilizer industries, steel works, cement factories and chemical products industries, among others) and from the "Vale do Rio Pil es" (less affected by the air pollution), both in the municipality of Cubat o, S o Paulo State, Brazil, by exposing Petri dishes with potato dextrose agar medium, placed one meter from the ground, during 5 min. After 5 days of incubation at 20oC, the colonies of the fungi were purified and identified, resulting in the identification of 39 taxa, three unidentified strains of Fusarium and non-sporulating cultures. A total of 28 taxa, one unidentified strain of Fusarium and non-sporulating fungi (71 records) were isolated in the "Vale do Rio Moji" and 29 taxa, two unidentified strains of Fusarium and non-sporulating fungi (72 records) in the "Vale do Rio Pil es. The airborne mycota of the higher polluted site presented 17 common, 12 rare and only one constant fungal species. In the other site, the airborne mycota was composed by 19 common, 10 rare and two constant fungal species. Among the obtained fungi, at least 12 taxa were reported as opportunistic fungi, 26 have been mentioned related to plant diseases and eight have been associated to allergy problems. The similarity Index of S rensen between the mycotas, corresponding to 58%, may be considered low, and is probably justified by the air pollution, that mainly distinguish the two studied areas.
Airborne fungi isolated from Fortaleza city, State of Ceará, Brazil
Menezes, Everardo Albuquerque;Trindade, Emerson C. Pereira;Costa, Maria Márcia;Freire, Caio César Furtado;Cavalcante, Márcio de Souza;Cunha, Francisco Afranio;
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de S?o Paulo , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-46652004000300003
Abstract: airbone fungi are considered important causes of allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. the knowledge of these fungi in a city or region is important for the ecological diagnosis and specific treatment of allergic manifestations induced by inhalation of fungal allergens. the airborne fungi of fortaleza, state of ceará, brazil, were studied during a one year period. five hundred and twenty petri dishes with sabouraud dextrose agar medium were exposed at ten different locations in the city. the dishes exposed yielded one thousand and five hundred and twenty one colonies of twenty four genera. the most predominants were: aspergillus (44.7%), penicillium (13.3%), curvularia (9.8%), cladosporium (6.8%), mycelia sterilia (6.0%), fusarium (3.5%), rhizopus (3.1%), drechslera (2.6%), alternaria (2.4%) and absidia (2.2%). the results shown that aspergillus, penicillium, mycelia sterilia, fusarium and alternaria were found during all months in the year. absidia was more frequent during the dry season. anemophilous fungi and the high concentration of spores in the air are important because may result in an increased number of people with allergic respiratory disease.
Airborne fungi causing respiratory allergy in patients from Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil
Menezes, Everardo Albuquerque;Carvalho, Paulo Germano;Trindade, Emmerson Cristhiano Pereira M.;Madeira Sobrinho, Geraldo;Cunha, Francisco Afranio;Castro, Fábio F. Morato;
Jornal Brasileiro de Patologia e Medicina Laboratorial , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1676-24442004000200006
Abstract: the dispersal of airborne fungi is made through atmospherical air. knowledge of anemophilous fungi in a given city is important for the ecological diagnosis and specific treatment of allergic manifestations induced by inhaled allergens. their use in individuals' allergy is widespread, and probably will remain so in the years to come. the purpose of this research was to make a relationship between the airborne fungi and the patients' respiratory allergy (asthma and rhinitis) from the city of fortaleza, state of ceará, brazil. first a research was made in fortaleza about the fungal allergens dispersed in atmospherical air. fungal allergen extracts were made from the ten most predominant moulds in the air, using sodium bicarbonate. the prick tests were made in fifty patients with asthma and rhinitis and in ten healthy persons (with no respiratory allergy). the positive test was made using histamine and the negative test with sodium bicarbonate preparation. the predominant fungi in the air of fortaleza were: aspergillus, penicillium, curvularia, cladosporium, mycelia sterilia, fusarium, rhizopus, drechslera, absidia and alternaria. as determined by the prick test: three fungal extracts (aspergillus, alternaria and drechslera) were positive in all patients; two (penicillium and curvularia) were positive in thirty-five patients; two (cladosporium and mycelia sterilia) were positive in thirty patients; and three (rhizopus, absidia and fusarium) were positive in nine patients. all the control tests were negative. all the ten most predominant anemophilous fungi isolated in the air could provoke skin test reactivity in individuals with respiratory allergy in fortaleza.
Airborne fungi causing respiratory allergy in patients from Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil
Menezes Everardo Albuquerque,Carvalho Paulo Germano,Trindade Emmerson Cristhiano Pereira M.,Madeira Sobrinho Geraldo
Jornal Brasileiro de Patologia e Medicina Laboratorial , 2004,
Abstract: The dispersal of airborne fungi is made through atmospherical air. Knowledge of anemophilous fungi in a given city is important for the ecological diagnosis and specific treatment of allergic manifestations induced by inhaled allergens. Their use in individuals' allergy is widespread, and probably will remain so in the years to come. The purpose of this research was to make a relationship between the airborne fungi and the patients' respiratory allergy (asthma and rhinitis) from the city of Fortaleza, state of Ceará, Brazil. First a research was made in Fortaleza about the fungal allergens dispersed in atmospherical air. Fungal allergen extracts were made from the ten most predominant moulds in the air, using sodium bicarbonate. The prick tests were made in fifty patients with asthma and rhinitis and in ten healthy persons (with no respiratory allergy). The positive test was made using histamine and the negative test with sodium bicarbonate preparation. The predominant fungi in the air of Fortaleza were: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Curvularia, Cladosporium, Mycelia sterilia, Fusarium, Rhizopus, Drechslera, Absidia and Alternaria. As determined by the prick test: three fungal extracts (Aspergillus, Alternaria and Drechslera) were positive in all patients; two (Penicillium and Curvularia) were positive in thirty-five patients; two (Cladosporium and Mycelia sterilia) were positive in thirty patients; and three (Rhizopus, Absidia and Fusarium) were positive in nine patients. All the control tests were negative. All the ten most predominant anemophilous fungi isolated in the air could provoke skin test reactivity in individuals with respiratory allergy in Fortaleza.
