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ROC Generated Thresholds for Field-Assessed Aerobic Fitness Related to Body Size and Cardiometabolic Risk in Schoolchildren  [PDF]
Lynne M. Boddy, Non E. Thomas, Stuart J. Fairclough, Keith Tolfrey, Sinead Brophy, Anwen Rees, Gareth Knox, Julien S. Baker, Gareth Stratton
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045755
Abstract: Objectives 1. to investigate whether 20 m multi-stage shuttle run performance (20mSRT), an indirect measure of aerobic fitness, could discriminate between healthy and overweight status in 9–10.9 yr old schoolchildren using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis; 2. Investigate if cardiometabolic risk differed by aerobic fitness group by applying the ROC cut point to a second, cross-sectional cohort. Design Analysis of cross-sectional data. Participants 16,619 9–10.9 year old participants from SportsLinx project and 300 11–13.9 year old participants from the Welsh Schools Health and Fitness Study. Outcome Measures SportsLinx; 20mSRT, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, subscapular and superilliac skinfold thicknesses. Welsh Schools Health and Fitness Study; 20mSRT performance, waist circumference, and clustered cardiometabolic risk. Analyses Three ROC curve analyses were completed, each using 20mSRT performance with ROC curve 1 related to BMI, curve 2 was related to waist circumference and 3 was related to skinfolds (estimated % body fat). These were repeated for both girls and boys. The mean of the three aerobic fitness thresholds was retained for analysis. The thresholds were subsequently applied to clustered cardiometabolic risk data from the Welsh Schools study to assess whether risk differed by aerobic fitness group. Results The diagnostic accuracy of the ROC generated thresholds was higher than would be expected by chance (all models AUC >0.7). The mean thresholds were 33 and 25 shuttles for boys and girls respectively. Participants classified as ‘fit’ had significantly lower cardiometabolic risk scores in comparison to those classed as unfit (p<0.001). Conclusion The use of the ROC generated cut points by health professionals, teachers and coaches may provide the opportunity to apply population level ‘risk identification and stratification’ processes and plan for “at-risk” children to be referred onto intervention services.
Fatness and fitness: how do they influence health-related quality of life in type 2 diabetes mellitus?
Wendy L Bennett, Pamela Ouyang, Albert W Wu, Bethany B Barone, Kerry J Stewart
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-6-110
Abstract: This was a cross-sectional study using baseline data from two exercise training interventions. One study enrolled people with and the other without type 2 diabetes. We assessed aerobic fitness ("fitness") as peak oxygen uptake during treadmill testing, adiposity ("fatness") as percentage of total body fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and HRQOL by the Medical Outcomes Study SF-36. Bivariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were used examine determinants of HRQOL were used to examine determinants of HRQOL.There were 98 participants with and 119 participants without type 2 diabetes. Participants with type 2 diabetes had a mean hemoglobin A1c of 6.6% and, compared with participants without diabetes had lower HRQOL on the physical component summary score (P = 0.004), role-physical (P = 0.035), vitality (P = 0.062) and general health (P < 0.001) scales after adjusting for age, sex and race. These associations of HRQOL with type 2 diabetes were attenuated by higher fitness, even more than reduced fatness. Only general health remained positively associated with type 2 diabetes after accounting for fatness or fitness (P = 0.003). There were no significant differences between participants with and without diabetes in the mental component score.Improved fitness, even more than reduced fatness, attenuated the association of type 2 diabetes with HRQOL. The potential to improve HRQOL may motivate patients with type 2 diabetes to engage in physical activity aimed at increasing fitness. Findings from this cross-sectional analysis will be addressed in the ongoing trial of exercise training in this cohort of participants with type 2 diabetes.NCT00212303Type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 diabetes) affects approximately 10% of the U.S. population aged 20 years and older and its prevalence increases with age [1]. People with type 2 diabetes report reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL) compared with the general population, but higher than people with other chron
Serum Levels of Choline-Containing Compounds Are Associated with Aerobic Fitness Level: The HUNT-Study  [PDF]
Anja Bye,Riyas Vettukattil,Stian T. Aspenes,Guro F. Giske?deg?rd,Ingrid S. Gribbestad,Ulrik Wisl?ff,Tone F. Bathen
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042330
Abstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death worldwide, and the number of people at risk is continuously growing. New methods for early risk prediction are therefore needed to actuate prevention strategies before the individuals are diagnosed with CVD. Several studies report that aerobic fitness level, measured as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), is the single best predictor of future CVD mortality in healthy people. Based on this, we wanted to study differences between healthy individuals with a large difference in VO2max-level to identify new biomarkers of low aerobic fitness that may also have potential as early biomarkers of CVD risk.
