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Cognitive Appraisals in Sport: The Direct and Moderating Role of Mental Toughness
International Journal of Applied Psychology , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.ijap.20120204.05
Abstract: The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between mental toughness and cognitive appraisals, in addition to exploring the moderating influence of mental toughness upon cognitive appraisals. A total of 296 athletic participants (male n = 200; female n = 96) aged between 16 and 51 years (M age = 21.92 years, SD = 4.61) took part in this study. Moderated multiple regression analysis revealed mental toughness had a significant negative relationship with threat appraisal and a significant positive relationship with challenge. Additionally, mental toughness had a moderating influence upon the centrality-threat appraisal relationship. Overall, these findings imply interventions aimed at threat appraisal manipulation could be targeted at lower mentally tough athletes.
Heuristic Spectrum Assignment Algorithm in Distributed Cognitive Networks  [PDF]
Li Yu, Cong Liu, Zuhao Liu, Wenyu Hu
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2010.26053
Abstract: Cognitive radio is an exciting emerging technology that has the potential of dealing with the urgent requirement and scarcity of the radio spectrum. Although having multiple radio interfaces and available spectrum bands can generally increase the effective throughput, a problem arises as to what the best strategy to dynamically assign available bands to secondary users for maximizing throughput by minimizing the interference, and what the best scheme to allocate the spectrum holes to unlicensed users to maximize the fairness. This paper presents a distributed and heuristic spectrum assignment algorithm for multi-radio wireless cognitive networks in a cognitive network environment. The proposed algorithm (Fairness Bargaining with Maximum throughput, FBMT) considers the problems including system throughput and the fairness. Extensive simulation studies in 802.11 based multi-radio cognitive networks have been performed. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm can facilitate a large increase in network throughput and acquire a good fairness performance in comparison with a common spectrum assignment mechanism that is used as a benchmark in the literature.
Hybrid Experiential-Heuristic Cognitive Radio Engine Architecture and Implementation  [PDF]
Ashwin Amanna,Daniel Ali,David Gonzalez Fitch,Jeffrey H. Reed
Journal of Computer Networks and Communications , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/549106
Abstract: The concept of cognitive radio (CR) focuses on devices that can sense their environment, adapt configuration parameters, and learn from past behaviors. Architectures tend towards simplified decision-making algorithms inspired by human cognition. Initial works defined cognitive engines (CEs) founded on heuristics, such as genetic algorithms (GAs), and case-based reasoning (CBR) experiential learning algorithms. This hybrid architecture enables both long-term learning, faster decisions based on past experience, and capability to still adapt to new environments. This paper details an autonomous implementation of a hybrid CBR-GA CE architecture on a universal serial radio peripheral (USRP) software-defined radio focused on link adaptation. Details include overall process flow, case base structure/retrieval method, estimation approach within the GA, and hardware-software lessons learned. Unique solutions to realizing the concept include mechanisms for combining vector distance and past fitness into an aggregate quantification of similarity. Over-the-air performance under several interference conditions is measured using signal-to-noise ratio, packet error rate, spectral efficiency, and throughput as observable metrics. Results indicate that the CE is successfully able to autonomously change transmit power, modulation/coding, and packet size to maintain the link while a non-cognitive approach loses connectivity. Solutions to existing shortcomings are proposed for improving case-base searching and performance estimation methods. 1. Introduction Wireless communication devices and networks face outside influences that degrade performance and have potential to render links useless. New advances in the area of cognitive radio (CR), inspired by artificial intelligence integration with reconfigurable platforms, enable devices and networks to observe, make a decision and learn from past experience. Key problems faced by CR are how to effectively integrate both learning and decision onto software-defined radio (SDR) over-the-air platforms such that they can react to situations quickly and effectively. Specifically this paper address the realization and implementation of a cognitive engine (CE) on an SDR platform for the purpose of link adaptation. The problems addressed include incorporating mechanisms for system observation, triggering the engagement of a CE, architecting the CE such that it can both make decision when faced with new situations, and learn from past experience. Prior art has defined CE architectures based on heuristic decision making, such as GA, as
The Effect of Leadership Style on Employee Engagement: The Moderating Role of Task Structure  [PDF]
Rui Zhao, Yuhua Sheng
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.77033
Abstract: According to the social exchange theory, based on the 335 valid questionnaire data, the article uses the hierarchical regression method to examine the influence of authoritarian leadership and charismatic leadership on employee engagement and the moderating effect of task structure. The results show that charismatic leadership is significantly positively correlated with employee engagement, and there is a significant positive correlation between vigor, dedication and absorption. Authoritarian leadership is significantly negatively correlated with employee engagement, and is significantly negatively correlated with vigor and dedication. The task structure plays a moderating role between authoritarian leadership and employee engagement. Studies have shown that combined with contextual factors can better explain the role of leadership quality in leadership effectiveness, and also provide guidance and suggestions for leadership selection and practice, that is, in the context of high-task structure, organizations should prioritize the selection of individuals with authoritarian orientation as leaders.