Airborne Bacterial Communities in Residences: Similarities and Differences with Fungi  [PDF]
Rachel I. Adams, Marzia Miletto, Steven E. Lindow, John W. Taylor, Thomas D. Bruns
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091283
Abstract: Genetic analysis of indoor air has uncovered a rich microbial presence, but rarely have both the bacterial and fungal components been examined in the same samples. Here we present a study that examined the bacterial component of passively settled microbes from both indoor and outdoor air over a discrete time period and for which the fungal component has already been reported. Dust was allowed to passively settle in five common locations around a home ? living room, bedroom, bathroom, kitchen, and balcony ? at different dwellings within a university-housing complex for a one-month period at two time points, once in summer and again in winter. We amplified the bacterial 16S rRNA gene in these samples and analyzed them with high-throughput sequencing. Like fungal OTU-richness, bacterial OTU-richness was higher outdoors then indoors and was invariant across different indoor room types. While fungal composition was structured largely by season and residential unit, bacterial composition varied by residential unit and room type. Bacteria from putative outdoor sources, such as Sphingomonas and Deinococcus, comprised a large percentage of the balcony samples, while human-associated taxa comprised a large percentage of the indoor samples. Abundant outdoor bacterial taxa were also observed indoors, but the reverse was not true; this is unlike fungi, in which the taxa abundant indoors were also well-represented outdoors. Moreover, there was a partial association of bacterial composition and geographic distance, such that samples separated by even a few hundred meters tended have greater compositional differences than samples closer together in space, a pattern also observed for fungi. These data show that while the outdoor source for indoor bacteria and fungi varies in both space and time, humans provide a strong and homogenizing effect on indoor bacterial bioaerosols, a pattern not observed in fungi.
Ecological Distributions of Airborne Fungi in Outdoor Environments in Beijing,China
北京市室外空气真菌分布特征

HU Li-feng,FANG Zhi-guo,OUYANG Zhi-yun,LIAO Xiao-lan,LIN Xue-qiang,WANG Xiao-ke,
胡利锋
,方治国,欧阳志云,廖晓兰,林学强,王效科

环境科学 , 2005,
Abstract: An investigation on fungal types, concentrations, and their dynamic variation in outdoor environments was carried out in three different functional areas around one year in Beijing. Results show that the fungal concentrations varied widely and the average was (1164.873.2) CFUm-3, ranging from 23.6CFUm-3 to 13 959.5 CFUm-3. The most common culturable airborne fungi in all seasons and all functional areas were Cladosporium, nonsporulating fungi, Alternaria, Penicillium and Aspergillus. The most dominant fungus was Cladosporium, which contributed to more than 1/3 of the total. The fungal levels in culture and education region (CER) and garden green region (GGR) were highest in the fall and summer, and lowest in the winter and spring, while the seasonal variation in main traffic line (MTL) was not significant. The fungal concentrations in CER and GGR were significantly higher than in MTL (p<0.05). No statistically significant difference exists between CER and GGR.
Assessment of the Levels of Airborne Bacteria, Gram-Negative Bacteria, and Fungi in Hospital Lobbies  [PDF]
Dong-Uk Park,Jeong-Kwan Yeom,Won Jae Lee,Kyeong-Min Lee
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph10020541
Abstract: Aims: We assessed the levels of airborne bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria (GNB), and fungi in six hospital lobbies, and investigated the environmental and hospital characteristics that affected the airborne microorganism levels. Methods: An Andersen single-stage sampler equipped with appropriate nutrition plate agar was used to collect the samples. The three types of microorganisms were repeatedly collected at a fixed location in each hospital (assumed to be representative of the entire hospital lobby) from 08:00 through 24:00, with a sampling time of less than 5 min. Temperature and relative humidity were simultaneously monitored. Results: Multiple regression analysis was used to identify the major factors affecting microorganism levels. The average levels of bacteria (7.2?×?10 2 CFU/m 3), GNB (1.7 × 10 CFU/m 3), and fungi (7.7 × 10 CFU/m 3) indicated that all hospital lobbies were generally contaminated. Season was the only factor that significantly affected the levels of all microorganisms ( p < 0.0001), where contamination was the highest during the summer, significantly higher than during the winter. Other significant factors varied by microorganism, as follows: airborne bacteria (number of people in the lobby, sampling time), GNB (scale of hospital), and fungi (humidity and air temperature). Conclusions: Hospital lobby air was generally contaminated with microorganisms, including bacteria, GNB, and fungi. Environmental factors that may significantly influence the airborne concentrations of these agents should be managed to minimize airborne levels.
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