Circulating MicroRNAs and Aerobic Fitness – The HUNT-Study  [PDF]
Anja Bye, Helge R?sj?, Stian T. Aspenes, Gianluigi Condorelli, Torbj?rn Omland, Ulrik Wisl?ff
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057496
Abstract: Aerobic fitness, measured as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), is a good indicator of cardiovascular health, and a strong predictor of cardiovascular mortality. Biomarkers associated with low VO2max may therefore represent potential early markers of future cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to assess whether circulating microRNAs (miRs) are associated with VO2max-level in healthy individuals. In a screening study, 720 miRs were measured in serum samples from healthy individuals (40–45 yrs) with high (n = 12) or low (n = 12) VO2max matched for gender, age and physical activity. Candiate miRs were validated in a second cohort of subjects with high (n = 38) or low (n = 38) VO2max. miR-210 and miR-222 were found to be higher in the low VO2max-group (p<0.05). In addition, miR-21 was increased in male participants with low VO2max (p<0.05). There were no correlations between traditional risk factors for CVD (blood pressure, cholesterol, smoking habit, or obesity) and miR-21, miR-210 and miR-222. DIANA-mirPath identified 611 potential gene-targets of miR-21, miR-210 and miR-222, and pathway analysis indicated alterations in several important signaling systems in subjects with low VO2max. Potential bias involve that blood was collected from non-fasting individuals, and that 8 performed exercise within 24 h before sampling. In conclusion, we found that miR-210, miR-21, and miR-222 were increased in healthy subjects with low VO2max. The lack of association between these three miRs, and other fitness related variables as well as traditional CVD risk factors, suggests that these miRs may have a potential as new independent biomarkers of fitness level and future CVD.
Fitness, fatness and cardiovascular profile in South Spanish and North Moroccan women
Aparicio,V. A.; Ortega,F. B.; Carbonell-Baeza,A.; Fernández,M.; Senhaji,M.; Ruiz,J. R.; Errami,M.; Delgado-Fernández,M.; Aranda,P.;
Nutrición Hospitalaria , 2012,
Abstract: introduction: we studied the differences on physical fitness, fatness and cardiovascular profile in spanish and moroccan women. material and methods: the study comprised 63 and 58 women aged 45-65 years from south of spain and north of morocco, respectively. we assessed fitness and body composition using standard procedures. we also assessed resting heart rate (rhr), blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, ldl-cholesterol, hdl-cholesterol and triglycerides. results and discussion: moroccan women had a better performance in the main health-related physical fitness components, i.e. higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (p = 0.01) and (lower-body) muscular strength (p < 0.001). diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.004), rhr and total cholesterol (both p = 0.04) were lower in moroccan women. no differences were observed in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. conclusions: the women from morocco had a healthier fitness and cardiovascular profile than the women from spain. further research on physical fitness and other health indicators in understudied populations is needed.
Fitness, fatness and cardiovascular profile in South Spanish and North Moroccan women
Aparicio,V. A.; Ortega,F. B.; Carbonell Baeza,A.; Fernández,Ma M.; Senhaji,M.; Ruiz,J. R.; Errami,M.; Delgado Fernández,M.; Aranda,P.;
Nutrición Hospitalaria , 2011,
Abstract: introduction: we studied the differences on physical fitness, fatness and cardiovascular profile in spanish and moroccan women. material and methods: the study comprised 63 and 58 women aged 45-65 years from south of spain and north of morocco, respectively. we assessed fitness and body composition using standard procedures. we also assessed resting heart rate (rhr), blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, ldl-cholesterol, hdl-cholesterol and triglycerides. results and discussion: moroccan women had a better performance in the main health-related physical fitness components, i.e. higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (p = 0.01) and (lower-body) muscular strength (p < 0.001). diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.004), rhr and total cholesterol (both p = 0.04) were lower in moroccan women. no differences were observed in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. conclusions: the women from morocco had a healthier fitness and cardiovascular profile than the women from spain. further research on physical fitness and other health indicators in understudied populations is needed.
Associations of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Fatness with Metabolic Syndrome in Rural Women with Prehypertension  [PDF]
Patricia A. Hageman,Carol H. Pullen,Melody Hertzog,Linda S. Boeckner,Susan Noble Walker
Journal of Obesity , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/618728
Abstract: Background. This study investigated the associations of fitness and fatness with metabolic syndrome in rural women, part of a recognized US health disparities group. Methods. Fitness, percentage body fat, BMI, and metabolic syndrome criteria were assessed at baseline in 289 rural women with prehypertension, ages 40–69, enrolled in a healthy eating and activity community-based clinical trial for reducing blood pressure. Results. Ninety (31%) women had metabolic syndrome, of which 70% were obese by BMI (≥30 kg/m2), 100% by percentage body fat (≥30%), and 100% by revised BMI standards (≥25 kg/m2) cited in current literature. Hierarchical logistic regression models, adjusted for age, income, and education, revealed that higher percentage body fat (P < 0.001) was associated with greater prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Alone, higher fitness lowered the odds of metabolic syndrome by 7% (P < 0.001), but it did not lower the odds significantly beyond the effects of body fat. When dichotomized into “fit” and “unfit” groups, women categorized as “fat” had lower odds of metabolic syndrome if they were “fit” by 75% and 59%, for percentage body fat and revised BMI, respectively. Conclusion. Among rural women with prehypertension, obesity and fitness were associated with metabolic syndrome. Obesity defined as ≥25 kg/m2 produced results more consistent with percentage body fat as compared to the ≥30 kg/m2 definition.