Content-Based Approach in Exploring the Cognitive Structure of Values  [cached]
Johanna Maksimainen
Asian Social Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v8n6p26
Abstract: This article discusses the content-based approach in examination of values. In the content-based approach, human thinking in different contexts is set at the focal point, and attention is devoted to those cognitive processes through which mental representations are constructed. The information contents of mental representations play a decisive role in understanding human behavior. By applying content-based analysis to an examination of the conceptual contents of human values, it is possible to reach a deeper understanding of the cognitive structure which lies as the motivational foundation of actions. In this article, it is argued that different informational contents of values explain variance actualized in behaviors. A suggestion for a model of cognitive structure of values is presented. The model illustrates different information contents related to particular object.
学思维网络活动对小学生创造性的影响:认知风格的调节作用
The Effect of Learn to Think Online Program on Creativity of Primary School Students: Moderating Effects of Cognitive Style
 [PDF]

胡卫平,赵晓媚,贾培媛,陈英和
- , 2017, DOI: 10.16187/j.cnki.issn1001-4918.2017.03.01
Abstract: 以89名小学生为被试,采用实验组对照组前后测实验设计,考察学思维网络活动对培养小学生创造性思维和创造性倾向的影响,以及认知风格的调节作用。结果发现:(1)学思维网络活动能有效促进小学生创造性思维以及创造性倾向的想象力和好奇心的发展;(2)学思维课堂活动和学思维网络活动对于培养小学生的创造性思维和创造性倾向具有一致的效果;(3)认知风格在学思维网络活动和学思维课堂活动对小学生创造性思维的影响中起调节作用:对于场依存学生,学思维网络活动能更大程度地提高其流畅性和独创性的表现。
The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of Learn to Think (LTT) online program on creativity of primary school students and the moderating effects of cognitive style. 89 primary school students participated in this study and the experimental group and control group before and after the test design were adopted. The findings are as follows:(1) The LTT online program have significant effects on creative thinking, curiosity and imagination of primary school students; (2) There are same effects between LTT online program and the LTT program which conducted in classroom; (3) The cognitive style played an moderate role in the influence of LTT online program and the LTT program which conducted in classroom on creative thinking:For the field-dependents students, the LTT online program has an obvious advantage in promoting their fluency and originality, but for the field-independents, they have the same effect.
Four challenges for cognitive research on the recognition heuristic and a call for a research strategy shift
Tracy Tomlinson,Julian N. Marewski,Michael Dougherty
Judgment and Decision Making , 2011,
Abstract: The recognition heuristic assumes that people make inferences based on the output of recognition memory. While much work has been devoted to establishing the recognition heuristic as a viable description of how people make inferences, more work is needed to fully integrate research on the recognition heuristic with research from the broader cognitive psychology literature. In this article, we outline four challenges that should be met for this integration to take place, and close with a call to address these four challenges collectively, rather than piecemeal.