Associations of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Fatness with Metabolic Syndrome in Rural Women with Prehypertension  [PDF]
Patricia A. Hageman,Carol H. Pullen,Melody Hertzog,Linda S. Boeckner,Susan Noble Walker
Journal of Obesity , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/618728
Abstract: Background. This study investigated the associations of fitness and fatness with metabolic syndrome in rural women, part of a recognized US health disparities group. Methods. Fitness, percentage body fat, BMI, and metabolic syndrome criteria were assessed at baseline in 289 rural women with prehypertension, ages 40–69, enrolled in a healthy eating and activity community-based clinical trial for reducing blood pressure. Results. Ninety (31%) women had metabolic syndrome, of which 70% were obese by BMI (≥30?kg/m2), 100% by percentage body fat (≥30%), and 100% by revised BMI standards (≥25?kg/m2) cited in current literature. Hierarchical logistic regression models, adjusted for age, income, and education, revealed that higher percentage body fat (P < 0.001) was associated with greater prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Alone, higher fitness lowered the odds of metabolic syndrome by 7% (P < 0.001), but it did not lower the odds significantly beyond the effects of body fat. When dichotomized into “fit” and “unfit” groups, women categorized as “fat” had lower odds of metabolic syndrome if they were “fit” by 75% and 59%, for percentage body fat and revised BMI, respectively. Conclusion. Among rural women with prehypertension, obesity and fitness were associated with metabolic syndrome. Obesity defined as ≥25?kg/m2 produced results more consistent with percentage body fat as compared to the ≥30?kg/m2 definition. 1. Introduction Although substantial progress has been made in the awareness, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular disease in women in the United States (USA) over the past 10 years, women’s lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease is high [1]. Adverse trends in cardiovascular disease risk factors are a growing concern, partly due to an ongoing increase in average body weight, with nearly two of every three women in the United States (USA) over 20 years of age now being classified as overweight or obese [2]. However, data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) collected from a series of cross-sectional national representative health surveys suggest that obesity prevalence among women in the USA has been stable for more than 10 years and that cardiovascular disease risk factors have been declining in the population, particularly among those with overweight or obesity [3, 4]. Yet, NHANES data also show that the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome is markedly higher in rural women than urban residents [5, 6]. Metabolic syndrome is a designation given to individuals who have a cluster of risk factors characterized by abdominal
Effect of Aerobic Fitness on the Physiological Stress Responses at Work
Tiina Ritvanen, Veikko Louhevaara, Pertti Helin, Toivo Halonen, Osmo H nninen
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health , 2007, DOI: 10.2478/v10001-007-0005-5
Abstract: Objectives: The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of aerobic fitness on physiological stress responses experienced by teachers during working hours. Materials and Methods: Twenty six healthy female and male teachers aged 33-62 years, participated in the study. The ratings of perceived stress visual analogue scale (VAS), and the measurement of physiological responses (norepinephrine, epinephrine, cortisol, diastolic and systolic blood pressure, heart rate (HR) and trapezius muscle activity by electromyography (EMG) were determined. Predicted maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was measured using the submaximal bicycle ergometer test. The predicted VO2max was standardized for age using residuals of linear regression analyses. Results: Static EMG activity, HR and VAS were associated with aerobic fitness in teachers. Conclusions: The results suggest that a higher level of aerobic fitness may reduce muscle tension, HR and perceived work stress in teachers.
Effects of Aerobic Fitness and Adiposity on Coagulation Biomarkers in Men vs. Women with Elevated Blood Pressure
Kathleen L. Wilson,Lianne Tomfohr,Kate Edwards,Cindy Knott
European Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: ABSTRACTA hypercoagulable state is a potential mechanism linking elevated blood pressure (BP), adiposity and a sedentary lifestyle to development of coronary heart disease (CHD). We examined relationships among aerobic fitness and adiposity in 76 sedentary subjects with elevated BP. Blood levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), D-dimer, von Willebrand factor (vWF) and thrombomodulin were assessed as biomarkers of coagulation. In individuals with elevated BP, percent body fat and fitness were associated with biomarkers indicative of a hypercoagulable state, even after demographic and metabolic factors were considered. D-dimer was positively associated with percent body fat (beta=0.37, p=0.003). PAI-1 was higher in men than in women (beta=-0.31, p=0.015) and associated with lower VO2peak (beta=-0.35, p=0.024). Thrombomodulin was positively associated with VO2peak (beta=0.56, p< 0.01). vWF was not significantly associated with fitness or adiposity. Our results emphasise that both percent body fat and physical fitness are important in the maintenance of haemostatic balance.
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