Cognitive Networks Achieve Throughput Scaling of a Homogeneous Network  [PDF]
Sang-Woon Jeon,Natasha Devroye,Mai Vu,Sae-Young Chung,Vahid Tarokh
Mathematics , 2008,
Abstract: We study two distinct, but overlapping, networks that operate at the same time, space, and frequency. The first network consists of $n$ randomly distributed \emph{primary users}, which form either an ad hoc network, or an infrastructure-supported ad hoc network with $l$ additional base stations. The second network consists of $m$ randomly distributed, ad hoc secondary users or cognitive users. The primary users have priority access to the spectrum and do not need to change their communication protocol in the presence of secondary users. The secondary users, however, need to adjust their protocol based on knowledge about the locations of the primary nodes to bring little loss to the primary network's throughput. By introducing preservation regions around primary receivers and avoidance regions around primary base stations, we propose two modified multihop routing protocols for the cognitive users. Base on percolation theory, we show that when the secondary network is denser than the primary network, both networks can simultaneously achieve the same throughput scaling law as a stand-alone network. Furthermore, the primary network throughput is subject to only a vanishingly fractional loss. Specifically, for the ad hoc and the infrastructure-supported primary models, the primary network achieves sum throughputs of order $n^{1/2}$ and $\max\{n^{1/2},l\}$, respectively. For both primary network models, for any $\delta>0$, the secondary network can achieve sum throughput of order $m^{1/2-\delta}$ with an arbitrarily small fraction of outage. Thus, almost all secondary source-destination pairs can communicate at a rate of order $m^{-1/2-\delta}$.
The Brain Mechanism of Insight Induced by Heuristic Prototype in Invention
创造发明中顿悟的原型启发脑机制

LUO Jun-Long,QIN Yi-Gui,LI Wen-Fu,Zhu Hai-Xue,TIAN Yan,QIU Jiang,ZHANG Qing-Lin,
罗俊龙
,覃义贵,李文福,朱海雪,田燕,邱江,张庆林

心理科学进展 , 2012,
Abstract: Numerous cases have shown that insight appears to occur when inventions were induced by heuristic prototypes in the scientific community. From the Chinese legend of Luban invented the saw which drew inspiration from acrodont couch grass to the classical story of Watt invented the steam engine inspired by looking at a pot of boiling water, too many such cases suggested that ‘prototype heuristics’ might be an important way of thinking in inventions. However, the neural basis of creative thinking is still stuck in researches of solving unscientific problems due to the complexity of the processing of the scientific innovation. Based on the latest scientific inventions in which scientists drew inspiration from heuristic prototypes, our group of this project has complied the material database of creative problem for experiments. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potential (ERP), the present project aims to explore the cognitive neural mechanisms of insight induced by heuristic prototype in invention. Specifically, we plan to investigate the cognitive neural basis of influences on heuristic prototypes, such as activation of prototype, application of heuristic information, catching inspiration under the problematic consciousness, prototype representation, motivation and emotional state, working situation of brain etc. So it has important theory significance to understand the essence of human creative thinking as well as practical significance to stimulate and nurture human creativity to carry out this project.
How Affectively-Based and Cognitively-Based Attitudes Drive Intergroup Behaviours: The Moderating Role of Affective-Cognitive Consistency  [PDF]
Jie Zhou, John Dovidio, Erping Wang
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082150
Abstract: The moderating role of affective-cognitive consistency in the effects of affectively-based and cognitively-based attitudes on consummatory and instrumental behaviors was explored using two experimental studies in the intergroup context. Study 1 revealed that affectively-based attitudes were better predictors than cognitively-based attitudes regardless of affective-cognitive consistency for consummatory behaviors (e.g., undergraduates’ supportive behaviors toward government officials). Study 2, which investigated task groups’ supportive behaviors toward an immediate supervisory group, found that for these instrumental behaviors cognitively-based attitudes were better predictors than affectively-based attitudes only when affective-cognitive consistency was high. The present research also examined the mechanism by which affective-cognitive consistency moderates the relative roles of affectively-based and cognitively-based attitudes in attitude-behavior consistency. Results indicated that attitude-behavior consistency is eroded primarily because of the weaker relationship of affective or cognitive components to behaviors than to general attitudes. The reciprocal implications of research on attitudes and work on intergroup relations are considered.
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